Beef veins and thrust detachments in Early Cretaceous source rocks, foothills of Magallanes-Austral Basin, southern Chile and Argentina: Structural evidence for fluid overpressure during hydrocarbon maturation
Zanella A.,CNRS Geosciences Laboratory of Rennes |
Cobbold P.R.,CNRS Geosciences Laboratory of Rennes |
Rojas L.,Enap Sipetrol
Marine and Petroleum Geology | Year: 2014
We describe (1) bedding-parallel veins of fibrous calcite (beef) and (2) thrust detachments, which we believe provide good evidence for fluid overpressure in source rocks for petroleum. Our examples are from the surface or subsurface of the Magallanes-Austral Basin, which lies at the southern tip of South America. There, the best source rocks for petroleum are of Early Cretaceous age. In the central parts of the basin these source rocks have become overmature, but at the eastern edge, onshore and offshore, they are today either immature or in the oil window. In Tierra del Fuego, the foothills of the Andes consist mainly of sedimentary rocks, which have undergone thin-skinned thrusting. In the Vicuña area (Chile), Early Cretaceous source rocks have reached the surface above thrust detachments, which are visible on seismic data and well data. At the surface, we have found calcite beef, containing hydrocarbons (solid and/or fluid), in the Rio Jackson and Vicuña formations, which have reached the wet gas window. In the Rio Gallegos area (Argentina), the source rocks have not reached the surface, but seismic and well data provide good evidence for thin-skinned thrusting above flat-lying detachments in Early Cretaceous source rock, where it is in the early oil window. In contrast, there is little or no deformation where the source rock is still immature. Thus the deformation front coincides with the maturity front. Next to the central parts of the basin, where the source rocks have reached the surface within the Andes proper, they have undergone low-grade metamorphism. Within these source rocks, we have found beef veins, but of quartz, not calcite. To the east, within the foreland basin, seismic and well data provide evidence for a few compressional structures, including thin-skinned detachments in the deeply buried source rock. Finally, in the northern part of the basin (Santa Cruz province, Argentina), where it is shallower, the source rocks have reached the surface in the foothills, above a series of back-thrusts. At Lago San Martín, the source rocks have reached the oil window and they again contain calcite beef. In conclusion, where we have examined Early Cretaceous source rocks at the surface, they contain either calcite beef (if they have reached the late oil window or wet gas window) or quartz beef (if they are overmature). Independent evidence for overpressure, in the form of source-rock detachments, comes from subsurface data, especially at the southern end of the basin, where the source rocks are not overmature and deformation is relatively intense. Thus we argue that hydrocarbon generation has led to overpressure, as a result of chemical compaction and load transfer, or volume changes, or both. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
McAtamney J.,University of Vermont |
Klepeis K.,University of Vermont |
Mehrtens C.,University of Vermont |
Thomson S.,University of Arizona |
And 3 more authors.
Tectonics | Year: 2011
The Patagonian Andes record the Cretaceous demise of the quasi-oceanic Rocas Verdes back-arc basin and formation of the Magallanes foreland basin. For >500 km along the strike of the mountains, this tectonic transition is marked by a sandstone-mudstone package that records the beginning of turbiditic sand deposition and fan growth. Sandstone modal analyses and U-Pb detrital zircon spectra show changes in rock composition and provenance across the transition on a basin-wide scale, indicating it has tectonic significance and is related to orogenic uplift and the progressive evolution of the Andean fold-thrust belt. Spatial variations in transition zone characteristics indicate the foreland basin's central and southern sectors were fed by different sources and probably record separate fans. At Bahía Brookes, on Tierra del Fuego, foreland basin sedimentation began at least after 88-89 Ma, and possibly after ∼85 Ma, several million years after it did ∼700 km away at the northern end of the basin. This event coincided with increased arc volcanism and the partial obduction of the basaltic Rocas Verdes basin floor onto continental crust. By 81-80 Ma, conglomerate deposition and increased compositional and provenance complexity, including the abundance of metamorphic lithic fragments, indicate that the obducted basaltic floor first became emergent and was eroding. The results suggest that the beginning of turbidite sedimentation in the Magallanes foreland basin and the progressive incorporation and exhumation of deeply buried rocks in the Andean fold-thrust belt, occurred later in southern Patagonia than in the north by a few million years. Copyright © 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.
Azim R.A.,University of New South Wales |
Abdelmoneim S.S.,Enap Sipetrol
Journal of Petroleum Exploration and Production Technology | Year: 2013
Hydraulic fracturing allows numerous, otherwise unproductive, low-permeability hydrocarbon formations to be produced. The interactions between the fractures and the heterogeneous reservoir rock, however, are quite complex, which makes it quite difficult to model production from hydraulically fractured systems. Various techniques have been applied in the simulation of hydraulically fractured wells using finite difference simulators; most of these techniques are limited by the grid dimensions and computing time and hardware restrictions. Most of the current analytical techniques assume a single rectangular shaped fracture in a single-phase homogeneous reservoir, the fracture is limited to the block size and the fracture properties are adjusted using permeability multiplier. The current work demonstrates how to model these systems with a smaller grid block size which allows you to apply sensitivity to the fracture length and model the fracture with enhanced accuracy. It also allows you to study the effect of reservoir heterogeneity on the fractured well performance. It is proposed to apply amalgam LGR technique to decrease the grid size to the dimensions of the hydraulic fracture without dramatically increasing the number of grid blocks which would cause a great increase in the computing time and the model size with no added value. This paper explains how the amalgam LGR is designed and compares between standard LGRs and the proposed design and a case study is presented from an anonymous field in Egypt to illustrate how to use this technique to model the hydraulically fractured well. The simulation model is matched to available production data by changing fracture lengths. Then the model is used to predict future response from the wells. The advantage of this technique is that it allows hydraulically fractured reservoirs to be modeled with less grid size which will lead to more realistic models and more accurate predictions; however, the most useful application of this technique may be in the fracture modeling stage. With this tool, various fracture geometries and scenarios can be tested in the simulator, and the most economic scenarios selected and implemented. This will lead to better fracture placement, and ultimately greater production. © 2012 The Author(s).
