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Fradet L.,University of Heidelberg | Tiernan J.,Enable Ireland | McGrath M.,Enable Ireland | Murray E.,Enable Ireland | And 2 more authors.
Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology | Year: 2011

Purpose. To investigate the feasibility of using pressure mapping for the characterisation of the seated posture of children with cerebral palsy (CP). Method. Analysis of pressure mapping readings and video of children seated in a seating system during two assessments: The first assessment involved the pressure mapping of non-disabled children during a standardised protocol, and the second one involved the pressure mapping of children with CP performing daily life activities. Results. It was possible to detect periods of activity of the children from pressure readings using the mean variation of pressure. Additionally, several parameters stemming from pressure readings were shown to be successful in assessing the posture of the children. The centre of pressure when positioned relative to the ischial tuberosities, allowed for recognition of 'adverse postures' involving pelvic obliquity/medio-lateral trunk flexion or antero-posterior pelvic tilt/trunk flexion-extension, as deviations from the centre point. The angle between the principal axis of the sensors' pressure and the medio-lateral axis of the seat was also proposed to characterise pelvic transverse rotation but could not be tested with the actual protocol. Conclusions. Pressure monitoring can be used to assess qualitatively and quantitatively sitting posture of children with CP. © 2010 Informa UK, Ltd.


Ryan J.M.,Trinity College Dublin | Ryan J.M.,Brunel University | Hensey O.,Central Remedial Clinic | McLoughlin B.,Central Remedial Clinic | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Background Children with cerebral palsy (CP) have poor cardiorespiratory fitness in comparison to their peers with typical development, which may be due to low levels of physical activity. Poor cardiorespiratory fitness may contribute to increased cardiometabolic risk. Purpose The aim of this study was to determine the association between sedentary behaviour, physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in children with CP. An objective was to determine the association between cardiorespiratory fitness, anthropometric measures and blood pressure in children with CP. Methods This study included 55 ambulatory children with CP [mean (SD) age 11.3 (0.2) yr, range 6-17 yr; Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels I and II]. Anthropometric measures (BMI, waist circumference and waist-height ratio) and blood pressure were taken. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured using a 10 m shuttle run test. Children were classified as low, middle and high fitness according to level achieved on the test using reference curves. Physical activity was measured by accelerometry over 7 days. In addition to total activity, time in sedentary behaviour and light, moderate, vigorous, and sustained mod-erate-to-vigorous activity (≥10 min bouts) were calculated. Results Multiple regression analyses revealed that vigorous activity (β = 0.339, p< 0.01), sustained moderate-to-vigorous activity (β = 0.250, p<0.05) and total activity (β = 0.238, p<0.05) were associated with level achieved on the shuttle run test after adjustment for age, sex and GMFCS level. Children with high fitness spent more time in vigorous activity than children with middle fitness (p<0.05). Shuttle run test level was negatively associated with BMI (r2 = -0.451, p<0.01), waist circumference (r2 = -0.560, p<0.001), waist-height ratio (r2 = -0.560, p<0.001) and systolic blood pressure (r2 = -0.306, p<0.05) after adjustment for age, sex and GMFCS level. Conclusions Participation in physical activity, particularly at a vigorous intensity, is associated with high cardiorespiratory fitness in children with CP. Low cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with increased cardiometabolic risk. Copyright: © 2015 Ryan et al.


PubMed | Enable Ireland, Central Remedial Clinic and Trinity College Dublin
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2015

Children with cerebral palsy (CP) have poor cardiorespiratory fitness in comparison to their peers with typical development, which may be due to low levels of physical activity. Poor cardiorespiratory fitness may contribute to increased cardiometabolic risk.The aim of this study was to determine the association between sedentary behaviour, physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in children with CP. An objective was to determine the association between cardiorespiratory fitness, anthropometric measures and blood pressure in children with CP.This study included 55 ambulatory children with CP [mean (SD) age 11.3 (0.2) yr, range 6-17 yr; Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels I and II]. Anthropometric measures (BMI, waist circumference and waist-height ratio) and blood pressure were taken. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured using a 10 m shuttle run test. Children were classified as low, middle and high fitness according to level achieved on the test using reference curves. Physical activity was measured by accelerometry over 7 days. In addition to total activity, time in sedentary behaviour and light, moderate, vigorous, and sustained moderate-to-vigorous activity (10 min bouts) were calculated.Multiple regression analyses revealed that vigorous activity ( = 0.339, p<0.01), sustained moderate-to-vigorous activity ( = 0.250, p<0.05) and total activity ( = 0.238, p<0.05) were associated with level achieved on the shuttle run test after adjustment for age, sex and GMFCS level. Children with high fitness spent more time in vigorous activity than children with middle fitness (p<0.05). Shuttle run test level was negatively associated with BMI (r2 = -0.451, p<0.01), waist circumference (r2 = -0.560, p<0.001), waist-height ratio (r2 = -0.560, p<0.001) and systolic blood pressure (r2 = -0.306, p<0.05) after adjustment for age, sex and GMFCS level.Participation in physical activity, particularly at a vigorous intensity, is associated with high cardiorespiratory fitness in children with CP. Low cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with increased cardiometabolic risk.


