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Pieltain Fernandez L.,Enagas SA | Gomez San Roman T.,Comillas Pontifical University | Cossent R.,Comillas Pontifical University | Mateo Domingo C.,Comillas Pontifical University | Frias P.,Comillas Pontifical University
IEEE Transactions on Power Systems | Year: 2011

Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) present environmental and energy security advantages versus conventional gasoline vehicles. In the near future, the number of plug-in electric vehicles will likely grow significantly in the world. Despite the aforementioned advantages, the connection of PEV to the power grid poses a series of new challenges for electric utilities. This paper proposes a comprehensive approach for evaluating the impact of different levels of PEV penetration on distribution network investment and incremental energy losses. The proposed approach is based on the use of a large-scale distribution planning model which is used to analyze two real distribution areas. Obtained results show that depending on the charging strategies, investment costs can increase up to 15% of total actual distribution network investment costs, and energy losses can increase up to 40% in off-peak hours for a scenario with 60% of total vehicles being PEV. © 2010 IEEE. Source


Miana M.,Instituto Tecnologico Of Aragon | Hoyo R.d.,Instituto Tecnologico Of Aragon | Rodrigalvarez V.,Instituto Tecnologico Of Aragon | Valdes J.R.,Instituto Tecnologico Of Aragon | Llorens R.,Enagas SA
Applied Energy | Year: 2010

A group of European gas transportation companies within the European Gas Research Group launched in 2007 the 'MOLAS' Project to provide a software program for the analysis of the Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) ageing process during ship transportation. This program contains two different modeling approaches: a physical algorithm and an 'intelligent' model. Both models are fed with the same input data, which is composed of the ship characteristics (BOR and capacity), voyage duration, LNG composition, temperature, pressure, and volume occupied by liquid phase at the port of origin, together with pressure at the port of destination. The results obtained are the LNG composition, temperature and liquid volume at the port of destination. Furthermore, the physical model obtains the evolution over time of such variables en route as it is based on unsteady mass balances over the system, while the i-model applies neural networks to obtain regression coefficients from historical data composed only of origin and destination measurements. This paper describes both models and validates them from previous published models and experimental data measured in ENAGAS LNG regasification plants. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