Herve F.,University of Chile |
Fanning C.M.,Australian National University |
Pankhurst R.J.,British Geological Survey |
Mpodozis C.,Enap Sipetrol |
And 3 more authors.
Journal of the Geological Society | Year: 2010
The Cordillera Darwin Metamorphic Complex in the southernmost Andes includes a basement of probable Palaeozoic age, a mid-Jurassic and younger volcano-sedimentary cover, and a suite of Jurassic granites, all of which were jointly metamorphosed during the Cretaceous. Detrital zircon ages presented here show that some of the amphibolite-facies metamorphic rocks previously mapped as basement have a Jurassic protolith. Overall the detrital zircon age patterns for samples of the Cordillera Darwin basement differ from those of the Madre de Dios Terrane of the western Patagonian Andes with which they had been correlated; instead, they are more comparable with those from the Eastern Andes Metamorphic Complex, which apparently developed in a passive margin setting. The paucity of Cambrian detrital zircons indicates that the meta-igneous basement of the Magallanes foreland basin of central and northern Tierra del Fuego was not the main source of detritus for the protolith of the Cordillera Darwin Metamorphic Complex. The possibility is envisaged that the Magallanes Fagnano transform fault boundary between the Scotia and South America plates resulted from reactivation of an older, pre-Jurassic suture zone between the basement terranes of north-central Tierra del Fuego and Cordillera Darwin. © 2010 Geological Society of London.
Home > Press > Industrial Nanotech, Inc. Announces Two More Offshore Oil and Gas Platform Projects Abstract: Industrial Nanotech, Inc. (OTC MARKETS: INTK), a global leader in nanotechnology-based energy saving solutions, today announced that two more offshore oil and gas projects are currently underway with their patented Heat Shield EPX4 and High Heat temperature control coatings (TCC). In one project, the High Heat coating is being used for insulation and corrosion prevention on all the steam pipes to bring the surface temperatures to a safe touch level. The other project uses the EPX4 coating to insulate and reduce energy use on a reboiler and associated piping. The Company has previously completed two successful offshore platform projects. One on pipelines throughout an Enap Sipetrol platform off the coast of Argentina, which showed an average temperature reduction, with just a 0.35 millimeter dry film thickness of the Nansulate® Translucent PT coating, from 140F (60C) to 107.6F (42C). The other project was on a fuel oil storage tank on a Sinopec platform in the East China Sea, which showed that just a 0.6 millimeter application of the High Heat coating provided a similar insulating performancewithin 3 degrees Celsiusof 8 centimeters of rock wool covered with aluminum cladding, with the additional benefits of a longer lifespan, lower replacement costs, and prevention of corrosion under insulation (CUI). Servicing the unique needs of oil and gas companies has always been an important focus for our company, stated Francesca Crolley, V.P. Business Development for Industrial Nanotech, Inc. They have multiple assets both onshore and offshore and, although the offshore environment can be extremely harsh, it is an environment for which our coatings were specifically designed to perform and are uniquely suited. They have proven themselves to be an excellent marine-proof product with world class corrosion resistance, UV protection, and moisture resistance, all while providing exceptional thermal insulation performance. According to Baker Hughes International Rig Count for October 2015, the total number of world oil rigs was 2,086. Even though the global rig count has recently declined, there is a greater emphasis on operating more efficiently and reducing production costs and our products are proven to accomplish these objectives. The estimated revenue for Industrial Nanotech from insulating similar assets on currently operating rigs is estimated at between $41,000,000 and $62,000,000. This is a market that requires a methodical approach and we feel that we are now at the point where our coatings have earned their place and the trust of oil and gas equipment operators. We look forward to our continued accelerated growth in this market. Projects and case study references for oil and gas and other manufacturing projects can be found at: www.industrial-nanotech.com/industrial-nanotech-inc-case-studies/ About Industrial Nanotech, Inc. Industrial Nanotech Inc. is a global nanoscience solutions and research leader. The Company develops and commercializes new and innovative applications for sustainable manufacturing and buildings which are sold worldwide, including their Nansulate® and Heat Shield thermal insulation and asset protection coatings, which provide energy savings, thermal insulation, corrosion resistance, prevention of CUI, moisture resistance, chemical resistance, and other protective benefits. The coatings are low VOC, water-based, and sustainable. Additional information about the Company and its products can be found at www.industrial-nanotech.com. Safe Harbor Statement Safe Harbor Statement under the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995: This release includes forward-looking statements made pursuant to the safe harbor provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 that involve risks and uncertainties including, but not limited to, the impact of competitive products, the ability to meet customer demand, the ability to manage growth, acquisitions of technology, equipment, or human resources, the effect of economic and business conditions, and the ability to attract and retain skilled personnel. The Company is not obligated to revise or update any forward-looking statements in order to reflect events or circumstances that may arise after the date of this release. For more information, please click Contacts: Industrial Nanotech, Inc. 800-767-3998 (US & Canada) International: +1-239-254-0346 1925 Trade Center Way Suite #1 Naples, FL 34109 USA If you have a comment, please us. Issuers of news releases, not 7th Wave, Inc. or Nanotechnology Now, are solely responsible for the accuracy of the content.