Tang K.L.,University of Michigan-Flint |
Fielitz C.,Emory & Henry College
Mitochondrial DNA | Year: 2013
The family Muraenidae is one of the largest and most recognizable eel groups. Moray eels are key components of marine ecosystems but their relationships remain poorly understood. The phylogenetic relationships of the morays are examined herein using mitochondrial 12S and 16S sequence data, totaling 1673 bp for 139 taxa. The results of our analyses found support for a monophyletic family Muraenidae that is part of a monophyletic suborder Muraenoidei, which is revised to include the anguilliform families Heterenchelyidae and Myrocongridae, and to exclude the family Chlopsidae. The muraenids form two monophyletic subfamilies, Muraeninae and Uropterygiinae. Of the genera that had multiple species included for analysis, only the type genus of the family, Muraena, is found to be monophyletic. In the subfamily Uropterygiinae, Uropterygius is not recovered as a monophyletic genus. In the subfamily Muraeninae, the species-rich piscivorous genera, Enchelycore and Gymnothorax, and the durophagous genus, Echidna, are demonstrably not monophyletic. The monotypic Gymnomuraena is the sister group to all other muraenine species. The relationships within Muraenidae require much additional study and its genera remain in urgent need of revision. The order Anguilliformes is revised herein to include four suborders: Anguilloidei, Congroidei, Muraenoidei, and Synaphobranchoidei. All four families of the order Saccopharyngiformes are nested within Anguilliformes, recovered as part of a clade that includes Anguillidae; the saccopharyngiform families are referred to the suborder Anguilloidei sensu novum. © 2021 Informa UK, Ltd.
Davis M.P.,Louisiana State University |
Fielitz C.,Emory & Henry College
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution | Year: 2010
The divergence times of lizardfishes (Euteleostei: Aulopiformes) are estimated utilizing a Bayesian approach in combination with knowledge of the fossil record of teleosts and a taxonomic review of fossil aulopiform taxa. These results are integrated with a study of character evolution regarding deep-sea evolutionary adaptations in the clade, including simultaneous hermaphroditism and tubular eyes. Divergence time estimations recover that the stem species of the lizardfishes arose during the Early Cretaceous/Late Jurassic in a marine environment with separate sexes, and laterally directed, round eyes. Tubular eyes have arisen independently at different times in three deep-sea pelagic predatory aulopiform lineages. Simultaneous hermaphroditism evolved a single time in the stem species of the suborder Alepisauroidei, the clade of deep-sea aulopiforms during the Early Cretaceous. This result indicates the oldest known evolutionary event of simultaneous hermaphroditism in vertebrates, with the Alepisauroidei being the largest vertebrate clade with this reproductive strategy. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.
Wang L.,Northwest University, China |
Ferguson J.,Emory & Henry College |
Zeng F.,Northwest University, China
Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry | Year: 2015
Palladium-catalyzed oxidative coupling of 2-vinylanilines and isocyanides constitutes a direct, facile, and efficient approach to 2-aminoquinolines. The procedure, employing palladium acetate and silver carbonate, is attractive in terms of assembly efficiency, functional group tolerance, and operational simplicity. A variety of 2-aminoquinolines were prepared in good to excellent yields. © 2015 The Royal Society of Chemistry.
Zeng F.W.,Emory & Henry College |
Gates S.M.,IBM |
Lane M.W.,Emory & Henry College
AIP Advances | Year: 2014
Organosilicate glass (OSG) is often used as an interlayer dielectric (ILD) in high performance integrated circuits. OSG is a brittle material and prone to stress-corrosion cracking reminiscent of that observed in bulk glasses. Of particular concern are chemical-mechanical planarization techniques and wet cleans involving solvents commonly encountered in microelectronics fabrication where the organosilicate film is exposed to aqueous environments. Previous work has focused on the effect of pH, surfactant, and peroxide concentration on the subcritical crack growth of these films. However, little or no attention has focused on the effect of the conjugate acid/base concentration in a buffer. Accordingly, this work examines the "strength" of the buffer solution in both acidic and basic environments. The concentration of the buffer components is varied keeping the ratio of acid/base and therefore pH constant. In addition, the pH was varied by altering the acid/base ratio to ascertain any additional effect of pH. Corrosion tests were conducted with double-cantilever beam fracture mechanics specimens and fracture paths were verified with ATR-FTIR. Shifts in the threshold fracture energy, the lowest energy required for bond rupture in the given environment, GTH, were found to shift to lower values as the concentration of the base in the buffer increased. This effect was found to be much larger than the effect of the hydroxide ion concentration in unbuffered solutions. The results are rationalized in terms of the salient chemical bond breaking process occurring at the crack tip and modeled in terms of the chemical potential of the reactive species. © 2014 Author(s).
