Wang L.,Northwest University, China |
Ferguson J.,Emory & Henry College |
Zeng F.,Northwest University, China
Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry | Year: 2015
Palladium-catalyzed oxidative coupling of 2-vinylanilines and isocyanides constitutes a direct, facile, and efficient approach to 2-aminoquinolines. The procedure, employing palladium acetate and silver carbonate, is attractive in terms of assembly efficiency, functional group tolerance, and operational simplicity. A variety of 2-aminoquinolines were prepared in good to excellent yields. © 2015 The Royal Society of Chemistry.
Fielitz C.,Emory & Henry College |
Gonzalez-Rodriguez K.A.,Autonomous University of the State of Hidalgo
Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology | Year: 2010
A new species of Enchodus (Aulopiformes: Enchodontidae) is described from a quarry exposure of the La Negra facies of the El Doctor Formation (Cretaceous: Albian to Cenomanian) in the state of Hidalgo, central México. It is an elongate fish with many generic and familial characters, including dermal ornamentation of tubercles atop rows of ridges; a palatine with a single, large tooth; and a triangular preopercle. It has a number of unique characters that include the presence of an orbitosphenoid, absence of dorsal scutes, and dorsal fin rays that share common pterygiophores. A phylogenetic analysis places the new species as the sister to Enchodus gladiolus. The new species of Enchodus is the most abundant fish species at the locality. Using mandible length as an indicator of overall size, the range in lengths suggests that this species lived at or near the locality. This is further supported by other species that have individuals of large and small sizes. © 2010 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology.
Davis M.P.,Louisiana State University |
Fielitz C.,Emory & Henry College
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution | Year: 2010
The divergence times of lizardfishes (Euteleostei: Aulopiformes) are estimated utilizing a Bayesian approach in combination with knowledge of the fossil record of teleosts and a taxonomic review of fossil aulopiform taxa. These results are integrated with a study of character evolution regarding deep-sea evolutionary adaptations in the clade, including simultaneous hermaphroditism and tubular eyes. Divergence time estimations recover that the stem species of the lizardfishes arose during the Early Cretaceous/Late Jurassic in a marine environment with separate sexes, and laterally directed, round eyes. Tubular eyes have arisen independently at different times in three deep-sea pelagic predatory aulopiform lineages. Simultaneous hermaphroditism evolved a single time in the stem species of the suborder Alepisauroidei, the clade of deep-sea aulopiforms during the Early Cretaceous. This result indicates the oldest known evolutionary event of simultaneous hermaphroditism in vertebrates, with the Alepisauroidei being the largest vertebrate clade with this reproductive strategy. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.
Tang K.L.,University of Michigan-Flint |
Fielitz C.,Emory & Henry College
Mitochondrial DNA | Year: 2013
The family Muraenidae is one of the largest and most recognizable eel groups. Moray eels are key components of marine ecosystems but their relationships remain poorly understood. The phylogenetic relationships of the morays are examined herein using mitochondrial 12S and 16S sequence data, totaling 1673 bp for 139 taxa. The results of our analyses found support for a monophyletic family Muraenidae that is part of a monophyletic suborder Muraenoidei, which is revised to include the anguilliform families Heterenchelyidae and Myrocongridae, and to exclude the family Chlopsidae. The muraenids form two monophyletic subfamilies, Muraeninae and Uropterygiinae. Of the genera that had multiple species included for analysis, only the type genus of the family, Muraena, is found to be monophyletic. In the subfamily Uropterygiinae, Uropterygius is not recovered as a monophyletic genus. In the subfamily Muraeninae, the species-rich piscivorous genera, Enchelycore and Gymnothorax, and the durophagous genus, Echidna, are demonstrably not monophyletic. The monotypic Gymnomuraena is the sister group to all other muraenine species. The relationships within Muraenidae require much additional study and its genera remain in urgent need of revision. The order Anguilliformes is revised herein to include four suborders: Anguilloidei, Congroidei, Muraenoidei, and Synaphobranchoidei. All four families of the order Saccopharyngiformes are nested within Anguilliformes, recovered as part of a clade that includes Anguillidae; the saccopharyngiform families are referred to the suborder Anguilloidei sensu novum. © 2021 Informa UK, Ltd.
Lauder T.,Emory & Henry College
Journal of Geography | Year: 2012
A fantasy-theme analysis of the editors' letters in Southern Living magazine shows an editorial vision of valuing the past and showcasing unique regional qualities. In addition, a content analysis of the visual representation of race in the magazine's formative years and recent past validates that inhabitants of the region were portrayed overwhelming as white and middle-class, even as affluence among nonwhites has changed. This analysis provides an example of how media products create and proliferate a specific representation of a place and its people. Suggestions for using mass media messages in the classroom to apply geography knowledge and research, as well as media literacy skills, are included. © 2012 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.