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Rochester, MN, United States

Bible K.C.,Endocrine Malignancies Disease Oriented Group | Ryder M.,Endocrine Malignancies Disease Oriented Group | Ryder M.,Mayo Medical School
Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology | Year: 2016

Increased understanding of disease-specific molecular targets of therapy has led to the regulatory approval of two drugs (vandetanib and cabozantinib) for the treatment of medullary thyroid cancer (MTC), and two agents (sorafenib and lenvatinib) for the treatment of radioactive- iodine refractory differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) in both the USA and in the EU. The effects of these and other therapies on overall survival and quality of life among patients with thyroid cancer, however, remain to be more-clearly defined. When applied early in the disease course, intensive multimodality therapy seems to improve the survival outcomes of patients with anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC), but salvage therapies for ATC are of uncertain benefit. Additional innovative, rationally designed therapeutic strategies are under active development both for patients with DTC and for patients with ATC, with multiple phase II and phase III randomized clinical trials currently ongoing. Continued effort is being made to identify further signalling pathways with potential therapeutic relevance in thyroid cancers, as well as to elaborate on the complex interactions between signalling pathways, with the intention of translating these discoveries into effective and personalized therapies. Herein, we summarize the progress made in molecular medicine for advanced-stage thyroid cancers of different histotypes, analyse how these developments have altered-and might further refine-patient care, and identify open questions for future research. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Source

Isham C.R.,Mayo Medical School | Isham C.R.,Endocrine Malignancies Disease Oriented Group | Bossou A.R.,Mayo Medical School | Bossou A.R.,Endocrine Malignancies Disease Oriented Group | And 11 more authors.
Science Translational Medicine | Year: 2013

Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) has perhaps the worst prognosis of any cancer, with a median survival of only about 5 months regardless of stage. Pazopanib monotherapy has promising clinical activity in differentiated thyroid cancers (generally attributed to vascular endothelial growth factor receptor inhibition), yet has less effective single-agent activity in ATC. We now report that combining pazopanib with microtubule inhibitors such as paclitaxel produced heightened and synergistic antitumor effects in ATC cells and xenografts that were associated with potentiated mitotic catastrophe. We hypothesized that combined effects may reflect enhanced paclitaxel-induced cytotoxicity mediated by cell cycle regulatory kinase inhibition by pazopanib. Indeed, pazopanib potently inhibited aurora A, with pazopanib/paclitaxel synergy recapitulated by aurora A short hairpin RNA knockdown or by specific aurora A pharmacological inhibition. Pazopanib/paclitaxel synergy was reversed by aurora A knockdown. Moreover, aurora A (but not B or C) message and protein levels were significantly increased in patient ATCs, and durable benefit resulted from pilot clinical translation of pazopanib/paclitaxel therapy in a patient with metastatic ATC. Collectively, these results suggest that the pazopanib/paclitaxel combination is a promising candidate therapeutic approach in ATC and that aurora A may represent a potentially viable therapeutic molecular target in ATC. Source

Isham C.R.,Mayo Medical School | Isham C.R.,Endocrine Malignancies Disease Oriented Group | Netzel B.C.,Mayo Medical School | Bossou A.R.,Mayo Medical School | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2014

Background: Vascular endothelial growth factor-targeted kinase inhibitors have emerged as highly promising therapies for radioiodine-refractory metastatic differentiated thyroid cancer. Unfortunately, drug resistance uniformly develops, limiting their therapeutic efficacies and thereby constituting a major clinical problem. Approach and Methods: To study acquired drug resistance and elucidate underlying mechanisms in this setting, BHP2-7 human differentiated thyroid cancer cells were subjected to prolonged continuous in vitro selection with 18Mpazopanib, a clinically relevant concentration; acquisition of pazopanib resistance was serially assessed, with the resulting resistant cells thereafter subcloned and characterized to assess potential mechanisms of acquired pazopanib resistance. Results: Stable 2- to 4-fold in vitro pazopanib resistance emerged in response to pazopanib selection associated with similar in vitro growth characteristics but with markedly more aggressive in vivo xenograft growth. Selected cells were cross-resistant to sunitinib and to a lesser extent sorafenib but not to MAPK kinase (MEK1/2) inhibition by GSK1120212. Genotyping demonstrated acquisition of a novel activating KRAS codon 13GGCto GTT (glycine to valine) mutation, consistent with the observed resistance to upstream vascular endothelial growth factor receptor inhibition yet sensitivity to downstream MAPK kinase (MEK1/2) inhibition. Conclusions: Selection of thyroid cancer cells with clinically utilized therapeutics can lead to acquired drug resistance and altered in vivo xenograft behavior that can recapitulate analogous drug resistance observed in patients. This approach has the potential to lead to insights into acquired treatment-related drug resistance in thyroid cancers that can be subjected to subsequent validation in serially collected patient samples and that has the potential to yield preemptive and responsive approaches to dealing with this important clinical problem. © 2014 by the Endocrine Society. Source

Foote R.L.,Endocrine Malignancies Disease Oriented Group | Foote R.L.,Mayo Medical School | Molina J.R.,Endocrine Malignancies Disease Oriented Group | Molina J.R.,Mayo Medical School | And 20 more authors.
Thyroid | Year: 2011

Background: Historical outcomes in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) are poor, with a median survival of only 5 months and <20% of patients surviving 1 year from diagnosis. We hypothesized that survival in newly diagnosed patients with stages IVA and IVB locoregionally confined ATC might be improved by utilizing an aggressive therapeutic approach, prioritizing both the eradication of disease in the neck and preemptive treatment of occult metastatic disease. Methods: Between January 1, 2003, and December 31, 2007, 25 new ATC patients were evaluated at our institution. Of these 25 patients, 10 (40%) had metastatic disease at diagnosis and therefore underwent palliative treatment, whereas 5 (20%) had regionally confined disease and desired treatment at their local medical facilities. The remaining 10 consecutive patients (40%) had regionally confined ATC and elected aggressive therapy combining individualized surgery (where feasible), intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and radiosensitizing + adjuvant chemotherapy intending four cycles of docetaxel + doxorubicin. Outcomes were assessed on an intention to treat basis. Results: There were no deaths from therapy, but hospitalization was required in two patients (20%) because of treatment-related adverse events. Five patients (50%) are alive and cancer-free, all having been followed >32 months (range: 32-89 months; median: 44 months) with a median overall Kaplan-Meier survival of 60 months. Overall survival at 1 and 2 years was 70% and 60%, respectively, compared to <20% historical survival at 1 year in analogous patients previously treated with surgery and conventional postoperative radiation at our and other institutions. Conclusions: Although based upon a small series of consecutively treated patients, an aggressive approach combining IMRT and radiosensitizing plus adjuvant chemotherapy appears to improve outcomes, including survival in stages IVA and IVB regionally confined ATC, but remains of uncertain benefit in patients with stage IVC (metastatic) disease. Also uncertain is the optimal chemotherapy regimen to use in conjunction with IMRT. Further multicenter randomized trials are required to define optimal therapy in this rare but deadly cancer. © Copyright 2011, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2011. Source

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