Murphy E.,University College Dublin | Dooley B.,University College Dublin | Menton A.,Enable Ireland | Dolphin L.,University College Dublin
Eating Behaviors | Year: 2016

The primary aim of this study was to investigate whether the relationship between global self-worth and weight concerns and global self-worth and shape concerns was mediated by pertinent body image factors, while controlling for gender and estimated BMI. Participants were 775 adolescents (56% male) aged 12-18 years (= 14.6; SD = 1.50). Mediation analysis revealed a direct and a mediated effect between global self-worth and two body image models: 1) weight concerns and 2) shape concerns. The strongest mediators in both models were physical appearance, restrained eating, and depression. Partial mediation was observed for both models, indicating that body image factors which span cognitive, affective, and behavioral constructs, explain the association between global self-worth and weight and shape concerns. Implications for future research, weight and shape concern prevention and global self-worth enhancement programs are discussed. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | University College Dublin and Enable Ireland
Type: | Journal: Eating behaviors | Year: 2016

The primary aim of this study was to investigate whether the relationship between global self-worth and weight concerns and global self-worth and shape concerns was mediated by pertinent body image factors, while controlling for gender and estimated BMI. Participants were 775 adolescents (56% male) aged 12-18years (M=14.6; SD=1.50). Mediation analysis revealed a direct and a mediated effect between global self-worth and two body image models: 1) weight concerns and 2) shape concerns. The strongest mediators in both models were physical appearance, restrained eating, and depression. Partial mediation was observed for both models, indicating that body image factors which span cognitive, affective, and behavioral constructs, explain the association between global self-worth and weight and shape concerns. Implications for future research, weight and shape concern prevention and global self-worth enhancement programs are discussed.


O'Rourke P.,Dublin Institute of Technology | Ekins R.,Dublin Institute of Technology | Timmins B.,Dublin Institute of Technology | Timmins F.,Trinity College Dublin | And 2 more authors.
Assistive Technology Research Series | Year: 2013

Effective user participation during the creation of new assistive products can help to identify design criteria which may not be otherwise evident to product developers. This paper describes the formulation of a series of participatory design workshops which are currently underway in the Republic of Ireland. It focuses on the development of a plan to both foster participant empowerment while generating actionable results, along with the activities, games and structure that constituted the primary workshop. The need for flexible methods and challenges regarding recruitment and communication are also discussed. © 2013 The authors and IOS Press. All rights reserved.


O'rourke P.,Dublin Institute of Technology | Ekins R.,Dublin Institute of Technology | Timmins B.,Dublin Institute of Technology | Timmins F.,The College of Nursing and Midwifery | And 2 more authors.
Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology | Year: 2014

Purpose: To develop and demonstrate a method to involve professional users of assistive technology (AT) in the development process of customisable products. Employing the ideas of user participation and mass customisation, this research addresses the need for reduced product costs and optimised product flexibility. Method: An adaptable six-question Delphi study was developed to establish consensus among AT professionals on design issues relating to a specified AT domain requiring innovation. The study is demonstrated for the special access technology (SAT) domain. A modified morphological matrix structures the application of the study results to the product design process. Results: Fourteen professionals from the Republic of Ireland and the UK participated. Consensus was reached on prevalent parts of SAT that malfunction, primary reasons for SAT malfunction, characteristics of clients associated with SAT selection, client needs regarding SAT use and training, desirable traits of SAT and clinicians' frustrations with SAT. Conclusion: The study revealed a range of problems related to SAT, highlighting the complexities of successful SAT adoption. The questions led to differentiated insights and enabled design solution conceptualisation from various perspectives. The approach was found to help facilitate efficient generation and application of professional users' knowledge during the design process of customisable AT.Implications for RehabilitationHigh product costs and device abandonment negatively affect many people who use assistive technology (AT). Poor device design is a root cause of these two problems. To address this issue, a method for the practical concept generation of customisable AT is proposed and demonstrated. The method aims to support the development of new, low-cost products which satisfy a broad range of consumers' needs.The literature requests suitable methods to facilitate the involvement of different types of AT users in the product design process. This paper presents a method to first establish consensus on important design issues for a specified AT domain, and subsequently to apply these issues to the product design process.This paper describes the method's application for a customisable special access technology (SAT) device. Crucial design issues for SAT devices are presented to assist future SAT development work in research and industry.This research supports and provides validation for a number of past studies about desirable criteria for AT. These studies declared that further research was required to confirm their results. © 2014 Informa UK Ltd.

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