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Varga L.,University of West Hungary | Sule J.,University of West Hungary | Nagy P.,Emirates Industries for Camel Milk and Products
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2014

The objective of this study was to monitor the viability during storage of Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 (A), Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis BB-12 (B), and Streptococcus thermophilus CHCC 742/2130 (T) in probiotic cultured dairy foods made from pasteurized camel, cow, goat, and sheep milks fermented by an ABT-type culture. The products manufactured were stored at 4°C for 42d. Microbiological analyses were performed at weekly intervals. Streptococcus thermophilus CHCC 742/2130 was the most numerous culture component in all 4 products both at the beginning and at the end of storage. The viable counts of streptococci showed no significant decline in fermented camel milk throughout the entire storage period. The initial numbers of Lb. acidophilus LA-5 were over 2 orders of magnitude lower than those of Strep. thermophilus CHCC 742/2130. With the progress of time, a slow and constant decrease was observed in lactobacilli counts; however, the final viability percentages of this organism did not differ significantly in the probiotic fermented milks tested. The cultured dairy foods made from cow, sheep, and goat milks had comparable B. animalis ssp. lactis BB-12 counts on d 0, exceeding by approximately 0.5 log10 cycle those in the camel milk-based product. No significant losses occurred in viability of bifidobacteria in fermented camel, cow, and sheep milks during 6wk of refrigerated storage. In conclusion, all 4 varieties of milk proved to be suitable raw materials for the manufacture of ABT-type fermented dairy products that were microbiologically safe and beneficial for human consumption. It was suggested that milk from small ruminants be increasingly used to produce probiotic fermented dairy foods. The development of camel milk-based probiotic cultured milks appears to be even more promising because new markets could thus be conquered. It must be emphasized, however, that further microbiological and sensory studies, technology development activities, and market research are needed before such food products can be successfully commercialized. © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Source

Nagy P.,Emirates Industries for Camel Milk and Products | Juhasz J.,Emirates Industries for Camel Milk and Products
Animal Reproduction Science | Year: 2012

The objective of the study was to compare the efficiency of two ovarian follicular wave synchronization protocols coupled with fixed-time natural mating with that of random mating in dromedary camels. Dromedaries were assigned randomly to one of the three treatment groups. Group 1 animals (RM; n= 46) were mated randomly. Group 2 camels (1×GnRH-FTM; n= 46) were given a GnRH analog (Buserelin, 20 μg/animal, i.v.; Receptal, Intervet, Holland) at random, then were mated 14 days later. In Group 3 animals (2×GnRH-FTM; n= 41), random GnRH analog was followed by repeated GnRH injection 14 days later and fixed-time natural mating on Day 28. Transrectal examination and ultrasonography were performed at weekly intervals to evaluate ovarian follicular status, diagnose ovulation and pregnancy. Blood samples were collected for progesterone determination by ELISA to confirm ovulation and pregnancy. All female dromedaries were assigned randomly to one of thirteen fertile bulls and were bred once on Days 1, 14 and 28 in Groups 1-3, respectively. Ovarian follicular status and ovulation rate was similar among groups at the start of the study. Seventy-five of the 133 dromedaries (56.4%) ovulated after random natural mating or random GnRH treatment. Mean length of mating was 386 ± 17.8 (±SEM) seconds. There was no significant difference in mating time among groups and in pregnancy rate among dromedary bulls. In Group 3 (2×GnRH-FTM), ovarian follicular status before mating (P< 0.05), ovulation rate (n= 37, 90.2%, P< 0.001) and pregnancy rate at 21 and 60 days (PR 21 days n= 22, 53.7% and PR 60 days n= 19, 46.3%, P< 0.05) were greater compared to random natural mating (Group 1: OR n= 25, 54.3%, PR 21 days n= 13, 28.3% and PR 60 days n= 12, 26.1%). In Group 2 dromedaries (1×GnRH-FTM), treatment tended to improve follicular status before mating, ovulation rate (n= 34, 73.9%) and pregnancy rate at 21 and 60 days (PR 21 days n= 21, 45.7% and PR 60 days n= 16, 34.8%), but the effect was not significant compared to random natural mating. In conclusion, this is the first study demonstrating that favorable pregnancy rate can be achieved following ovarian follicular wave synchronization with repeated GnRH analog and fixed-time natural mating at 14 days intervals in dromedary camels. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source

Nagy P.,Emirates Industries for Camel Milk and Products | Faigl V.,Szent Istvan University | Reiczigel J.,Szent Istvan University | Juhasz J.,Emirates Industries for Camel Milk and Products
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2015

