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Pereira H.S.,Embrapa Arroz e Feijao | Melo L.C.,Embrapa Arroz e Feijao | de Faria L.C.,Embrapa Arroz e Feijao | Wendland A.,Embrapa Arroz e Feijao | And 16 more authors.
Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology | Year: 2013

BRS Esteio is a common bean cultivar with black grains of excellent cooking quality, suited for cultivation in 21 Brazilian States. In 77 trials of Value for Cultivation and Use, the cultivar had a normal cycle (90 days), an average yield of 2,529 kg ha-1, which is 8.1% higher than that of the control cultivars, a high yield potential (4,702 kg ha-1), upright growth, tolerance to lodging, and moderate resistance to anthracnose.


Melo L.C.,Embrapa Arroz e Feijao | da Costa J.G.C.,Embrapa Arroz e Feijao | Pereira H.S.,Embrapa Arroz e Feijao | Del Peloso M.J.,Embrapa Arroz e Feijao | And 15 more authors.
Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology | Year: 2012

BRS Ametista is a common bean cultivar with Carioca grain and yields similar to cultivar Pérola, but with larger grain size, resistance to anthracnose and Fusarium wilt. It is recommended for 18 states in all regions of Brazil and can be planted on over 95% of the area used for common bean in the country.


Pinheiro L.B.A.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Pinheiro L.B.A.,IBGE Inc | Pereira M.G.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Lima E.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | And 3 more authors.
Floresta e Ambiente | Year: 2013

Samples of soil and termite species Cornitermes cumulans (Kollar, 1832) (termite mounds) were compared with respect to chemical and biological properties to evaluate the influence of termites in some soil properties. The study was conducted in Pinheiral, Rio de Janeiro state in areas of managed pasture, native grassland, and eucalyptus plantations. The samples were collected from 60 adjacent termitaria and soil over a year, in four seasons. Microbial biomass was higher in the termitaria than in the soil in most of the areas and seasons evaluated, and fractionation showed that most of the carbon is found in the humic form.


de Brito L.F.,Bielefeld University | Pacheco R.S.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | de Souza Filho B.F.,Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuaria do Estado do Rio de Janeiro | Ferreira E.P.B.,EMBRAPA - Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária | And 2 more authors.
Revista Brasileira de Ciencia do Solo | Year: 2015

Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) may benefit from biological N2 fixation, but inconsistent responses of the crop to rhizobium inoculation indicate the need for supplemental mineral N fertilization. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the response of the common bean crop to rhizobium inoculation in association with supplemental mineral N in the Cerrado (Brazilian tropical savanna) and Atlantic Forest biomes. Four field experiments were carried out, two in Santo Antônio de Goiás (State of Goiás), one in Valença (State of Rio de Janeiro), and another in Macaé (State of Rio de Janeiro), all in Brazil. Inoculation with commercial rhizobium strains was compared to inoculation with strain BR 923 of Sinorhizobium sp., to mineral N fertilization, and to supplementation with N at sowing and in topdressing. Evaluation of the native rhizobium population indicated 105 cells g−1 in the soil of the experimental area in Goiás, previously cultivated with common bean, and 102 cells g1 in the soil in Valença, previously kept in pasture. In both experiments in Goiás, grain yields of around 2,100 kg ha−1 did not differ among the control treatments, rhizobia inoculation, or the application of 120 kg ha−1 of N. In Valença, inoculation with commercial strains provided yields from the cultivar Ouro Negro higher than the absolute control, in the lack of topdressing N fertilization. With 40 kg ha−1 of N in topdressing, rhizobium inoculation led to 3,420 kg ha−1 of grain yield, higher than the other treatments. In the mean of different N sources at sowing, topdressing fertilization increased grain yield from 2,367 to 2,542 kg ha−1. In Macaé, in a soil with high organic matter content, the highest yields were obtained with inoculation of commercial strains associated with 40 kg ha−1 of N in topdressing, and there were deleterious effects from application of 80 kg ha−1 of N at sowing. We conclude that in areas without a previous common bean crop, inoculation with commercial rhizobium strains increases grain yield, particularly when associated with topdressing N fertilization. © 2015, Revista Brasileira de Ciencia do Solo. All rights reserved.


