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Atlanta, GA, United States

Emory University is a private research university in metropolitan Atlanta, located in the Druid Hills section of unincorporated DeKalb County, Georgia, United States. The university was founded as Emory College in 1836 in Oxford, Georgia by the Methodist Episcopal Church and was named in honor of Methodist bishop John Emory. In 1915 the college relocated to metropolitan Atlanta and was rechartered as Emory University.Emory University has nine academic divisions: Emory College of Arts and science, Oxford College, Goizueta Business School, Laney Graduate School, School of Law, School of Medicine, Nell Hodgson Woodruff School of Nursing, Rollins School of Public Health, and the Candler School of Theology. Emory University and the Georgia Institute of Technology have a strong research partnership and jointly administer the Emory-Georgia Tech Predictive Health Institute and the Wallace H. Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering Program with Peking University in Beijing, China. Emory University and the Georgia Institute of Technology's combined annual research expenditures exceed $1.25 billion.Emory University is 16th among the list of colleges and universities in the United States by endowment, 5th among universities in the United States regarding licensing revenue per dollars spent on research, and 21st in U.S. News & World Report's 2015 National Universities Rankings. The university also ranks as one of the top universities in the world. In 1995 Emory University was elected to the Association of American Universities, an association of the 62 leading research universities in the United States & Canada.The university has nearly 3,000 faculty members; Emory faculty and alumni include international leaders in the fields of politics, business and academia, and its members have been recognized with numerous national and international awards and honors. Wikipedia.

Among the accolades most valued by a clinical cardiologist is to be selected to deliver the annual James B. Herrick Lecture. This lecture honors the legacy of James Herrick as an icon for the cardiac clinician/scientist. I am enormously grateful to the Council on Clinical Cardiology for this singular recognition. © 2012 American Heart Association, Inc.

Pulendran B.,Emory University
Annual Review of Immunology | Year: 2015

In the 40 years since their discovery, dendritic cells (DCs) have been recognized as central players in immune regulation. DCs sense microbial stimuli through pathogen-recognition receptors (PRRs) and decode, integrate, and present information derived from such stimuli to T cells, thus stimulating immune responses. DCs can also regulate the quality of immune responses. Several functionally specialized subsets of DCs exist, but DCs also display functional plasticity in response to diverse stimuli. In addition to sensing pathogens via PRRs, emerging evidence suggests that DCs can also sense stress signals, such as amino acid starvation, through ancient stress and nutrient sensing pathways, to stimulate adaptive immunity. Here, I discuss these exciting advances in the context of a historic perspective on the discovery of DCs and their role in immune regulation. I conclude with a discussion of emerging areas in DC biology in the systems immunology era and suggest that the impact of DCs on immunity can be usefully contextualized in a hierarchy-of-organization model in which DCs, their receptors and signaling networks, cell-cell interactions, tissue microenvironment, and the host macroenvironment represent different levels of the hierarchy. Immunity or tolerance can then be represented as a complex function of each of these hierarchies. © 2015 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

Cooper M.D.,Emory University
Nature Reviews Immunology | Year: 2015

The separate development of functionally intertwined lineages of lymphocytes known as B cells and T cells is now recognized as a fundamental organizing principle of the adaptive immune system in all vertebrates. Immunologists strive to define the different sublineages of the clonally diverse B cells and T cells, how they interact with each other and how they interact with innate lymphoid cells and other elements of the innate immune system to counter infections, cancer and the development of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. On the 50th anniversary of the recognition of B cells as a discrete cell lineage, this Timeline article recounts some of the milestones marking the development of the concept that B cells are a functionally and developmentally distinct arm of the adaptive immune system. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Pulendran B.,Emory University
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2014

Homo sapiens are genetically diverse, but dramatic demographic and socioeconomic changes during the past century have created further diversification with respect to age, nutritional status, and the incidence of associated chronic inflammatory disorders and chronic infections. These shifting demographics pose new challenges for vaccination, as emerging evidence suggests that age, the metabolic state, and chronic infections can exert major influences on the immune system. Thus, a key public health challenge is learning how to reprogram suboptimal immune systems to induce effective vaccine immunity. Recent advances have applied systems biological analysis to define molecular signatures induced early after vaccination that correlate with and predict the later adaptive immune responses in humans. Such "systems vaccinology" approaches offer an integrated picture of the molecular networks driving vaccine immunity, and are beginning to yield novel insights about the immune system. Here we discuss the promise of systems vaccinology in probing humanity's diverse immune systems, and in delineating the impact of genes, the environment, and the microbiome on protective immunity induced by vaccination. Such insights will be critical in reengineering suboptimal immune systems in immunocompromised populations.

Steenland K.,Emory University | Ward E.,Intramural Research
CA Cancer Journal for Clinicians | Year: 2014

Silica has been known to cause silicosis for centuries, and evidence that silica causes lung cancer has accumulated over the last several decades. This article highlights 3 important developments in understanding the health effects of silica and preventing illness and death from silica exposure at work. First, recent epidemiologic studies have provided new information about silica and lung cancer. This includes detailed exposure-response data, thereby enabling the quantitative risk assessment needed for regulation. New studies have also shown that excess lung mortality occurs in silica-exposed workers who do not have silicosis and who do not smoke. Second, the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration has recently proposed a new rule lowering the permissible occupational limit for silica. There are approximately 2 million US workers currently exposed to silica. Risk assessments estimate that lowering occupational exposure limits from the current to the proposed standard will reduce silicosis and lung cancer mortality to approximately one-half of the rates predicted under the current standard. Third, low-dose computed tomography scanning has now been proven to be an effective screening method for lung cancer. For clinicians, asking about occupational history to determine if silica exposure has occurred is recommended. If such exposure has occurred, extra attention might be given to the early detection of silicosis and lung cancer, as well as extra emphasis on quitting smoking. CA Cancer J Clin 2014;64:63-69. © 2013 American Cancer Society, Inc. © 2013 American Cancer Society, Inc.

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