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Thành Phố Ninh Bình, Vietnam

Nadler T.,Frankfurt Zoological Society Endangered Primate Rescue Center | Stefen C.,Senckenberg Naturhistorische Sammlungen Dresden | Schwierz E.,Endangered Primate Rescue Center | Roos C.,German Primate Center
Zoologische Garten | Year: 2011

Ferret-badgers, genus Melogale, are distributed in the Indochinese region, Java, Bali and NE-Borneo. There are currently four species described each having very similar phenotypes. In March 2005, a living ferret-badger of a different phenotype was confiscated by rangers from Cuc Phuong National Park, Vietnam. This individual died and the carcass was not preserved. In January 2006, a newly deceased individual of the same phenotype was found at the Endangered Primate Rescue Center, Cuc Phuong National Park. Due to several different characteristics these individuals vary greatly from the current species. Thus, we describe an additional species, M. cucphuongensis sp. nov. from northern Vietnam, which occurs sympatrically with M. moschata and M. personata, but differs from both species clearly in skull morphology and other features.Based on a 423 bp-long fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene, M. cucphuongensis sp. nov. is a member of the genus Melogale and represents a sister lineage to a clade consisting of M. personata and M. moschata. © 2011.

Liedigk R.,German Primate Center | Yang M.,German Primate Center | Jablonski N.G.,Pennsylvania State University | Momberg F.,Fauna and Flora International FFI | And 12 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Odd-nosed monkeys represent one of the two major groups of Asian colobines. Our knowledge about this primate group is still limited as it is highlighted by the recent discovery of a new species in Northern Myanmar. Although a common origin of the group is now widely accepted, the phylogenetic relationships among its genera and species, and the biogeographic processes leading to their current distribution are largely unknown. To address these issues, we have analyzed complete mitochondrial genomes and 12 nuclear loci, including one X chromosomal, six Y chromosomal and five autosomal loci, from all ten odd-nosed monkey species. The gene tree topologies and divergence age estimates derived from different markers were highly similar, but differed in placing various species or haplogroups within the genera Rhinopithecus and Pygathrix. Based on our data, Rhinopithecus represent the most basal lineage, and Nasalis and Simias form closely related sister taxa, suggesting a Northern origin of odd-nosed monkeys and a later invasion into Indochina and Sundaland. According to our divergence age estimates, the lineages leading to the genera Rhinopithecus, Pygathrix and Nasalis+Simias originated in the late Miocene, while differentiation events within these genera and also the split between Nasalis and Simias occurred in the Pleistocene. Observed gene tree discordances between mitochondrial and nuclear datasets, and paraphylies in the mitochondrial dataset for some species of the genera Rhinopithecus and Pygathrix suggest secondary gene flow after the taxa initially diverged. Most likely such events were triggered by dramatic changes in geology and climate within the region. Overall, our study provides the most comprehensive view on odd-nosed monkey evolution and emphasizes that data from differentially inherited markers are crucial to better understand evolutionary relationships and to trace secondary gene flow. © 2012 Liedigk et al.

Mootnick A.R.,Gibbon Conservation Center | Chan B.P.L.,Kadoorie Farm and Botanic Garden | Moisson P.,Parc Zoologique et Botanique | Nadler T.,Endangered Primate Rescue Center
International Zoo Yearbook | Year: 2012

Crested gibbons Nomascus spp are the rarest genus of the family Hylobatidae, and the Hainan gibbon Nomascus hainanus is the rarest primate in the world, numbering around 20 individuals. The Eastern black gibbon Nomascus nasutus, also known as Cao Vit gibbon, numbers <110 individuals in their native habitat. Both gibbon species are Critically Endangered and neither of these species is maintained in captivity. Conservation efforts for these species are currently under way. However, there is an urgent need for additional surveys, reforestation programmes, increased educational outreach to people living near the forests' edges and the creation of additional protected areas, in order for these two species to have any chance of long-term survival. © 2011 The Authors. International Zoo Yearbook © 2011 The Zoological Society of London.

