Hereditary Endocrine Cancer Group

Madrid, Spain

Hereditary Endocrine Cancer Group

Madrid, Spain
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Cascon A.,Hereditary Endocrine Cancer Group | Cascon A.,Center for Biomedical Research on Rare Diseases | Robledo M.,Hereditary Endocrine Cancer Group | Robledo M.,Center for Biomedical Research on Rare Diseases
Cancer Research | Year: 2012

The overexpression of MYC, which occurs in many tumors, dramatically disrupts the equilibrium between activation and repression of the oncogenic MYC/MYC-associated protein X (MAX)/MAX dimerization protein 1 (MXD1) network, favoring MYC-MAX complexes and thereby impairing differentiation and promoting cell growth. Although for some time it has appeared that MAX is necessary for both the activation and repression of the axis, recent evidence shows that MYC retains considerable biologic function in the absence of MAX. The presence of germline MAX mutations in patients with hereditary pheochromocytoma supports the predominant role of MAX as a negative regulator of the network and suggests that MYC deregulation plays a role in hereditary cancer predisposition. This finding also confirms the importance of impairment of the MYC/MAX/MXD1 axis in the development of aggressive neural tumors, because MYCN overexpression is an established genetic hallmark of malign neuroblastoma, and it is likely that MXI1 plays a relevant role in the development of medulloblastoma and glioblastoma. Finally, the likely malignant behavior of tumors with mutations in MAX points to MYC as a candidate therapeutic target in the treatment of metastatic pheochromocytoma. ©2012 AACR.

Cascon A.,Hereditary Endocrine Cancer Group | Cascon A.,Center for Biomedical Research on Rare Diseases | Tennant D.A.,University of Birmingham
Endocrine Pathology | Year: 2012

This review summarizes the way in which inherited mutations define global gene expression in pheochromocytoma (PCC) and paraganglioma (PGL), and how the use of gene expression analysis has advanced our understanding of these diseases. The biology of PCC and PGL tumors is diverse and it has become clear that there is no apparent single biology that defines these tumors. However, over the last 20 years, our understanding of the biology of PGL and PCC has been considerably advanced by the discovery of inherited mutations that predispose individuals to developing the disease. More recently, the use of transcriptomics to stratify tumors based on their gene expression profiles has, in particular, played a vital role in delineating novel mutations involved in the pathogenesis of these tumors. In this review, we describe our current understanding of the biology of cluster 1 (pseudohypoxic) tumors and how mutations that result in the pseudohypoxic phenotype that leads to changes in global gene expression. We also review the advances in our understanding of cluster 2 tumors, and in particular, focus on the newly described MAX tumors. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Rodriguez-Antona C.,Hereditary Endocrine Cancer Group | Gomez A.,University of Massachusetts Medical School | Karlgren M.,Uppsala University | Sim S.C.,Karolinska Institutet | Ingelman-Sundberg M.,Karolinska Institutet
Human Genetics | Year: 2010

The cytochromes P450 (CYPs) are very eYcient catalysts of foreign compound metabolism and are responsible for the major part of metabolism of clinically important drugs. The enzymes are important in cancer since they (a) activate dietary and environmental components to ultimate carcinogens, (b) activate or inactivate drugs used for cancer treatment, and (c) are potential targets for anticancer therapy. The genes encoding the CYP enzymes active in drug metabolism are highly polymorphic, whereas those encoding metabolism of precarcinogens are relatively conserved. A vast amount of literature is present where investigators have tried to link genetic polymorphism in CYPs to cancer susceptibility, although not much conclusive data have hitherto been obtained, with exception of CYP2A6 polymorphism and tobacco induced cancer, to a great extent because of lack of important functional polymorphisms in the genes studied. With respect to anticancer treatment, the genetic CYP polymorphism is of greater importance, where treatment with tamoxifen, but also with cyclophosphamide and maybe thalidomide is inXuenced by CYP genetic variants. In the present review we present updates on CYP genetics, cancer risk and treatment and also epigenetic aspects of interindividual variability in CYP expression and the use of these enzymes as targets for cancer therapy. We conclude that the CYP polymorphism does not predict cancer susceptibility to any large extent but that this polymorphism might be an important factor for optimal cancer therapy using selected anticancer agents.