Araujo E.S.,Embrapa Agrobiologia | Guerra J.G.M.,Embrapa Agrobiologia | Espindola J.A.A.,Embrapa Agrobiologia | Urquiaga S.,Embrapa Agrobiologia | And 3 more authors.
Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira | Year: 2011

The objective of this work was to determine, in the soil-plant system, the recovery efficiency of N derived from green manure applied on cabbage (Brassica oleracea) crop. The experiment was divided into two stages: the first one consisted of the straw production of jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis), velvet bean (Mucuna cinereum), and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), in substrate enriched with 15N. The second stage consisted of the application of 15N-labeled green manure on the cabbage beds. Treatments consisted of: fresh residues of jack bean; fresh residues of velvet bean; fresh residues of sorghum; mixture of residues of jack bean, velvet bean, and sorghum at 1:1:1; and control without green manure addition. The N recovery in the soil-plant system was influenced by the green manure species used, and the recovery efficiency of the N derived from the green manure legumes varied from 9 to 16%. The jack bean treatment shows a greater recovery efficiency of nitrogen and, therefore, the best synchrony of N supply, by straw decomposition, with the cabbage crop demand.


Salvati G.G.S.,Federal University of Lavras | Morais Junior N.N.,Federal University of Lavras | Melo A.C.S.,Federal University of Lavras | Vilela R.R.,Federal University of Lavras | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2015

Dairy cows experiencing heat stress have reduced intake and increased reliance on glucose, making feeding strategies capable of improving diet digestibility plausible for improving postrumen nutrient flow and performance. The effect of yeast on digestion and performance of lactating cows during the warm summer months of southeastern Brazil was evaluated. Cows were individually fed in tie stalls and temperature-humidity index was above 68 during 75.6% of the experiment. Twenty-eight Holstein cows (207±87 d in milk) received a standard diet for 14 d and then a treatment for 70 d, in a covariate-adjusted, randomized block design with repeated measures over time. Treatments were yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) or control. Yeast was top dressed to the diet in the morning, equivalent to 25×1010 cfu of live cells and 5×1010 cfu of dead cells. The diet contained corn silage (37.7%), Tifton silage (7.1%), raw soybeans (4.1%), soybean meal (16.5%), finely ground corn (20.7%), and citrus pulp (11.9%). Yeast increased milk (26.7 vs. 25.4kg/d) and solids yield (3.06 vs. 2.92kg/d), especially lactose. Response in milk yield was consistent over time and started at d 5. The daily intake of digestible OM, total-tract digestibility of nutrients, urinary allantoin excretion, chewing pattern throughout the day, and dry matter intake did not respond to yeast. A trend was observed for increased plasma glucose with yeast (62.9 vs. 57.3mg/dL), lowered respiratory frequency (48 vs. 56 breaths/min), and increased plasma niacin content (1.31 vs. 1.22 μg/mL), though cows had similar rectal temperature. Ruminal lactate and butyrate as proportions of ruminal organic acids were reduced by yeast, but no effects on other organic acids, ruminal pH, or protozoa content were detected. Plasma urea N over 24h was increased by yeast. On d 72 to 74, citrus pulp was abruptly replaced with finely ground corn to induce acidosis. The increased load of starch increased dry matter intake between 0700 and 1300h, jugular blood partial pressure of CO2, HCO3-, and base excess, and decreased blood pH for both treatments. The yeast treatment had a higher blood pH compared with the control, 7.34, and 7.31, respectively. Yeast supplementation improved lactation performance of dairy cows under heat stress. Improvement in lactation performance apparently involved the regulation of body homeothermia, rather than improved digestibility. © 2015 American Dairy Science Association.


