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Vila-seca, Spain

Romero A.,IRTA Mas de Bover | Hermoso J.F.,IRTA Mas de Bover | Tous J.,EMP Agricola
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2014

An olive rootstock selection program has been established in order to identify genotypes appropriate to control the vigour of 'Arbequina-IRTA-i•18' clone (scion) by grafting. This study is a coordinated program with IFAPA-Cordova, funded by INIA-RTA-2010-00013-C02-C2 research project. Additional rootstock characteristics considered are tolerance to specific soil diseases and performance under different soil conditions. The trial was planted, with drip irrigation, in Constantí (Tarragona, Spain) in 2001 and is complementary to a previous one planted in 2000 in the same site. Experimental design was a randomized complete block with 18 rootstocks and one control own-grafted and five replicates (one tree per rootstock and block). After 10 years of study, results show significant differences for tree vigour between rootstocks. In fact, higher vigour (40% more than i•18 in average) was observed for 'Empeltre' and 'Blanqueta', while 'Verdal de Manresa', 'Nana' and 'Redonda Mora de Toledo' scored the lower vigour (25% lower than i•18). Yield is higher for most vigorous rootstocks, but differences are still not significant related to own-grafted i•18. Fruit characteristics and oil composition are also discussed as affected by rootstocks. © 2014, International Society for Horticultural Science. All rights reserved. Source

Tous J.,EMP Agricola | Romero A.,IRTA Mas de Bover | Hermoso J.F.,IRTA Mas de Bover | Msallem M.,Institute Of Lolivier | Larbi A.,Institute Of Lolivier
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2014

Diverse olive plantation systems are utilised throughout the Mediterranean and other world growing areas, especially in sloping, mountainous and flat areas. Recent important changes (1980s and 1990s), including the widespread introduction of new orchard designs related to harvest mechanisation, increased use of inputs (particularly chemical) and drip irrigation have considerably contributed to this diversity and these changes also influenced the oil quantity and quality. The various planting systems have very different performances regarding the economical viability and the environmental and social impact. This study describes the current and future situation of olive orchard designs, some cultural practices, mechanization and production costs of different olive growing areas of the Northern and Southern Hemispheres (Mediterranean Basin and South America). The data in this study are taken from different alternative sources, such as bibliographic review, questionnaire and personal interviews addressed to researchers and consultants of different countries. These valuable information sources allowed the gathering of knowledge on the aspects involved in the orchard design (cultivars, training, densities, mechanization and yield potential), production costs and oil quality from three alternative production systems: intensive orchards (IS, 200-400 trees/ha), high-density orchards (HD, 400-700 trees/ha) and super-high-density orchards (SHD, over 1,500 trees/ha). The ecological, agronomic and cost assessment of these planting systems are compared between different orchard types from Spain (Andalusia and Catalonia), Portugal (Alentejo-Beja), Tunisia, Argentina (La Rioja and San Juan provinces) and Chile (regions III, IV and VII). A comparative study of three modern design orchards (IS, HD and SHD), growing in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, reveals differences between countries in the following variables: investment costs, economic life, yield potential, cultural and harvest costs and labour use. However, the planting model choice in each region depends on different factors such as ecological conditions, orchard size, manpower availability and the economic life investment. © 2014, International Society for Horticultural Science. All rights reserved. Source

Hermoso J.F.,IRTA Mas de Bover | Romero A.,IRTA Mas de Bover | Tous J.,EMP Agricola
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2014