The main objective of the present study was to compare milk production in pregnant versus nonpregnant dromedary camels. In addition, we described the effect of embryonic mortality on lactation and measured serum progesterone levels until d 60 to 90 of gestation. Twenty-five multiparous camels were selected in midlactation for 2 studies in consecutive years. Camels were mated naturally when the size of the dominant follicle reached 1.2 to 1.5cm. Pregnancy was diagnosed by ultrasonography and progesterone determination. In the first experiment (Exp 1), 8 of 11 animals conceived at 284±21.5d postpartum. Three pregnant dromedaries were given PGF2α to induce luteolysis and pregnancy loss on d 62 and spontaneous embryonic loss was detected in 2 camels (on d 27 and 60). Animals were allotted to 3 groups retrospectively: nonpregnant camels (group 1, n=4), pregnant camels (group 2; n=3), and camels with embryonic loss after d 55 (group 3; n=4). In the second study (Exp 2), 14 dromedaries were mated during midlactation. Seven of them failed to conceive (group 1) and 7 became pregnant (group 2). No embryonic loss was detected in Exp 2. Turning points in milk production were identified by change point analysis. In nonpregnant dromedaries (group 1), milk decreased slowly over time without significant change point. In pregnant camels (group 2), a gradual decline until 4 wk after mating was followed by a sudden drop, and the change point model resulted in one breakpoint at d 28±7 and 35±3 of gestation in Exp 1 and Exp 2, respectively. In camels with embryonic mortality (group 3, Exp 1), milk yield started to decline similarly as in pregnant animals, but milk production increased gradually after embryonic loss and reached similar levels as in their nonpregnant herdmates. Change point analysis for group 3 resulted in 2 turning points at 30±4 and 48±4d after conception. Mean length of lactation was shorter by 230 (34.2%) and by 249d (37.6%) and mean total lactation production was decreased by 1,532 (31.6%) and 2,151 kg (44.3%) in pregnant compared with nonpregnant camels in Exp 1 and Exp 2, respectively. We concluded that the calving interval can be shortened by mating during midlactation. However, pregnancy has a strong negative effect on milk production as dromedaries stop lactating by the fourth month of gestation. Following embryonic mortality within 3mo of conception, milk production is restored. © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Source

Nagy P.,Emirates Industries for Camel Milk and Products | Skidmore J.A.,Camel Reproduction Center | Juhasz J.,Emirates Industries for Camel Milk and Products
Animal Reproduction Science | Year: 2013

Despite their production potential and ability to survive on marginal resources in extreme conditions, dromedaries have not been exploited as an important food source. Camels have not been specifically selected for milk production, and genetic improvement has been negligible. High individual variation in milk production both within the population and within breeds provides a good base for selection and genetic progress. In this paper, we discuss the possibilities and constraints of selective breeding for milk production in camels, and include a summary of the use of embryo transfer at the world's first camel dairy farm. Embryo transfer is an integral part of the breeding strategy at the camel dairy farm because it increases selection intensity and decreases the generation interval. Using high milk-producing camels as donors and low producing camels as recipients, 146 embryos were recovered (6.1±1.0 embryos/donor; range: 0-18). Embryos were transferred non-surgically into 111 recipients (83 single and 28 twin embryo transfers). Pregnancy rate at 21 days and 5 months was 55% (61/111) and 45% (50/111), respectively. Finally, a total of 46 recipients delivered a live calf. These results document the utility of embryo transfer using high milk producing dromedaries as donors. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source

Judit J.,Emirates Industries for Camel Milk and Products | Peter N.,Emirates Industries for Camel Milk and Products
Magyar Allatorvosok Lapja | Year: 2012

The first large scale camel milking farm in the world was established in 2006. In this paper, the authors briefly summarize the role of camels in the Middle East, the benefits of camel milk and the history of camel milking. The establishment and operation of the farm consisted of three phases built on each other. Problems and professional challenges occurred during these periods are described, especially those which are related to infectious and individual diseases, skin diseases caused by ectoparazites and fungi, and udder health. In order to develop camel milking technology, it was necessary to know the physiology and behaviour of the camels, which are also presented shortly. The farm is currently in the qualitative development phase after the initial quantitative growing period. They are focusing and working on the improvement of productivity and genetics of the herd, to investigate and correct the occurring problems related to the intense husbandry and nutrition of large number of dromedaries. Of the 2250 camels on the farm at present 680 animals are lactating. The average total viable count of the tank milk is 5413±128 cfu/ml, somatic cell count is 405 227±3537 cell/ml. The average daily milk production in 400 days lactation of the best milking camel is 17.4 kg, but the average is between 7-8 kg/day for the majority of the camels. At the end of the season the pregnancy rate was between 81.1-87.5%, the pregnancy rate per cycle was 39.1 % in the last 5 breeding seasons. The live birth rate of the calves was between 73.0-84.2%. The authors hope that these results will draw attention to camels, and they will be considered as food producing animal in large scale husbandry systems. Source

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