Thinh V.N.,German Primate Center | Mootnick A.R.,Gibbon Conservation Center | Geissmann T.,University of Zurich | Li M.,CAS Institute of Zoology | And 6 more authors.
BMC Evolutionary Biology | Year: 2010

Background. Gibbons or small apes inhabit tropical and subtropical rain forests in Southeast Asia and adjacent regions, and are, next to great apes, our closest living relatives. With up to 16 species, gibbons form the most diverse group of living hominoids, but the number of taxa, their phylogenetic relationships and their phylogeography is controversial. To further the discussion of these issues we analyzed the complete mitochondrial cytochrome b gene from 85 individuals representing all gibbon species, including most subspecies. Results. Based on phylogenetic tree reconstructions, several monophyletic clades were detected, corresponding to genera, species and subspecies. A significantly supported branching pattern was obtained for members of the genus Nomascus but not for the genus Hylobates. The phylogenetic relationships among the four genera were also not well resolved. Nevertheless, the new data permitted the estimation of divergence ages for all taxa for the first time and showed that most lineages emerged during four short time periods. In the first, between ∼6.7 and ∼8.3 mya, the four gibbon genera diverged from each other. In the second (∼3.0 - ∼3.9 mya) and in the third period (∼1.3 - ∼1.8 mya), Hylobates and Hoolock differentiated. Finally, between ∼0.5 and ∼1.1 mya, Hylobates lar diverged into subspecies. In contrast, differentiation of Nomascus into species and subspecies was a continuous and prolonged process lasting from ∼4.2 until ∼0.4 mya. Conclusions. Although relationships among gibbon taxa on various levels remain unresolved, the present study provides a more complete view of the evolutionary and biogeographic history of the hylobatid family, and a more solid genetic basis for the taxonomic classification of the surviving taxa. We also show that mtDNA constitutes a useful marker for the accurate identification of individual gibbons, a tool which is urgently required to locate hunting hotspots and select individuals for captive breeding programs. Further studies including nuclear sequence data are necessary to completely understand the phylogeny and phylogeography of gibbons. © 2010 Thinh et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Roos C.,German Primate Center | Zinner D.,German Primate Center | Kubatko L.S.,Ohio State University | Schwarz C.,German Primate Center | And 13 more authors.
BMC Evolutionary Biology | Year: 2011

Background: Colobine monkeys constitute a diverse group of primates with major radiations in Africa and Asia. However, phylogenetic relationships among genera are under debate, and recent molecular studies with incomplete taxon-sampling revealed discordant gene trees. To solve the evolutionary history of colobine genera and to determine causes for possible gene tree incongruences, we combined presence/absence analysis of mobile elements with autosomal, X chromosomal, Y chromosomal and mitochondrial sequence data from all recognized colobine genera. Results: Gene tree topologies and divergence age estimates derived from different markers were similar, but differed in placing Piliocolobus/Procolobus and langur genera among colobines. Although insufficient data, homoplasy and incomplete lineage sorting might all have contributed to the discordance among gene trees, hybridization is favored as the main cause of the observed discordance. We propose that African colobines are paraphyletic, but might later have experienced female introgression from Piliocolobus/ Procolobus into Colobus. In the late Miocene, colobines invaded Eurasia and diversified into several lineages. Among Asian colobines, Semnopithecus diverged first, indicating langur paraphyly. However, unidirectional gene flow from Semnopithecus into Trachypithecus via male introgression followed by nuclear swamping might have occurred until the earliest Pleistocene. Conclusions: Overall, our study provides the most comprehensive view on colobine evolution to date and emphasizes that analyses of various molecular markers, such as mobile elements and sequence data from multiple loci, are crucial to better understand evolutionary relationships and to trace hybridization events. Our results also suggest that sex-specific dispersal patterns, promoted by a respective social organization of the species involved, can result in different hybridization scenarios. © 2011 Roos et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

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