Endocrine Oncology Site Group

Toronto, Canada

Endocrine Oncology Site Group

Toronto, Canada

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Duan K.,A+ Network | Duan K.,University of Toronto | Asa S.L.,A+ Network | Asa S.L.,University of Toronto | And 10 more authors.
Endocrine Pathology | Year: 2017

Xanthomatous hypophysitis is a rare inflammatory disease of the pituitary gland that can mimic a neoplastic lesion clinically and radiologically. Its pathogenesis remains largely unknown, although recent evidence suggests that pituitary inflammation may occur as a secondary reaction to mucous content released from a ruptured cyst. In a series of 1221 pituitary specimens, we identified seven cases of xanthomatous hypophysitis. Six patients had complete radiological and biochemical workup preoperatively: a cystic-appearing pituitary mass was identified in all six patients (100%) with a mean size of 2.0 cm (range 1.4–2.5 cm) on imaging, and pituitary endocrine dysfunction was noted in five patients (83.3%). In all cases, the pituitary mass was resected through an endoscopic transsphenoidal approach. Pathological examination revealed the presence of foamy macrophages admixed with variable amounts of giant cells and chronic inflammatory cells, confirming the diagnosis of xanthomatous hypophysitis. Additionally, all cases presented with concurrent findings of ruptured Rathke’s cleft cyst, with the exception of one patient who had previous surgery for a Rathke’s cleft cyst, followed by recurrence and diagnosis of xanthomatous hypophysitis. While accurate distinction of hypophysitis from a pituitary neoplasm can be problematic in the preoperative setting, the identification of a cystic lesion in the sella turcica should raise the possibility of such an entity in the clinical and radiological differential diagnosis. The current series provides further evidence that xanthomatous hypophysitis predominantly occurs as a secondary reaction to a ruptured Rathke’s cleft cyst; thus, it is best classified as a secondary (reactive) hypophysitis. © 2017 Springer Science+Business Media New York


Hayashi T.,University of Sfax | Mete O.,Endocrine Oncology Site Group
Diagnostic Histopathology | Year: 2014

Paragangliomas can occur in a variety of anatomic locations in the head and neck region and can create diagnostic challenges for practicing pathologists. The most recent data suggest that at least 30-40% of paragangliomas are associated with inherited disease. Occasional VHL-, TMEM127-, and SDHA-related head and neck paragangliomas have been described; however, the bulk of hereditary disease in the head and neck paraganglioma is associated with SDHD, SDHC, SDHB, and SDHAF2 mutations. While the distinction of paragangliomas from other head and neck neoplasms is very important, the clinical responsibility of surgical pathologists has evolved and also includes the integration of SDHB immunohistochemistry into the routine pathology practice. In this article, we highlight an approach to clinicopathological diagnosis of head and neck paragangliomas along with a comprehensive discussion on genotype-biochemical profile correlation and synoptic report approach in paragangliomas. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Mete O.,Endocrine Oncology Site Group
Diagnostic Histopathology | Year: 2016

Primary hyperparathyroidism is a common endocrine disorder and the most prevalent cause of hypercalcemia worldwide. While most cases are sporadic, 5-10% of cases are inherited as part of a familial syndrome: multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN-1, MEN-2A, MEN-4), hyperparathyroidism jaw-tumor syndrome (HPT-JT), familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia (FHH), neonatal severe hyperparathyroidism (NSHPT), autosomal dominant moderate hyperparathyroidism (ADMH), or familial isolated hyperparathyroidism (FIHPT). Recent developments in molecular pathology identified specific germline mutations (MEN1, RET, CDKIs, CDC73/HRPT2, CaSR, GNA11, AP2S1) implicated in their pathogenesis. In contrast to sporadic primary hyperparathyroidism which is usually caused by a solitary parathyroid adenoma, hereditary hyperparathyroidism tend to present with multiglandular parathyroid disease, with variable penetrance according to the genetic syndrome. As a result, the clinical severity of each familial condition varies tremendously, resulting in distinct prognosis and treatment strategies. With the advent of molecular testing, genetic subtyping has become an integral part of treatment decision making, requiring correlation with clinical and pathologic findings. This review provides an update on the current knowledge of hereditary hyperparathyroidism and its associated genetic syndromes. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.