In the second half of the 1990s most olive regions in Spain raised the study for the adaptation of some olive cultivars to the various producing areas through a national network of trials. Specifically in Catalonia, three olive oil cultivar trials were established. In this paper are presented the results obtained in a trial, which was set in 1998 in Mora d'Ebre, south-west of the province of Tarragona, which included 12 cultivars. The trees were planted at a frame of 7x7 m (204 olive trees/ha). The main agronomic observations were carried out during an eleven year period (3rd to the 13th year of planting) and the fruit characteristics for a nine-years period (2003-2011). Outstanding cultivars are 'Picual' (37.4 kg/tree), 'Picudo' (36.7 kg/tree), 'Empeltre' (35.1 kg/tree) and 'Arbequina' (33.8 kg/tree). As far as their accumulated yield at the 13th year of planting, there exist significant differences: 'Picual' (183 kg/tree) is the most producing cultivar, followed by 'Arbequina' (171 kg/tree) and 'Picudo' (165 kg/tree) and finally 'Empeltre' and 'Frantoio' (about 150 kg/tree). The results of this trial show differences in the adaptation of some cultivars to the inland zone of Tarragona, where 'Picual', 'Arbequina', 'Empeltre' and 'Frantoio' have agronomically overpassed the other cultivars. © 2014, International Society for Horticultural Science. All rights reserved. Source

Rovira M.,IRTA - Institute of Agricultural-Alimentary Research and Technology | Cristofori V.,University of Tuscia | Silvestri C.,University of Tuscia | Celli T.,University of Tuscia | And 3 more authors.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2014

'Negret' is the most widely planted hazelnut cultivar in Tarragona (Spain). One of the disadvantages of this cultivar is the high suckers' emission, causing high maintenance costs yearly. In 2000, a trial to select new and non-suckers emission rootstocks for hazelnut was established at IRTA-Mas de Bover. 'Negret-N 9' selection was grafted onto four clonal rootstocks ('Dundee' and 'Newberg', two open pollinated C. colurna seeds; the low suckers emission cultivar 'Tonda Bianca' and 'IRTA-MB 69' selection) and compared to the own-rooted 'Negret-N 9'. The trial was statistically designed by randomized complete block with ten replications, and one tree per replication and clonal rootstock. Vigor, suckers emission, production and nut characteristics have been evaluated during nine years. The last five years of the trial, kernel quality properties were added to the characterization. Results showed that some rootstocks have a strong influence on vigor and yield of 'Negret - N 9' during the period 2003-2011. 'Dundee' and 'Tonda Bianca' rootstocks showed the highest vegetative growth, whereas 'Dundee', 'Newberg' and 'MB-69' showed the lowest suckers emission. Yield performance was highest in 'Dundee' and contrary to 'Tonda Bianca' that showed the lowest yield. Referring to kernel quality studies, rootstocks have a positive influence on oil stability and induces a brown light color in the kernel pellicle, in contrast with the brown dark color in own-rooted 'Negret N 9'. Kernel fatty acid composition was also influenced by the kind of material used (own-rooted or grafted trees). Source

Rovira M.,Irta Center Mas Of Bover | Tous J.,EMP Agricola | Hermoso J.F.,Irta Center Mas Of Bover | Romero A.,Irta Center Mas Of Bover
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2014

During 9 years the performance of eleven cultivars coming from three different countries was evaluated in a comparative trial at IRTA-Mas de Bover, Constantí (Tarragona, northeastern Spain). The own rooted cultivars were: 'Clon La Masó', 'Negret N-9', 'Negret Primerenc' and 'Pauetet' (Spain); 'San Giovanni', 'Tonda di Giffoni', 'Tonda Italiana' and 'Tonda Romana' (Italy); 'Clark', 'Lewis' and 'Villamette' (USA). The trial was established in 2001; trees were spaced at 6×3.5 m and conducted in a single trunk, with drip irrigation. The statistical design was a randomized complete block with 11 replications and one tree per replication and treatment. Production, suckering, tree vigor and nut and kernel characteristics (weight, kernel size >12 mm, and defects) were evaluated. 'San Giovanni' (near 40 kg/tree), 'Tonda Italiana' (37 kg/tree), 'Pauetet' (35 kg/tree) and 'Clon la Masó' (34 kg/tree), excelled for their cumulative nut yield, whereas 'Negret Primerenc', 'Tonda Romana' and 'Villamette' were less productive. Referring to nut characteristics, kernel percentage of 'Clon La Masó' and 'Clark' cultivars, with values of 51.13 and 50.67%, respectively, were the highest, whereas 'Tonda Italiana' presented less kernel yield (38.25%). 'Tonda di Giffoni', 'Clark' and 'Tonda Romana' stood out for their big kernel size (>12 mm). Source

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