Diniz A.R.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Pereira M.G.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Balieiro F.C.,EMBRAPA - Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária | da Silva E.V.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | And 4 more authors.
Revista Brasileira de Ciencia do Solo | Year: 2015

Rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) crop may accumulate significant amounts of carbon either in biomass or in the soil. However, a comprehensive understanding of the potential of the C stock among different rubber tree clones is still distant, since clones are typically developed to exhibit other traits, such as better yield and disease tolerance. Thus, the aim of this study was to address differences among different areas planted to rubber clones. We hypothesized that different rubber tree clones, developed to adapt to different environmental and biological constrains, diverge in terms of soil and plant biomass C stocks. Clones were compared in respect to soil C stocks at four soil depths and the total depth (0.00-0.05, 0.05-0.10, 0.10-0.20, 0.20-0.40, and 0.00-0.40 m), and in the different compartments of the tree biomass. Five different plantings of rubber clones (FX3864, FDR 5788, PMB 1, MDX 624, and CDC 312) of seven years of age were compared, which were established in a randomized block design in the experimental field in Rio de Janeiro State. No difference was observed among plantings of rubber tree clones in regard to soil C stocks, even considering the total stock from 0.00-0.40 m depth. However, the rubber tree clones were different from each other in terms of total plant C stocks, and this contrast was predominately due to only one component of the total C stock, tree biomass. For biomass C stock, the MDX 624 rubber tree clone was superior to other clones, and the stem was the biomass component which most accounted for total C biomass. The contrast among rubber clones in terms of C stock is mainly due to the biomass C stock; the aboveground (tree biomass) and the belowground (soil) compartments contributed differently to the total C stock, 36.2 and 63.8 %, respectively. Rubber trees did not differ in relation to C stocks in the soil, but the right choice of a rubber clone is a reliable approach for sequestering C from the air in the biomass of trees. © 2015, Revista Brasileira de Ciencia do Solo. All rights reserved.


PubMed | Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuaria de Minas Gerais, Federal University of Lavras and Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuaria do Estado do Rio de Janeiro
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of dairy science | Year: 2015

Dairy cows experiencing heat stress have reduced intake and increased reliance on glucose, making feeding strategies capable of improving diet digestibility plausible for improving postrumen nutrient flow and performance. The effect of yeast on digestion and performance of lactating cows during the warm summer months of southeastern Brazil was evaluated. Cows were individually fed in tie stalls and temperature-humidity index was above 68 during 75.6% of the experiment. Twenty-eight Holstein cows (20787 d in milk) received a standard diet for 14 d and then a treatment for 70 d, in a covariate-adjusted, randomized block design with repeated measures over time. Treatments were yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) or control. Yeast was top dressed to the diet in the morning, equivalent to 2510(10) cfu of live cells and 510(10) cfu of dead cells. The diet contained corn silage (37.7%), Tifton silage (7.1%), raw soybeans (4.1%), soybean meal (16.5%), finely ground corn (20.7%), and citrus pulp (11.9%). Yeast increased milk (26.7 vs. 25.4 kg/d) and solids yield (3.06 vs. 2.92 kg/d), especially lactose. Response in milk yield was consistent over time and started at d 5. The daily intake of digestible OM, total-tract digestibility of nutrients, urinary allantoin excretion, chewing pattern throughout the day, and dry matter intake did not respond to yeast. A trend was observed for increased plasma glucose with yeast (62.9 vs. 57.3mg/dL), lowered respiratory frequency (48 vs. 56 breaths/min), and increased plasma niacin content (1.31 vs. 1.22 g/mL), though cows had similar rectal temperature. Ruminal lactate and butyrate as proportions of ruminal organic acids were reduced by yeast, but no effects on other organic acids, ruminal pH, or protozoa content were detected. Plasma urea N over 24h was increased by yeast. On d 72 to 74, citrus pulp was abruptly replaced with finely ground corn to induce acidosis. The increased load of starch increased dry matter intake between 0700 and 1300 h, jugular blood partial pressure of CO2, HCO3-, and base excess, and decreased blood pH for both treatments. The yeast treatment had a higher blood pH compared with the control, 7.34, and 7.31, respectively. Yeast supplementation improved lactation performance of dairy cows under heat stress. Improvement in lactation performance apparently involved the regulation of body homeothermia, rather than improved digestibility.

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