Entity

Time filter

Source Type

Mount Airy, MD, United States

Jain R.B.,U.S. Army | Jain R.B.,Empiristat Inc.
Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology | Year: 2015

Association of arsenic exposure with smoking, alcohol, and caffeine consumption was investigated. Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the years 2005-2010 were used for this investigation. Urinary levels of total arsenic (UAS) and dimethylarsonic acid (UDMA) were evaluated for children aged 6-12 years and adolescents and adults aged ≥12 years. Urinary levels of arsenobetaine (UAB) were evaluated for adolescents and adults only. Regression models were fitted for log transformed values of UAB, UAS, and UDMA. For the models for children, however, gender, race/ethnicity, SES, and fish/shell fish consumption during the last 30 days were the only independent variables that were included in the models. Nonsmokers were found to have higher levels of UAS and UDMA than smokers. Elevated levels of UAB, UAS, and UDMA were associated with higher amounts of daily alcohol consumption. The associations were in the opposite direction for daily caffeine consumption. Females were found to have statistically significantly lower adjusted levels of UDMA than males for those aged ≥12 years. Irrespective of age, those with unclassified race/ethnicity had the highest levels of UAB, UAS, and UDMA and non-Hispanic whites had the lowest levels. Adolescents had the higher levels of UAB, UAS, and UDMA than adults. Higher SES was associated with higher levels of UAB, UAS, and UDMA among adolescents and adults. Irrespective of age, fish consumption was associated with higher levels of UAB, UAS, and UDMA. © 2015. Source


Jain R.B.,U.S. Army | Jain R.B.,Empiristat Inc.
Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry | Year: 2014

Developing fetus can be exposed to toxicants during pregnancy. Impact of human pregnancy on the concentrations of phthalate metabolites mono(carboxynonyl) (MCNP), mono(carboxyoctyl) (MCOP), mono-2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl, mono-n-butyl, mono-(3-carboxy propyl), monoethyl, mono-2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl, mono-2-ethylhexyl, monoisobutyl, mono-2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl phthalate, mono-benzyl, sum of low molecular weight phthalates (∑LMW), sum of high molecular weight phthalates (∑HMW), and sum of diethylhexyl phthalates was assessed. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the years 2005–2010 were used for this purpose. Regression models with logs of these metabolites as dependent variables and age, race/ethnicity, education, pregnancy, smoking and iron storage status, study year, family poverty income ratio (PIR), body mass index, urine albumin, and urine creatinine as independent variables were fitted. Pregnant females were found to have significantly lower concentrations of ∑HMW and MCNP than non-pregnant females. Concentrations of ∑LMW during the third trimester of pregnancy were significantly lower than during the second trimester of pregnancy. © 2014, © 2014 Taylor & Francis. Source


Todd C.S.,Columbia University | Nasir A.,International Rescue Committee | Stanekzai M.R.,International Rescue Committee | Scott P.T.,U.S. Army | And 4 more authors.
AIDS Care - Psychological and Socio-Medical Aspects of AIDS/HIV | Year: 2011

There is little information about HIV awareness or condom use among female sex workers (FSWs) in Afghanistan. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to assess HIV awareness, knowledge, and condom use among FSWs in three Afghan cities. FSWs residing in Jalalabad, Kabul, and Mazar-i-Sharif were recruited through outreach programs and completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire and rapid tests for hepatitis B surface antigen, HIV, syphilis, and hepatitis C virus. Logistic regression identified factors associated with HIV awareness, comprehensive HIV knowledge (knowledge that HIV cannot be detected by sight, that condoms prevent HIV, and rejection of local misconceptions about HIV transmission), and consistent condom use (use with every sex act) with clients in the last six months. Of 520 participants, 76.9% had no formal education and 37.7% lived outside Afghanistan in the last five years. Nearly half (44.2%) were aware of HIV but, of these, only 17.4% (N=40) had comprehensive HIV knowledge. There were significant differences by site; FSWs in Jalalabad were more likely to be aware of HIV but FSWs in Kabul were more likely to have correct HIV knowledge and use condoms consistently with clients. Consistent client condom use was reported by 11.5% (N=60) and was independently associated with having more clients per month (AOR=1.99, 95% CI: 1.04-3.81). In conclusion, comprehensive HIV knowledge and consistent condom use with clients are low among Afghan FSWs in these cities. Efforts to reach this population should focus on relaying accurate information and expanding condom use with clients. © 2011 Taylor & Francis. Source


Jain R.B.,U.S. Army | Jain R.B.,Empiristat Inc.
Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology | Year: 2015

Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the years 2009-2010 were used to estimate the levels of caffeine and 14 of its metabolite among U.S. smokers and nonsmokers after adjustments were made for other factors that affect observed caffeine levels. In this study, when adjusted for daily caffeine intake, adjusted levels (AGM) of caffeine and its metabolites were not found to be statistically significantly different between smokers and nonsmokers. AGMs for caffeine and all of its metabolites were found to be statistically significantly higher (p<. 0.01) among females aged ≥12 years than males. For caffeine, 1,3-dimethylxanthine, and 1,7-dimethylxanthine, those aged ≥20 years had statistically significantly higher (p<. 0.01) AGM than those aged 12-19 years but the reverse was true for 7-methylxanthine and 3,7-dimethylxanthine (p≤. 0.02). The order of the AGMs by race/ethnicity was non-Hispanic whites. >. Hispanics. >. non-Hispanic blacks and most of the differences were statistically significant, at least between non-Hispanic whites and non-Hispanic blacks (p<. 0.01). In general, there was a statistically significant positive association between the levels of caffeine and its metabolites and body mass index as well as daily caffeine intake. However, the levels of 7-methylxanthine were negatively associated with body mass index. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source


The objective of this study was to evaluate serum cotinine and total urinary 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanonol (NNAL) levels from a nationally representative sample of non-Hispanic Asian Americans as compared with other racial/ethnic groups. Data from the latest National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the years 2011-2012 were used for this purpose. The total sample size used was 4580. Regression models were fitted to estimate serum cotinine and urinary NNAL levels for smokers and nonsmokers aged 20years and older adjusted for other factors that affect these levels. For nonsmokers, exposure to second hand smoke at home was associated with about 30 times higher serum cotinine levels when compared to those without such exposure (0.717ngmL-1 vs. 0.024ngmL-1, p<0.01). NNAL levels among nonsmokers with second hand smoke exposure at home were about twenty times what they were in those without such exposure (9pgmL-1 vs. 109pgmL-1, p<0.01). As compared to other racial/ethnic groups, the lowest adjusted serum cotinine levels occurred in non-Hispanic Asian smokers (92.6ngmL-1) and Hispanics (84.5ngmL-1) as compared to non-Hispanic whites (143.8ngmL-1) and non-Hispanic blacks (158.4ngmL-1). Urinary NNAL levels for smokers were in the order: non-Hispanic Asian (0.121ngmL-1) Source

Discover hidden collaborations