News Article | August 23, 2016
Site: http://www.theenergycollective.com/rss/all

The French energy regulator has recently said that a long-awaited gas interconnector between Spain and France, which the European Commission says would help reduce Europe’s dependence on Russian gas, is not needed and too costly in the current market environment. Juan Vila, President of the Spanish company Gasindustrial, disputes the CRE’s assumptions and calls its viewpoint short-sighted. “The people and industries in Spain and Portugal need to be connected to Europe.” This article comes courtesy of Natural Gas Europe. The Iberian peninsula, which has been part of the EU for more than 30 years, is urgently calling for the MidCat gas connection with France, and the rest of Europe. Its citizens and industries would like to be part of Europe from the energy stand-point, so that they can live and compete on equal terms with their European peers. Unfortunately, France’s reticence on the subject augurs a long wait. The Pyrenees, which are  the natural border between France and Spain were not a barrier to the railway system, even if Spain had decided to use a different gauge than the rest of Europe, for the unjustified fear that France would steal their hardware. Cars and trucks also go freely accross the many highways that today crisscross the range between the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. The boundary literally disappears. But when it comes to energy, things are altogether different. In France, La Commission de Regulation de l’Energie (CRE) has recently declared that the projected gas connection between France and Spain called MidCat, approved in 2015 by the presidents of France, Portugal, Spain and the EU, is actually not necessary. The CRE says that the costs are too high, and adds that Spain already has a number of regasification plants that are functioning at less than 25% of their nominal capacity and can feed all the required LNG to Spain and Portugal. The CRE justifies its decision as a saving for the French taxpayer. Something is really amiss here. It states that the cost of the pipeline would be around €3bn; but Enagas, the Spanish system operator, has reported that the capex for the 222 km to the French border, and on to Carcassone, would be a total of €471mn. The CRE defends their huge estimate by adding all sorts of pipelines north to south to debottleneck their system and to establish one market in France. These line improvements should have obviously been carried out much earlier, and their omission has unfortunately cost the French consumers in the south very dearly for years in the form of higher prices. The Iberian peninsula is consequently struggling to convince the French authorities that new MidCat capacity of 7.5bn m³, together with the existing 7.3bn m³ from the Basque country and Navarre connections, would facilitate the integration of the Iberian gas market to the rest of Europe in “low to normal” demand scenarios. At the same time, it would make the Iberian LNG terminals available to France and EU during possible disruptions from Russia or Norway when the existing European LNG terminals would have insufficient capacity. In fact, France would benefit both ways by charging (near) exorbitant fees to the southbound gas, and by being able to continue feeding gas from the Spanish LNG terminals to its citizens and industries if a major disruption does occur. The shortsighted report also proclaimed that there were more compelling reasons to invest in improving cross-border Germany to France pipeline capacity over the next six years when, at present, this capacity already amounts to 20bn m³/yr. The main gas transmission system operator in France, GRTgaz, is now engaged in a major program to upgrade north-to-south flow capacity into France and has recently substantially increased capacity from Belgium to 29bn m³. The integration of the Iberian market would contribute to European market liquidity that would be achieved by an effective interconnection. Today, even Switzerland enjoys better connections with France than Spain does. All of this forces the peninsula to have a gas supply mix with 50% LNG. This is a situation that makes Spain and Portugal uncompetitive, especially during periods of low gas prices, as LNG, with its liquefaction, transport and regasification elements, has an obvious added cost that under normal circumstances, the other central European countries generally do not have. None of this appears to matter to the CRE, nor the rights of almost 60mn people and its industries living and working in Portugal and Spain. They need to be connected to Europe if their industries are to compete on a level playing field. France and its CRE should look beyond its strict and somewhat misguided needs, take responsibility and facilitate the connection of its gas transmission system to the southern neighbours. As the EU Climate Action and Energy Commissioner Miguel Arias Cañete has asserted, Iberia cannot continue to exist as an energy island. This article was first published in Natural Gas Europe and is republished here with permission. Reuters has reported that “Italian gas transport group Snam has said its French unit, TIGF, wants to invest in a new Midi-Catalonia (Midcat) interconnector in the eastern Pyrenees that would more than double the cross-border gas exchange capacity. The Commission de Regulation de l’Energie (CRE) said the Midcat project would cost nearly 3 billion euros ($3.36 billion), of which 2 billion euros for France, to boost the gas import-export capacity to about 15 percent of gas consumption in France and Spain. ‘In light of stable demand and overcapacity in recent years, such a costly project should not create excessive risk for consumers,’ CRE said. The CRE said gas grid operators should establish whether there is a need for new infrastructure capacity, which it said is unlikely given the current market environment. It also said costs and benefits for each country should be outlined and that each should allocate financial support proportional to the benefits they could expect from the project. CRE president Philippe de Ladoucette told Reuters that in the past five years Spain had not exported one single cubic metre of gas to France. “The Spanish energy commissioner pushes this project, but today there is no economic need for it,” he said, adding that Midcat would also not boost the security of EU gas supply. EU Climate and Energy Commissioner Miguel Arias Cañete, a Spanish national, met with French and Spanish energy ministers in Paris last year to discuss new power and gas infrastructure across the French-Spanish border. Spain has the potential to reduce Europe’s reliance on Russian gas, as its chain of LNG terminals and its gas pipelines from Africa have a combined import capacity of about 80 billion cubic metres (bcm) of gas per year, more than three times Spain’s annual consumption. Spanish energy companies have long complained that France is not doing enough to boost interconnections across the Pyrenees.”


Conde R.,Enagas SA | Lana J.A.,Enagas SA
IGT International Liquefied Natural Gas Conference Proceedings | Year: 2013

In the last few years, Enagás has done a big effort in increasing the efficiency of their infrastructures, in general, and their LNG Import Terminals in particular. One of the main initiatives has been to optimize maintenance management, keeping the traditional high standards in availability and safety but decreasing the operating cost. This work shows an example of the actions taken for cryogenic (submerged) pumps, which is one of the most critical pieces of equipment in a LNG terminal. The work done includes: • Retrofit of vibration monitoring systems. • Utilization of process parameters to determine asset condition. • Validation of new technologies based on the measurement, processing and analysis of electrical parameters signals of the electric motors to trend mechanical failure modes. This work has been done in a series of controlled test. Source


Benito A.,Enagas SA | Rabinal C.,Enagas SA
IGT International Liquefied Natural Gas Conference Proceedings | Year: 2013

International LNG trade has undergone a considerable increase in recent years, with a growth rate of 120% since 2000. This increment of LNG demand has generated a fast augmentation of LNG transport by sea. The knowledge of LNG composition acquires special importance in long-duration trips and is essential for importers, exporters, shipments, etc., to know the 'quality' of the LNG that is to be unloaded in the Regasification Terminal, so that LNG meets quality specifications of each country. In order to solve the existing lack of knowledge on the behaviour of LNG during ship transportation, a group of European gas companies led by Enagás has developed a useful tool called MOLAS for predicting changes in LNG composition at any time during the voyage and just at the end. MOLAS application contains two different approaches. A Physical Model based on mass balances and equilibrium state between liquid and vapour phases, and an 'intelligent' Model, based on Artificial Neural Networks that takes into account nonlinear relationship among the variables involved. MOLAS has been tried out comprehensively and an average error in Wobbe Index and Gross Calorific Value less than 0.20% and 0.30% has been obtained respectively. The results provided by MOLAS, can help Terminal Operators to manage Regasification Plants in a more safe and efficient manner and can help Engineers and Technicians to take, in advance, necessary actions on natural gas so that it can comply with required Quality Specifications. Source

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