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Toronto, Canada

Zaretsky S.,University of Toronto | Adachi S.,University of Toronto | Rotstein B.H.,University of Toronto | Hickey J.L.,Encycle Therapeutics | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Organic Chemistry | Year: 2014

The factors determining diastereoselectivity observed in the multicomponent conversion of amino acids, aziridine aldehyde dimers, and isocyanides into chiral piperazinones have been investigated. Amino acid-dependent selectivity for either trans- or cis-substituted piperazinone products has been achieved. An experimentally determined diastereoselectivity model for the three-component reaction driven by aziridine aldehyde dimers has predictive value for different substrate classes. Moreover, this model is useful in reconciling the previously reported observations in multicomponent reactions between isocyanides, α-amino acids, and monofunctional aldehydes. © 2014 American Chemical Society. Source


Zaretsky S.,University of Toronto | Hickey J.L.,University of Toronto | Hickey J.L.,Encycle Therapeutics | Tan J.,University of Toronto | And 5 more authors.
Chemical Science | Year: 2015

Aziridine aldehyde dimers, peptides, and isocyanides participate in a multicomponent reaction to yield peptide macrocycles. We have investigated the selectivity and kinetics of this process and performed a detailed analysis of its chemoselectivity. While the reactants encompass all of the elements of the traditional Ugi four-component condensation, there is a significant deviation from the previously proposed mechanism. Our results provide evidence for an imidoanhydride pathway in peptide macrocyclization and lend justification for the diastereoselectivity and high effective molarity observed in the reaction. © 2015 Royal Society of Chemistry. Source


Low K.E.,Queens University | Ler S.,University of Toronto | Chen K.J.,Queens University | Campbell R.L.,Queens University | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2016

Our previously reported structures of calpain bound to its endogenous inhibitor calpastatin have motivated the use of aziridine aldehyde-mediated peptide macrocyclization toward the design of cyclic peptides and peptidomimetics as calpain inhibitors. Inspired by nature's hint that a β-turn loop within calpastatin forms a broad interaction around calpain's active site cysteine, we have constructed and tested a library of 45 peptidic compounds based on this loop sequence. Four molecules have shown reproducibly low micromolar inhibition of calpain-2. Further systematic sequence changes led to the development of probes that displayed increased potency and specificity of inhibition against calpain over other cysteine proteases. Calculated Ki values were in the low micromolar range, rivaling other peptidomimetic calpain inhibitors and presenting an improved selectivity profile against other therapeutically relevant proteases. Competitive and mixed inhibition against calpain-2 was observed, and an allosteric inhibition site on the enzyme was identified for a noncompetitive inhibitor. © 2016 American Chemical Society. Source


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