Rodriguez-Antona C.,Hereditary Endocrine Cancer Group | Rodriguez-Antona C.,Research Center Biomedica En Red Of Enfermedades Raras Ciberer | Garcia-Donas J.,Centro Integral Oncologico Clara Campal
Pharmacogenomics | Year: 2012

The development of specific angiogenesis inhibitors has drastically improved renal cancer treatment in recent years. Currently, four VEGF receptor inhibitors (sorafenib, sunitinib, pazopanib and axitinib), one anti-VEGF monoclonal antibody (bevacizumab) and two inhibitors of the mTOR pathway (temsirolimus and everolimus) have been approved to treat renal cell carcinoma (RCC), and several other molecules are under investigation. However, lack of response to antiangiogenic drugs and adverse drug reactions leading to treatment suspension are critical clinical problems that need to be solved. Because antiangiogenic drugs act on nonmalignant endothelial cells, the genetic background of the patient may play a crucial role determining the efficacy of these drugs. This article focuses on the identification of polymorphisms associated with antiangiogenic drugs outcome in RCC patients. It reviews and summarizes our current knowledge on this area and discusses future strategies to identify new biomarkers that could be used to personalize RCC management. © 2012 Future Medicine Ltd.

Landa I.,Hereditary Endocrine Cancer Group
Journal of molecular endocrinology | Year: 2011

It is widely accepted that thyroid cancer is strongly determined by the individual genetic background. In this regard, it is expected that sporadic thyroid cancer is the result of multiple low- to moderate-penetrance genes interacting with each other and with the environment, thus modulating individual susceptibility. In the last years, an important number of association studies on thyroid cancer have been published, trying to determine this genetic contribution. The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive and critical evaluation of the associations reported so far in thyroid cancer susceptibility in case-control studies performed in both non-medullary (papillary and follicular) and medullary thyroid cancers, including their potential strengths and pitfalls. We summarize the genetic variants reported to date, and stress the importance of validating the results in independent series and assessing the functional role of the associated loci.

Martinez-Delgado B.,Human Genetics Group | Martinez-Delgado B.,Research Center Biomedica En Red Of Enfermedades Raras Ciberer | Yanowsky K.,Human Genetics Group | Yanowsky K.,Research Center Biomedica En Red Of Enfermedades Raras Ciberer | And 10 more authors.
PLoS Genetics | Year: 2011

There is increasing evidence suggesting that short telomeres and subsequent genomic instability contribute to malignant transformation. Telomere shortening has been described as a mechanism to explain genetic anticipation in dyskeratosis congenita and Li-Fraumeni syndrome. Since genetic anticipation has been observed in familial breast cancer, we aimed to study telomere length in familial breast cancer patients and hypothesized that genetic defects causing this disease would affect telomere maintenance resulting in shortened telomeres. Here, we first investigated age anticipation in mother-daughter pairs with breast cancer in 623 breast cancer families, classified as BRCA1, BRCA2, and BRCAX. Moreover, we analyzed telomere length in DNA from peripheral blood leukocytes by quantitative PCR in a set of 198 hereditary breast cancer patients, and compared them with 267 control samples and 71 sporadic breast cancer patients. Changes in telomere length in mother-daughter pairs from breast cancer families and controls were also evaluated to address differences through generations. We demonstrated that short telomeres characterize hereditary but not sporadic breast cancer. We have defined a group of BRCAX families with short telomeres, suggesting that telomere maintenance genes might be susceptibility genes for breast cancer. Significantly, we described that progressive telomere shortening is associated with earlier onset of breast cancer in successive generations of affected families. Our results provide evidence that telomere shortening is associated with earlier age of cancer onset in successive generations, suggesting that it might be a mechanism of genetic anticipation in hereditary breast cancer. © 2011 Martinez-Delgado et al.

Escobar B.,Cell Division and Cancer Group | De Carcer G.,Cell Division and Cancer Group | Fernandez-Miranda G.,Cell Division and Cancer Group | Cascon A.,Hereditary Endocrine Cancer Group | And 5 more authors.
Cancer Research | Year: 2010

Brick1 (Brk1) is the less-studied component of the Wave/Scar pathway involved in the branched nucleation of actin fibers. The clinical relevance of Brk1 is emphasized by correlative data showing that Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) patients that also lose the BRK1 gene are protected against the development of tumors. This contrasts with recent evidence suggesting that the Wave complex may function as an invasion suppressor in epithelial cancers. Here, we show that the downregulation of Brk1 results in abnormal actin stress fiber formation and vinculin distribution and loss of Arp2/3 and Wave proteins at the cellular protrusions. Brk1 is required for cell proliferation and cell transformation by oncogenes. In addition, Brk1 downregulation results in defective directional migration and invasive growth in renal cell carcinoma cells as well as in other tumor cell types. Finally, genetic ablation of Brk1 results in dramatic defects in embryo compaction and development, suggesting an essential role for this protein in actin dynamics. Thus, genetic loss or inhibition of BRK1 is likely to be protective against tumor development due to proliferation and motility defects in affected cells. ©2010 AACR.

