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Atmar R.L.,Baylor College of Medicine | Bernstein D.I.,University of Cincinnati | Harro C.D.,Johns Hopkins University | Al-Ibrahim M.S.,Shin Nippon Biomedical Laboratories Clinical Pharmacology Center | And 7 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2011

BACKGROUND: Noroviruses cause epidemic and sporadic acute gastroenteritis. No vaccine is available to prevent norovirus illness or infection. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial to assess the safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of an investigational, intranasally delivered norovirus viruslike particle (VLP) vaccine (with chitosan and monophosphoryl lipid A as adjuvants) to prevent acute viral gastroenteritis after challenge with a homologous viral strain, Norwalk virus (genotype GI.1). Healthy adults 18 to 50 years of age received two doses of either vaccine or placebo and were subsequently inoculated with Norwalk virus and monitored for infection and gastroenteritis symptoms. RESULTS: Ninety-eight persons were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive vaccine (50 participants) or placebo (48 participants), and 90 received both doses (47 participants in the vaccine group and 43 in the placebo group). The most commonly reported symptoms after vaccination were nasal stuffiness, nasal discharge, and sneezing. Adverse events occurred with similar frequency among vaccine and placebo recipients. A Norwalk virus-specific IgA seroresponse (defined as an increase by a factor of 4 in serum antibody levels) was detected in 70% of vaccine recipients. Seventy-seven of 84 participants inoculated with Norwalk virus were included in the per-protocol analysis. Vaccination significantly reduced the frequencies of Norwalk virus gastroenteritis (occurring in 69% of placebo recipients vs. 37% of vaccine recipients, P = 0.006) and Norwalk virus infection (82% of placebo recipients vs. 61% of vaccine recipients, P = 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: This norovirus VLP vaccine provides protection against illness and infection after challenge with a homologous virus. (Funded by LigoCyte Pharmaceuticals and the National Institutes of Health; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00973284.) Copyright © 2011 Massachusetts Medical Society. Source


Frassetto L.A.,University of California at San Francisco | Tan-Tam C.C.,University of California at San Francisco | Barin B.,EMMES | Browne M.,University of California at San Francisco | And 4 more authors.
Transplantation | Year: 2014

BACKGROUND: Interactions between antiretrovirals (ARVs) and transplant immunosuppressant agents (IS) among HIV-infected transplant recipients may lead to lack of efficacy or toxicity. In transplant recipients not infected with HIV, tacrolimus (TAC) trough levels (C0) or cyclosporine (CsA) drawn at C0 or 2 hours after dosing (C2) correlate with drug exposure (area under the curve [AUC]/dose) and outcomes. Because of ARV-IS interactions in HIV-infected individuals, and the high rate of rejection in these subjects, this study investigated the correlations between IS concentrations and exposure to determine the best method to monitor immunosuppressant levels. METHODS: This study prospectively studied 50 HIV-infected transplant recipients undergoing kidney or liver transplantation evaluating the pharmacokinetics of the IS in 150 studies over time after transplantation (weeks 2 to 4, 12, 28, 52, and 104). IS levels were measured with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and AUC calculated using WinNonlin 9.0. Correlation analyses were run on SAS 9.2. RESULTS: CsA concentration at C4 correlated better with AUC than C0 or C2, and over time TAC concentration correlated better at C0 or C2. CONCLUSIONS: It is suggested that C0 is acceptable for TAC monitoring, but poor predictability will occur at C0 with CsA. The low correlation of C0 with CsA AUC could be responsible for the higher rejection rates on CsA that has been reported in these subjects. © 2014 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source


Treanor J.J.,University of Rochester | Atmar R.L.,Baylor College of Medicine | Frey S.E.,Saint Louis University | Gormley R.,Naval Medical Research Center | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Infectious Diseases | Year: 2014

Background. Noroviruses are the most important viral causes of gastroenteritis-related morbidity and mortality. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluated an adjuvanted bivalent intramuscular norovirus virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine. Methods. Forty-eight adults aged 18-49 years received either 2 doses containing genotype GI.1 VLP and a consensus GII.4 VLP or 2 doses of placebo. Doses (5 μg, 15 μg, 50 μg, or 150 μg of each VLP) were administered 4 weeks apart in the first stage. Subsequently, 54 adults, aged 18-49 (n = 16), 50-64 (n = 19), and 65-85 (n = 19) years, received 2 doses of vaccine containing 50 μg of each VLP. Total and class-specific antibody responses, as well as histoblood group antigen (HBGA) blocking antibody responses, were measured before and after each dose. Results. Local reactions were mainly injection site pain/tenderness, with no reported fever or vaccine-related serious adverse events. One dose of vaccine containing 50 μg of each VLP increased GI.1 geometric mean titers (GMTs) by 118-fold, 83-fold, and 24-fold and increased GII.4 GMTs by 49-fold, 25-fold, and 9-fold in subjects aged 18-49, 50-64, and 65-83 years, respectively. Serum antibody responses peaked at day 7 after the first dose, with no evidence of boosting following a second dose. Most subjects achieved HBGA-blocking antibody titers of ≥200. Conclusions. The vaccine was well tolerated and immunogenic. Rapid immune response to a single dose may be particularly useful in military personnel and travelers and in the control of outbreaks. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT01168401. © The Author 2014. Source