Gucer H.,Recep Tayyip Erdoğan University | Bagci P.,Marmara University | Bedir R.,Recep Tayyip Erdoğan University | Sehitoglu I.,Recep Tayyip Erdoğan University | And 2 more authors.
Endocrine Pathology | Year: 2016

This study compared the expression profile of HBME-1 and claudin-1 in 90 papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs) with respect to the tumor architecture and invasive growth as reflected in 46 BRAF-like, 31 non-invasive RAS, and 13 invasive RAS-like phenotypes. Individual tumors were given an expression score (max 300) by multiplying the percent positive tumor cells by the intensity score (range 0–3). The higher expression of HBME-1 and claudin-1 distinguished BRAF-like phenotype from RAS-like phenotype. The same correlation was also retained for both markers when comparing BRAF-like phenotype with non-invasive and invasive RAS-like phenotypes. The expression scores and positivity rates for both markers did not yield any statistical difference among BRAF-like PTCs. Except the higher positivity rate of HBME-1, invasive RAS-like tumors were not statistically different than their non-invasive counterparts with respect to the positivity rate of claudin-1 and the expression scores of both markers. A central lymph node dissection or selective lymph node sampling was available in 20 specimens. The absence of claudin-1 expression has not been a feature of lymph node metastasis in this series. Despite the limited number of nodal sampling, BRAF-like phenotype and claudin-1 positivity status have been considered the best determinants of positive predictive value and negative predictive value in the prediction of lymph node metastasis among variables, respectively. Adoption of the simplified architectural classification approach to PTCs showed distinct biomarker expression profile in this series; however, immunohistochemistry for HBME-1 and claudin-1 does not seem to be useful in the distinction of invasive RAS-like PTCs from their non-invasive counterparts. Given the overlapping molecular signatures within the RAS-like phenotype, further studies with additional biomarkers are still needed to identify distinct protein expression signatures of non-invasive RAS-like phenotype as this diagnostic category still remains a surgical diagnosis at this time. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York


Duan K.,University of Toronto | Hernandez K.G.,Endocrine Oncology Site Group | Mete O.,University of Toronto | Mete O.,Endocrine Oncology Site Group
Journal of Clinical Pathology | Year: 2015

Hyperparathyroidism is a common endocrine disorder with potential complications on the skeletal, renal, neurocognitive and cardiovascular systems. While most cases (95%) occur sporadically, about 5% are associated with a hereditary syndrome: multiple endocrine neoplasia syndromes (MEN-1, MEN-2A, MEN-4), hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumour syndrome (HPT-JT), familial hypocalciuric hypercalcaemia (FHH-1, FHH-2, FHH-3), familial hypercalciuric hypercalcaemia, neonatal severe hyperparathyroidism and isolated familial hyperparathyroidism. Recently, molecular mechanisms underlying possible tumour suppressor genes (MEN1, CDC73/HRPT2, CDKIs, APC, SFRPs, GSK3?, RASSF1A, HIC1, RIZ1, WT1, CaSR, GNA11, AP2S1) and protooncogenes (CCND1/PRAD1, RET, ZFX, CTNNB1, EZH2) have been uncovered in the pathogenesis of hyperparathyroidism. While bi-allelic inactivation of CDC73/HRPT2 seems unique to parathyroid malignancy, aberrant activation of cyclin D1 and Wnt/?-catenin signalling has been reported in benign and malignant parathyroid tumours. Clinicopathological correlates of primary hyperparathyroidism include parathyroid adenoma (80-85%), hyperplasia (10-15%) and carcinoma (<1-5%). Secondary hyperparathyroidism generally presents with diffuse parathyroid hyperplasia, whereas tertiary hyperparathyroidism reflects the emergence of autonomous parathyroid hormone (PTH)-producing neoplasm(s) from secondary parathyroid hyperplasia. Surgical resection of abnormal parathyroid tissue remains the only curative treatment in primary hyperparathyroidism, and parathyroidectomy specimens are frequently encountered in this setting. Clinical and biochemical features, including intraoperative PTH levels, number, weight and size of the affected parathyroid gland(s), are crucial parameters to consider when rendering an accurate diagnosis of parathyroid proliferations. This review provides an update on the expanding knowledge of hyperparathyroidism and highlights the clinicopathological correlations of this prevalent disease.


