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İzmir, Turkey

Demir M.M.,Izmir Institute of Technology | Baba A.,Izmir Institute of Technology | Atilla V.,ENDA Energy | Inanli M.,ENDA Energy
Geothermics | Year: 2014

Tuzla is an active geothermal area located in northwestern Turkey, 80km south of the city of Canakkale and 5km from the Aegean Coast. The geothermal brine from this area, which is dominated by NaCl, has a typical temperature of 173°C. Rapid withdrawal of fluid to ambient surface conditions during sampling causes precipitation of various compounds known as scaling. Scaling is one of the important problems in Tuzla geothermal system that reduces the efficiency of the geothermal power plant and causes economical loss. The aim of this study was to determine the type of scaling as a first step towards preventing its formation. The scales formed in the geothermal system were divided into two groups according to location: the ones that formed in downhole and the ones that accumulated along the surface pipeline. Both scales were examined in terms of their elemental composition, structure and morphology using XRF, XRD, and SEM, respectively. The former was found to be mainly composed of PbS (Galena) and CaCO3 (aragonite or calcite). In contrast, the latter was heterogeneous in nature and consisted of mainly saponite like amorphous structure along with submicrometer-sized amorphous silica particles, layered double magnesium and iron hydroxide, and NaCl. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Baba A.,Izmir Institute of Technology | Demir M.M.,Izmir Institute of Technology | Koc G.A.,ENDA Energy | Tugcu C.,ENDA Energy
Geothermics | Year: 2015

Scaling is a major obstacle in harnessing of geothermal energy from the geothermal resources. This paper presents a case study for inhibition of metal silicate scaling using formic acid, harvesting more energy in particular case of Tuzla Geothermal Field (TGF), located on Biga Peninsula, in the northwestern of Turkey. TGF is 5. km far from Aegean Sea and 80. km south of Çanakkale. Geothermal fluid of TGF has high salinity (EC. > 91. mS/cm) and medium temperature (reservoir temperature is 173. °C). The acidification of high-salinity brine to mitigate silicate scaling is examined. Results of the study showed that a compromise between scaling and corrosion is achieved by reducing pH of brine to <6 using 55. ppm formic acid. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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