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Hernandez-Flores G.,National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico | Poggi-Varaldo H.M.,National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico | Solorza-Feria O.,National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico | Romero-Castanon T.,Electric Research Institute of Mexico | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy | Year: 2015

We compared the effect of membrane type on the performance of microbial fuel cells (MFC) fed with an actual leachate and operated in batch for 15 days. The tested proton exchange membranes (PEMs) were Nafion 117 (NF) and a low cost membrane (LCM). The cell equipped with LCM outperformed the one equipped with NF. In the first period of the batch, 0-8d, average volumetric powers (P V ) were 9000 and 4000mW/m3 for the MFC equipped with LCM and NF, respectively. In the second period (8-15d) when the external resistances were adjusted, the average P V s were 20000 and 6800mW/m3 for LCM and NF, respectively. At the end of the batch, deposits of dry salts appeared on the external side of the cathode carbon cloth of the cell equipped with NF. Likely, this could be related to the decrease of power output in the last days of the batch (11-15d) in the cell equipped with NF. © 2015 Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Source


Hernandez-Flores G.,National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico | Poggi-Varaldo H.M.,National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico | Solorza-Feria O.,Ibidem | Ponce-Noyola M.T.,Ibidem | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy | Year: 2015

The aims of this research were: (i) to develop and test a new, low cost, organic membrane (LCM) in an air-cathode, single chamber microbial fuel cell (MFC), and (ii) to compare its characteristics with those of an MFC equipped with a Nafion® 117 membrane (NF). The internal resistances (Rint) were 112 and 110 Ω using LCM and NF, respectively, whereas the maximum volumetric powers (PV,max) were 2146 and 14,246 mW/m3 for LCM and NF, respectively. The relatively low value of Rint of the MFC equipped with LCM was encouraging. Furthermore, the Rint of the NF-equipped MFC was of the same order. PV,max delivered with LCM was 15% of that with NF. However, the cost ratio LCM/NF was very low, ($14/m2)/($1733/m2) ∼ 0.8%. These results point out to a trade-off between sacrificing some power output of the cell (85%) but achieving outstanding savings on membrane costs (99.2%). © 2015 Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Luna-Munoz J.,CINVESTAV | Fuentes P.,University of Chile | Hernandez-Chan N.,CINVESTAV | Martinez-Fong D.,CINVESTAV | And 4 more authors.
Revista Mexicana de Neurociencia | Year: 2010

To date, although several risks factors have been defined to be involved in the develpment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in the elderly. Its cause remains unknows. Because of this, the treatment of patients afffected by AD has been limited to a small group of drugs whose effects are usually observed at early stages of the clinical deterioration. Nevertheless, none of these drugs have impact in the evolution of the disease, as they cannot delay or control the massive neuronal loss due to the accumulation of neuritic plaques and tangles in the brain. These structures represent dense accumulations of polymers constituted by β amiloid and tau, respectively. In the present work, we reviewed the different pharmacological treatments available to AD patients, including those inhibiting the Acetyl-colinestases, and hormones. The potential effects of some neuroprophic factors are also described. In particular, we emphasize in the use of cerebrolysin, which is composed by a mixture of brain peptides, which has been successfully used in Europe and Asia in the treatment of mild and severe AD cases. Cerebrolisin has proved effects on the evolution of AD and therefore a promising alternative for the the treatment of such a disease. This review also includes a brief description of the bulk of scientifical data based upon in vivo studies evidencing the molecular mechanisms of cerebrolysin effects. Source

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