PubMed | University of Toronto and Endocrine Oncology Site Group
Type: | Journal: Endocrine pathology | Year: 2016

We report a primary central nervous system (CNS) perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa) in a middle-aged female patient. The tumor occurred in suprasellar location with secondary extension into the sella turcica. The patient presented with intracranial hemorrhage and an altered level of consciousness. The tumor had morphologic features matching those of other previously described TFE3-translocated PEComas, including epithelioid morphology, diffuse and strong nuclear immunoreactivity for TFE3, and minimal staining with myoid markers. The TFE3 break-apart FISH testing showed a slight splitting of one of the TFE3 signals in 49.5% of nuclei. This case illustrates that PEComas should be added to the growing list of mesenchymal tumors that can be encountered in the CNS and specifically in the vicinity of the pituitary gland. The recognition of this entity is of significance given their underlying pathogenesis and possible management implications.


Hyrcza M.D.,University of Toronto | Mete O.,University of Toronto | Mete O.,Endocrine Oncology Site Group
Endocrine Pathology | Year: 2016

The authors present clinicopathological features of parathyroid lipoadenoma in a 48-year-old woman who presented with symptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism manifesting with pathological fractures and osteoporosis. Preoperative sestamibi scan failed to localize the source of her disease. Exploratory surgery identified an enlarged parathyroid gland with abundant fat tissue. The significant drop of intraoperative serum parathyroid hormone after the removal of this gland and postoperative biochemical cure justified the presence of a single gland disease presenting as parathyroid lipoadenoma. From an educational perspective, the presented case emphasizes why the historical approach to parathyroid proliferations by assessing alone the ratio of parenchymal cells to adipocytes is not a reliable method in the diagnostic evaluation of parathyroid disease. While the accurate size and weight of a parathyroid gland are defining parameters of an abnormal gland, intraoperative and postoperative biochemical workup distinguishes uniglandular disease (adenoma) from multiglandular disease (hyperplasia). The authors also provide a brief review of the previously published cases of parathyroid lipoadenomas to highlight their clinicopathological characteristics of relevance to surgical pathologists. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Duan K.,University of Toronto | Hernandez K.G.,Endocrine Oncology Site Group | Mete O.,University of Toronto | Mete O.,Endocrine Oncology Site Group
Journal of Clinical Pathology | Year: 2015

Endogenous Cushing's syndrome is a rare endocrine disorder that incurs significant cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, due to glucocorticoid excess. It comprises adrenal (20%) and non-adrenal (80%) aetiologies. While the majority of cases are attributed to pituitary or ectopic corticotropin (ACTH) overproduction, primary cortisolproducing adrenal cortical lesions are increasingly recognised in the pathophysiology of Cushing's syndrome. Our understanding of this disease has progressed substantially over the past decade. Recently, important mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of adrenal hypercortisolism have been elucidated with the discovery of mutations in cyclic AMP signalling (PRKACA, PRKAR1A, GNAS, PDE11A, PDE8B), armadillo repeat containing 5 gene (ARMC5) a putative tumour suppressor gene, aberrant G-protein-coupled receptors, and intra-adrenal secretion of ACTH. Accurate subtyping of Cushing's syndrome is crucial for treatment decisionmaking and requires a complete integration of clinical, biochemical, imaging and pathology findings. Pathological correlates in the adrenal glands include hyperplasia, adenoma and carcinoma. While the most common presentation is diffuse adrenocortical hyperplasia secondary to excess ACTH production, this entity is usually treated with pituitary or ectopic tumour resection. Therefore, when confronted with adrenalectomy specimens in the setting of Cushing's syndrome, surgical pathologists are most commonly exposed to adrenocortical adenomas, carcinomas and primary macronodular or micronodular hyperplasia. This review provides an update on the rapidly evolving knowledge of adrenal Cushing's syndrome and discusses the clinicopathological correlations of this important disease.