Pasquini M.C.,Medical College of Wisconsin | Devine S.,Ohio State University | Mendizabal A.,EMMES | Baden L.R.,Dana-Farber Cancer Institute | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Oncology | Year: 2012

Purpose: T-cell depletion (TCD) reduces the incidence of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). However, concerns about relapse, graft rejection, and variability in technique have limited the widespread application of this approach. Patients and Methods: Outcomes of 44 patients receiving HLA-identical sibling TCD grafts using a uniform technique for CD34+ selection as the sole form of immune suppression were compared with outcomes of 84 patients receiving T-replete grafts and pharmacologic immune suppression therapy (IST). Results: Groups were similar, except for fewer men (36% with TCD v 56% with IST) and more frequent use of radiation-containing regimens (100% with TCD v 50% with IST) in the CD34-selected TCD cohort. The proportion of patients with neutrophil engraftment at day 28 was similar (96% with IST and 100% with TCD grafts). The 100-day rates of grade 2 to 4 acute GVHD were 39% and 23% with IST and TCD grafts, respectively (P = .07). Corresponding 2-year rates of chronic GVHD were lower with TCD grafts than IST (19% v 50%, respectively; P < .001). There were no differences in rates of graft rejection, leukemia relapse, treatment-related mortality, and disease-free and overall survival rates. At 1 year, 54% and 12% of patients were still on immunosuppression in the IST and TCD cohorts, respectively. TCD was associated with a higher GVHD-free survival at 2 years compared with IST (41% v 19%, respectively; P = .006). Conclusion: These results suggest that TCD via CD34 selection might lower long-term morbidity as a result of chronic GVHD without negatively impacting relapse rates in patients with acute myeloid leukemia. Additional prospective studies should be undertaken to definitively address the role of TCD in HCT. © 2012 by American Society of Clinical Oncology. Source


Meador K.J.,Emory University | Baker G.A.,University of Liverpool | Browning N.,EMMES | Cohen M.J.,University of Georgia | And 8 more authors.
The Lancet Neurology | Year: 2013

Background: Many women of childbearing potential take antiepileptic drugs, but the cognitive effects of fetal exposure are uncertain. We aimed to assess effects of commonly used antiepileptic drugs on cognitive outcomes in children up to 6 years of age. Methods: In this prospective, observational, assessor-masked, multicentre study, we enrolled pregnant women with epilepsy on antiepileptic drug monotherapy (carbamazepine, lamotrigine, phenytoin, or valproate) between October, 1999, and February, 2004, at 25 epilepsy centres in the UK and the USA. Our primary outcome was intelligence quotient (IQ) at 6 years of age (age-6 IQ) in all children, assessed with linear regression adjusted for maternal IQ, antiepileptic drug type, standardised dose, gestational birth age, and use of periconceptional folate. We also assessed multiple cognitive domains and compared findings with outcomes at younger ages. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00021866. Findings: We included 305 mothers and 311 children (six twin pairs) in the primary analysis. 224 children completed 6 years of follow-up (6-year-completer sample). Multivariate analysis of all children showed that age-6 IQ was lower after exposure to valproate (mean 97, 95% CI 94-101) than to carbamazepine (105, 102-108; p=0·0015), lamotrigine (108, 105-110; p=0·0003), or phenytoin (108, 104-112; p=0·0006). Children exposed to valproate did poorly on measures of verbal and memory abilities compared with those exposed to the other antiepileptic drugs and on non-verbal and executive functions compared with lamotrigine (but not carbamazepine or phenytoin). High doses of valproate were negatively associated with IQ ( r=-0·56, p<0·0001), verbal ability ( r=-0·40, p=0·0045), non-verbal ability ( r=-0·42, p=0·0028), memory ( r=-0·30, p=0·0434), and executive function ( r=-0·42, p=0·0004), but other antiepileptic drugs were not. Age-6 IQ correlated with IQs at younger ages, and IQ improved with age for infants exposed to any antiepileptic drug. Compared with a normative sample (173 [93%] of 187 children), right-handedness was less frequent in children in our study overall (185 [86%] of 215; p=0·0404) and in the lamotrigine (59 [83%] of 71; p=0·0287) and valproate (38 [79%] of 40; p=0·0089) groups. Verbal abilities were worse than non-verbal abilities in children in our study overall and in the lamotrigine and valproate groups. Mean IQs were higher in children exposed to periconceptional folate (108, 95% CI 106-111) than they were in unexposed children (101, 98-104; p=0·0009). Interpretation: Fetal valproate exposure has dose-dependent associations with reduced cognitive abilities across a range of domains at 6 years of age. Reduced right-handedness and verbal ( vs non-verbal) abilities might be attributable to changes in cerebral lateralisation induced by exposure to antiepileptic drugs. The positive association of periconceptional folate with IQ is consistent with other recent studies. Funding: US National Institutes of Health, UK Epilepsy Research Foundation. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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