Hall A.B.,Emory & Henry College |
Irvine G.J.,Emory & Henry College |
Gates S.M.,IBM |
Lane M.W.,Emory & Henry College
Applied Physics Letters | Year: 2012
The corrosion behavior of low-k dielectric films used in todays microelectronic interconnects is reported. We study the dielectric constant, k, range 2.7 to 2.05, with all materials based on a Si-O-Si network. A corrosion mechanism based upon the reaction of water molecules with strained crack-tip bonds is used to model crack velocity vs. applied strain energy release rate curves and to extract key atomistic parameters for each dielectric. It is found that bond strength is invariant and bond density varies linearly with k. The data indicate that no new mechanism plays a part in the corrosion of these Si-O-Si based films with dielectric constants down to ∼2. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.
Fielitz C.,Emory & Henry College |
Gonzalez-Rodriguez K.A.,Autonomous University of the State of Hidalgo
Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology | Year: 2010
A new species of Enchodus (Aulopiformes: Enchodontidae) is described from a quarry exposure of the La Negra facies of the El Doctor Formation (Cretaceous: Albian to Cenomanian) in the state of Hidalgo, central México. It is an elongate fish with many generic and familial characters, including dermal ornamentation of tubercles atop rows of ridges; a palatine with a single, large tooth; and a triangular preopercle. It has a number of unique characters that include the presence of an orbitosphenoid, absence of dorsal scutes, and dorsal fin rays that share common pterygiophores. A phylogenetic analysis places the new species as the sister to Enchodus gladiolus. The new species of Enchodus is the most abundant fish species at the locality. Using mandible length as an indicator of overall size, the range in lengths suggests that this species lived at or near the locality. This is further supported by other species that have individuals of large and small sizes. © 2010 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology.
Lauder T.,Emory & Henry College
Journal of Geography | Year: 2012
A fantasy-theme analysis of the editors' letters in Southern Living magazine shows an editorial vision of valuing the past and showcasing unique regional qualities. In addition, a content analysis of the visual representation of race in the magazine's formative years and recent past validates that inhabitants of the region were portrayed overwhelming as white and middle-class, even as affluence among nonwhites has changed. This analysis provides an example of how media products create and proliferate a specific representation of a place and its people. Suggestions for using mass media messages in the classroom to apply geography knowledge and research, as well as media literacy skills, are included. © 2012 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.
Garg S.,Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute |
Teki R.,Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute |
Lane M.W.,Emory & Henry College |
Ramanath G.,Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
Applied Physics Letters | Year: 2011
We report 10-fold higher toughness at microcorrugated copper-silica interfaces than their planar counterpart and separate the contributions of adhesion, metal layer plasticity, and debond shielding. While corrugations parallel to the crack path toughen the interface due to debond area increase, orthogonal corrugations result in additional toughening due to debond shielding and shielding-induced plasticity that can be more than twice higher than the shielding effect itself. These insights into the toughening mechanisms at corrugated interfaces should enable the design of high integrity heterointerfaces in a wide variety of micro-nano-structured thin films and composites. © 2011 American Institute of Physics.
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: | Award Amount: 58.59K | Year: 2011
This project aims to investigate and develop models to describe the effects of molecular chemistry, chemical environment, interface topography, and thermo-mechanical cycling on interfacial fracture toughness and thermal conductance at model metal-ceramic interfaces modified with molecular nanolayers. Tailoring adherent metal-ceramic interfaces using near-zero-thickness nanolayers is an attractive method to preserve the functionality, stability and reliability of materials systems for many emergent applications, e.g., nanoelectronics, device packaging and wiring, and biological implants. The effects of nanolayer chemistry on interfacial toughness will be studied in model metal/ceramic interfaces subject to different loading conditions to obtain insights into the nanoscale mechanics of interfacial fracture. The results of these studies will be applied to investigate and exploit the coupling between molecular bonding and interfacial heat transport. The resultant understanding of the interface-chemistry-physics-mechanical-thermal property relationships is anticipated to enable new ways for rational molecular-level tailoring of interfacial properties for tailoring a wide variety of materials systems.
This research will provide a molecular-level understanding for tailoring the stability and thermomechanical properties of soft-hard hetero-interfaces, and paves way for rational design of a wide variety of composite materials and archictectures for engineering applications. On the educational front, this project will serve as a platform for cross-disciplinary training of graduate and undergraduate students from a PhD-granting research university (RPI) and an undergraduate-only college (E&H), respectively, through collaboration on a problem of key importance at the cusp of materials science, chemistry and mechanical engineering. The complementary execution of two research thrusts through summer visits and periodic meetings will enrich the research and educational experience of graduate and undergraduate students in both groups. The research will be integrated into extant courses at both institutions. Site-visits and a summer internship for a high-school teacher are planned to K-12 students to the latest developments in the field of nanomaterials interfaces and their importance in emerging engineering applications.
Emory & Henry College | Date: 2015-09-29
Athletic apparel, namely, shirts, pants, jackets, footwear, hats and caps, athletic uniforms; Childrens and infants apparel, namely, jumpers, overall sleepwear, pajamas, rompers and one-piece garments; Wearable garments and clothing, namely, shirts. Encouraging intercollegiate athletic programs by organizing and conducting educational programs and activities for intercollegiate athletes and alumni; Entertainment services, namely, organizing and conducting an array of athletic events rendered live and recorded for the purpose of distribution through broadcast media; Providing various facilities for an array of sporting events, sports and athletic competitions and awards programmes.