Duan K.,University of Toronto | Mete O.,University of Toronto | Mete O.,Endocrine Oncology Site Group
Turk Patoloji Dergisi | Year: 2015

Parathyroid carcinoma is a rare type of endocrine cancer, with significant morbidity and mortality associated with parathyroid hormone (PTH)-mediated hypercalcemia. Concerning clinical features for parathyroid cancer include severe hypercalcemia (albumin-corrected calcium>3 mmol/L), a palpable neck mass (>3 cm), 3rd/2nd generation PTH assay ratio (>1), and intraoperative suspicion of local invasion or regional metastasis. A definite diagnosis of malignancy is rendered when a parathyroid tumor presents one of the following clinicopathological features: (1) vascular invasion, (2) perineural invasion, (3) gross invasion into adjacent anatomical structures, and/or (4) metastasis. In difficult cases, the use of ancillary biomarkers is critical to establish an accurate diagnosis. Recent advances in molecular pathology have uncovered the important role of CDC73/HRPT2, a tumor suppressor gene deregulated in parathyroid carcinomas. Loss of nuclear and/or nucleolar expression of parafibromin (the gene product of CDC73/HRPT2) is now regarded as a diagnostic, prognostic and predictive biomarker for parathyroid carcinoma. Furthermore, over 15-20% of seemingly sporadic parathyroid carcinomas have underlying germline CDC73/HRPT2 mutations. As a result, many centers have integrated the use of ancillary biomarkers, notably parafibromin staining, in their routine practise. Radical surgery with en bloc resection has emerged as a primary treatment modality in parathyroid cancer, achieving cure in some patients. However, in those with inoperable disease, there remains a dire need for new therapies, as current treatments are largely ineffective. This review provides an update on the current knowledge of parathyroid carcinoma and highlights its exciting changes in endocrine practice. © 2015, Federation of Turkish Pathology Societies. All rights reserved.


PubMed | Endocrine Oncology Site Group
Type: | Journal: Endocrine pathology | Year: 2017

Xanthomatous hypophysitis is a rare inflammatory disease of the pituitary gland that can mimic a neoplastic lesion clinically and radiologically. Its pathogenesis remains largely unknown, although recent evidence suggests that pituitary inflammation may occur as a secondary reaction to mucous content released from a ruptured cyst. In a series of 1221 pituitary specimens, we identified seven cases of xanthomatous hypophysitis. Six patients had complete radiological and biochemical workup preoperatively: a cystic-appearing pituitary mass was identified in all six patients (100%) with a mean size of 2.0cm (range 1.4-2.5cm) on imaging, and pituitary endocrine dysfunction was noted in five patients (83.3%). In all cases, the pituitary mass was resected through an endoscopic transsphenoidal approach. Pathological examination revealed the presence of foamy macrophages admixed with variable amounts of giant cells and chronic inflammatory cells, confirming the diagnosis of xanthomatous hypophysitis. Additionally, all cases presented with concurrent findings of ruptured Rathkes cleft cyst, with the exception of one patient who had previous surgery for a Rathkes cleft cyst, followed by recurrence and diagnosis of xanthomatous hypophysitis. While accurate distinction of hypophysitis from a pituitary neoplasm can be problematic in the preoperative setting, the identification of a cystic lesion in the sella turcica should raise the possibility of such an entity in the clinical and radiological differential diagnosis. The current series provides further evidence that xanthomatous hypophysitis predominantly occurs as a secondary reaction to a ruptured Rathkes cleft cyst; thus, it is best classified as a secondary (reactive) hypophysitis.

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