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Atlanta, GA, United States

Meyer E.V.S.,Emory University | Holt J.J.,Emory Institute for Drug Discovery EIDD | Girard K.R.,Emory University | Ballie M.T.,Emory University | And 12 more authors.
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters | Year: 2012

Plasmodium-infected erythrocytes have been shown to employ sphingolipids from both endogenous metabolism as well as existing host pools. Therapeutic agents that limit these supplies have thus emerged as intriguing, mechanistically distinct putative targets for the treatment of malaria infections. In an initial screen of our library of sphingolipid pathway modulators for efficacy against two strains of the predominant human malaria species Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium knowlesi, a series of orally available, 1-deoxysphingoid bases were found to possess promising in vitro antimalarial activity. To better understand the structural requirements that are necessary for this observed activity, a second series of modified analogues were prepared and evaluated. Initial pharmacokinetic assessments of key analogues were investigated to evaluate plasma and red blood cell concentrations in vivo. © 2011 American Chemical Society. Source

Garnier-Amblard E.C.,Emory University | Mays S.G.,Emory University | Arrendale R.F.,Emory Institute for Drug Discovery EIDD | Baillie M.T.,Emory University | And 14 more authors.
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters | Year: 2011

Enigmol is a synthetic, orally active 1-deoxysphingoid base analogue that has demonstrated promising activity against prostate cancer. In these studies, the pharmacologic roles of stereochemistry and N-methylation in the structure of enigmols were examined. A novel enantioselective synthesis of all four possible 2S-diastereoisomers of enigmol (2-aminooctadecane-3,5-diols) from l-alanine is reported, which features a Liebeskind-Srogl cross-coupling reaction between l-alanine thiol ester and (E)-pentadec-1-enylboronic acid as the key step. In vitro biological evaluation of the four enigmol diastereoisomers and 2S,3S,5S-N-methylenigmol against two prostate cancer cell lines (PC-3 and LNCaP) indicates that all but one diastereomer demonstrate potent oncolytic activity. In nude mouse xenograft models of human prostate cancer, enigmol was equally effective as standard prostate cancer therapies (androgen deprivation or docetaxel), and two of the enigmol diastereomers, 2S,3S,5R-enigmol and 2S,3R,5S-enigmol, also caused statistically significant inhibition of tumor growth. A pharmacokinetic profile of enigmol and N-methylenigmol is also presented. © 2011 American Chemical Society. Source

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