Rodriguez-Antona C.,Hereditary Endocrine Cancer Group | Rodriguez-Antona C.,Center for Biomedical Research on Rare Diseases | Taron M.,Quiron Dexeus Universitary Hospital
Journal of Internal Medicine | Year: 2015

Personalized medicine involves the selection of the safest and most effective pharmacological treatment based on the molecular characteristics of the patient. In the case of anticancer drugs, tumour cell alterations can have a great impact on drug activity and, in fact, most biomarkers predicting response originate from these cells. On the other hand, the risk of developing severe toxicity may be related to the genetic background of the patient. Thus, understanding the molecular characteristics of both the tumour and the patient, and establishing their relation with drug outcomes will be critical for the identification of predictive biomarkers and to provide the basis for individualized treatments. This is a complex scenario where multiple genes as well as pathophysiological and environmental factors are important; in addition, tumours exhibit large inter- and intraindividual variability in space and time. Against this background, the huge amounts of biological and genetic data generated by the high-throughput technologies will facilitate pharmacogenomic progress, suggest novel druggable molecules and support the design of future strategies aimed at disease control. Here, we will review the current challenges and opportunities for pharmacogenomic studies in oncology, as well as the clinically established biomarkers. Lung and renal cancer, two areas in which huge progress has been made in the last decade, will be used to illustrate advances in personalized cancer treatment; we will review EGFR mutation as the paradigm of targeted therapies in lung cancer, and discuss the dissection of lung cancer into clinically relevant molecular subsets and novel advances that suggest an important role of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the response to antiangiogenic agents, as well as the challenges that remain in these fields. Finally, we will present new approaches and future prospects for personalizing medicine in oncology. © 2014 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

Leandro-Garcia L.J.,Hereditary Endocrine Cancer Group | Leskela S.,Hereditary Endocrine Cancer Group | Landa I.,Hereditary Endocrine Cancer Group | Montero-Conde C.,Hereditary Endocrine Cancer Group | And 5 more authors.
Cytoskeleton | Year: 2010

The β-tubulins are microtubule components encoded by a multigene family, which produces slightly different proteins with complex expression patterns. Several widely used anticancer drugs base their activity on β-tubulin binding, microtubule dynamics alteration, and cell division blockage. The expression of these drug targets in tumoral and normal cells could be of crucial importance for therapy outcome, unfortunately, the complex β-tubulin expression patterns have been poorly characterized in human. In this study, we developed a quantitative RT-PCR technique that accurately determines the mRNA expression of the eight human β-tubulin isotypes, encoding class I, IIa, IIb, III, IVa, IVb, V, and VI and applied it to 21 nontumoral tissues and 79 tumor samples belonging to seven cancer types. In the nontumoral tissues, we found that, overall, TUBB (I), TUBB2C (IVb), and TUBB6 (V) were ubiquitous, TUBB1(VI) was hematopoietic cell-specific, and TUBB2A (IIa), TUBB2B (IIb), TUBB3 (III), and TUBB4 (IVa) had high expression in brain; however, the contribution of the different isotypes to the total β-tubulin content varied for each tissue and had a complex pattern. In tumoral tissues, most isotypes exhibited an altered expression in specific tumor types or related to tumoral characteristics. In general, TUBB3 showed a great increase in expression while TUBB6 expression was largely decreased in most tumors. Thus, normal tissues showed a complex β-tubulin isotype distribution, which could contribute to the toxicity profile of the microtubule-binding drugs. In addition, the specific isotypes significantly altered in tumors might represent markers for drug response. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

O'Toole S.M.,Queen Mary, University of London | Denes J.,Queen Mary, University of London | Robledo M.,Hereditary Endocrine Cancer Group | Robledo M.,Center for Biomedical Research on Rare Diseases | And 2 more authors.
Endocrine-Related Cancer | Year: 2015

The combination of pituitary adenomas (PA) and phaeochromocytomas (phaeo) or paragangliomas (PGL) is a rare event. Although these endocrine tumours may occur together by coincidence, there is mounting evidence that, in at least some cases, classical phaeo/PGL-predisposing genes may also play a role in pituitary tumorigenesis. A new condition that we termed '3Pas' for the association of PA with phaeo and/or PGL was recently described in patients with succinate dehydrogenase mutations and PAs. It should also be noted that the classical tumour suppressor gene, MEN1 that is the archetype of the PA-predisposing genes, is also rarely associated with phaeos in both mice and humans with MEN1 defects. In this report, we review the data leading to the discovery of 3PAs, other associations linking PAs with phaeos and/or PGLs, and the corresponding clinical and molecular genetics. © 2015 Society for Endocrinology Printed in Great Britain Published by Bioscientifica Ltd.

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