Time filter
Source Type

Pavon-Garcia L.M.A.,Autonomous University of Mexico State | Perez-Alonso C.,Autonomous University of Mexico State | Jimenez-Alvarado R.,University la Canada | Alamilla-Beltran L.,ENCB | And 2 more authors.
Revista Mexicana de Ingeniera Quimica | Year: 2014

The aim of this work was to study differentW1/O/W2 double emulsions in preserving color muitle aqueous extract (MAE), for which the work was divided into two fold, formulation and analysis of primary emulsion W1/O and W1/O/W2 double emulsions. Sodium alginate (SA), xanthan gum, guar gum, locust bean gum were used as gelling agents of MAE, and it was found that SA produced inner aqueous phase with enhanced viscoelastic properties, resulting in a W1/O primary emulsion with more uniform mean droplet size and distribution than when using the other gelling agents or ungelled MAE. SubsequentlyW1/O/W2 double emulsions were produced containing MAE gelled with SA or ungelled in the inner aqueous phase stabilized using pure gum Arabic (GA) or a blend of GA-mesquite gum (MG) in a 70:30 ratio in the outer aqueous phase. The double emulsion formulated with gelled MAE and 70:30 GA-MG blend exhibited more uniform mean inner water and outer oil droplet sizes, and protected best the anthocyanins contained in MAE to preserve its color when exposed to 8 h sunlight, providing a half-time life (t1/2) of 55.23 h. The double emulsion formulated with ungelled MAE and stabilized with pure GA displayed a t1/2 of 7.40 h. © 2014, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa. All rights reserved.

Espinosa-Velazquez,ENCB | Dorantes-Alvarez L.,ENCB | Gutierrez-Lopez G.F.,ENCB | Garcia-Armenta E.,FCQB AS | And 2 more authors.
Revista Mexicana de Ingeniera Quimica | Year: 2016

Digital Image Analysis (DIA) was applied to pericarp tissues of unripe and ripe avocado var. drymifolia with the aim to describing morpho-structural features. When these tissues were observed under optical microscope, differences were found between both ripening stages: the unripe tissue had an exocarp with single epidermis cells in vertical disposition and a mesocarp with a dispersed monolayer of isodiametrical cells; the ripe tissue showed thickened cell walls with sclerenchymal tissue formation. Parenchymal tissue presented homogeneous shape and a bigger cell size. The Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy also showed differences between the two ripening stages: unripe displayed two autofluorescence signals, corresponding to lignin and chlorophylls, while in ripe, a third signal was observed that corresponded to anthocyanins. The analysis of RGB channels analysis showed differences, with the ripe tissue demonstrating more intensity, reflecting pigments accumulation. Regarding the fractal analysis, Fractal dimension (FD) resulted higher for ripe tissues due to the irregular arrangement of cells whereas, FD and lacunarity ({n-ary logical and}) analysis per tissue section demonstrated a morphology change in the section where lipid cell accumulation occurs. © 2016, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa. All rights reserved.

Banana and lentil flour blends were processed in a single screw extruder modifying the flour properties of the blend (20.5-79.5%), at selected range of die temperature (145-175 oC) and the feeding moisture content (20-24%).Functional characteristics evaluated in the extrudates were water absorption index (WAI), water solubility index (WSI), bulk density (BD), paste viscosity properties, microstructure and resistant starch content. The concentration of lentil/banana blends and temperature were the most important variables affecting dependent variables WAI, WSI, BD and viscosity properties. The results of this study indicated that extrusion cooking induced desirable functional characteristics to lentil/banana blends by increasing their resistant starch content.

Photolysis (UV-C radiation) and heterogeneous photocatalysis (UV-C/TiO2/SiO2) were used to inactivate E. coli and total coliform bacteria in biologically treated municipal wastewater. A 50 L sample was used with a recirculation rate of 1000 L/h through a UV photo reactor for 150 min reaction time, at a constant temperature. Samples were taken at different time intervals from each experimental run, then the colony forming units were counted, and the inactivation kinetic reaction was determined in a 2x2 factorial design with co-variable and replicates. The inactivation rate constants for coliform bacteria obtained in both processes, photolysis and photocatalysis, showed total E. coli and total coliform bacteria inactivation in short reaction times. ANOVA (p < 0.05) showed a significant effect for the Advanced Oxidation Process, bacteria and the co-variable (initial colony forming units). Comparison of the bacteria inactivation constant rates in short treatment times, obtained by t-Student test, demonstrated that photolysis and heterogeneous photocatalysis showed a significant difference (p < 0.05), allowing both techniques to fulfill the Spanish regulations for E. coli. © 2015, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa. All rights reserved.

Bautista-Garfias C.R.,Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares | Lozano A.R.,Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares | Martinez C.R.,Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares | Martinez J.A.T.,Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares | And 4 more authors.
Parasitology International | Year: 2015

The effect of Lactobacillus casei administered along with a live attenuated vaccine vs. bovine babesiosis (VAC) on induction of IgG1 and IgG2 antibodies to Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina was assessed by the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) in bovines of an endemic babesiosis area before (day 0) and after vaccination (days 15 and 30). We previously reported that L. casei increases the efficiency of VAC under controlled conditions and under extreme conditions in the field; however, the levels of IgG1 and IgG2 antibodies to B. bovis and B. bigemina are not known in vaccinated animals. Twenty-one dairy cows were allocated into three groups (seven animals per group): unvaccinated, vaccinated with VAC and vaccinated simultaneously with VAC and L. casei (VAC-LC). All animals were kept in a babesiosis endemic area at Tlalixcoyan, Veracruz. At days 15 and 30 after vaccination, the average levels of IgG1 to B. bovis and to B. bigemina were significantly higher in VAC-LC group than levels observed in VAC and control groups (P. <. 0.01). Levels of IgG2 were similar in VAC and VAC-LC groups but higher than in the control group (P. <. 0.01). When tested in in vitro cultures of B. bovis, sera from VAC-LC group significantly inhibited parasite growth as compared with the sera of the other two groups. It is suggested that the efficiency improvement of VAC, in part, is due to the L. casei boost of IgG1 over IgG2 antibodies to B. bovis and B. bigemina when the bacteria is co-inoculated with this vaccine.

Zavala L.C.,National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico | Espinosa L.R.,Instituto Nacional Of Pediatria | Moreno A.P.A.,Pharmometrica Pharmet SA | San-Juan E.R.,ENCB | And 3 more authors.
Bioanalysis | Year: 2014

Background: Sildenafil is used for the treatment of pediatric pulmonary hypertension. A dried blood spot (DBS)-based LC-MS method for sildenafil quantitation was developed and applied to a group of patients. Results: DBS showed high portability and stability of samples, and the method was selective and linear for quantitation of sildenafil (5-3,000 ng/ml) and N-desmethyl-sildenafil (3-1,500 ng/ml). After a single oral dose of sildenafil (1 mg/kg), method evidenced poor metabolism in these patients.Conclusion: The method was successfully applied in peripheral blood and can be used for both pharmacokinetics and therapeutic drug monitoring. DBS proved to have advantages during sample translation and preservation of analytes. Data suggest that hazardous blood sildenafil levels may be reached in this population. © 2014 Future Science Ltd.

Loading ENCB collaborators
Loading ENCB collaborators