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Ribezzo S.,University of Trieste | Spina E.,University of Trieste | Di Bartolomeo S.,University of Udine | Di Bartolomeo S.,Emilia Romagna Regional Agency for Health and Social Care | Sanson G.,University of Trieste
The Scientific World Journal

Introduction. Noninvasive blood pressure (NIBP) monitoring methods are widely used in critically ill patients despite poor evidence of their accuracy. The erroneous interpretations of blood pressure (BP) may lead to clinical errors. Objectives. To test the accuracy and reliability of aneroid (ABP) and oscillometric (OBP) devices compared to the invasive BP (IBP) monitoring in an ICU population. Materials and Methods. Fifty adult patients (200 comparisons) were included in a randomized crossover trial. BP was recorded simultaneously by IBP and either by ABP or by OBP, taking IBP as gold standard. Results. Compared with ABP, IBP systolic values were significantly higher (mean difference ± standard deviation 9.74±13.8; P<0.0001). Both diastolic (-5.13±7.1; P<0.0001) and mean (-2.14±7.1; P0.0033) IBP were instead lower. Compared with OBP, systolic (10.80±14.9; P<0.0001) and mean (5.36±7.1; P<0.0001) IBP were higher, while diastolic IBP (-3.62±6.0; P<0.0001) was lower. Bland-Altman plots showed wide limits of agreement in both NIBP-IBP comparisons. Conclusions. BP measurements with different devices produced significantly different results. Since in critically ill patients the importance of BP readings is often crucial, noninvasive techniques cannot be regarded as reliable alternatives to direct measurements. © 2014 Sara Ribezzo et al. Source

Viale P.,University of Bologna | Tumietto F.,Infection Control Unit | Giannella M.,University of Bologna | Bartoletti M.,University of Bologna | And 13 more authors.
Clinical Microbiology and Infection

We performed a quasi-experimental study of a multifaceted infection control programme for reducing carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) transmission and bloodstream infections (BSIs) in a 1420-bed university-affiliated teaching hospital during 2010-2014, with 30 months of follow-up. The programme consisted of the following: (a) rectal swab cultures were performed in all patients admitted to high-risk units (intensive-care units, transplantation, and haematology) to screen for CRE carriage, or for any room-mates of CRE-positive patients in other units; (b) cohorting of carriers, managed with strict contact precautions; (c) intensification of education, cleaning and hand-washing programmes; and (d) promotion of an antibiotic stewardship programme carbapenem-sparing regimen. The 30-month incidence rates of CRE-positive rectal cultures and BSIs were analysed with Poisson regression. Following the intervention, the incidence rate of CRE BSI (risk reduction 0.96, 95% CI 0.92-0.99, p 0.03) and CRE colonization (risk reduction 0.96, 95% CI 0.95-0.97, p <0.0001) significantly decreased over a period of 30 months. After accounting for changes in monthly census and percentage of externally acquired cases (positive at ≤72h), the average institutional monthly rate of compliance with CRE screening procedures was the only independent variable associated with a declining monthly incidence of CRE colonization (p 0.002). The monthly incidence of CRE carriage was predictive of BSI (p 0.01). Targeted screening and cohorting of CRE carriers and infections, combined with cleaning, education, and antimicrobial stewardship measures, significantly decreased the institutional incidence of CRE BSI and colonization, despite endemically high CRE carriage rates in the region. © 2014 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Source

Wilson M.G.,McMaster University | Ellen M.E.,McMaster University | Ellen M.E.,Jerusalem College of Technology | Ellen M.E.,Gertner Institute for Epidemiology and Health Policy Research | And 13 more authors.
Systematic Reviews

Background: Practical solutions are needed to support the appropriate use of available health system resources as countries are continually pressured to 'do more with less' in health care. Increasingly, health systems and organizations are exploring the reassessment of possibly obsolete, inefficient, or ineffective health system resources and potentially redirecting funds to those that are more effective and efficient. Such processes are often referred to as 'disinvestment'. Our objective is to gain further understanding about: 1) whether how and under what conditions health systems decide to pursue disinvestment; 2) how health systems have chosen to undertake disinvestment; and 3) how health systems have implemented their disinvestment approach. Methods/Design: We will use a critical interpretive synthesis (CIS) approach, to develop a theoretical framework based on insights drawn from a range of relevant sources. We will conduct systematic searches of databases as well as purposive searches to identify literature to fill conceptual gaps that may emerge during our inductive process of synthesis and analysis. Two independent reviewers will assess search results for relevance and conceptually map included references. We will include all empirical and non-empirical articles that focus on disinvestment at a system level. We will then extract key findings from a purposive sample of articles using frameworks related to government agendas, policy development and implementation, and health system contextual factors and then synthesize and integrate the findings to develop a framework about our core areas of interest. Lastly, we will convene a stakeholder dialogue with Canadian and international policymakers and other stakeholders to solicit targeted feedback about the framework (e.g., by identifying any gaps in the literature that we may want to revisit before finalizing it) and deliberating about barriers for developing and implementing approaches to disinvestment, strategies to address these barriers and about next steps that could be taken by different constituencies. Discussion: Disinvestment is an emerging field and there is a need for evidence to inform the prioritization, development, and implementation of strategies in different contexts. Our CIS and the framework developed through it will support the actions of those involved in the prioritization, development, and implementation of disinvestment initiatives. Systematic review registration: PROSPERO CRD42014013204. © 2014 Wilson et al. Source

Magrini N.,Emilia Romagna Regional Agency for Health and Social Care | Formoso G.,Emilia Romagna Regional Agency for Health and Social Care | Capelli O.,Local Health Authority | Maestri E.,Emilia Romagna Regional Agency for Health and Social Care | And 7 more authors.

Introduction: Information on benefits and risks of drugs is a key element affecting doctors' prescribing decisions. Outreach visits promoting independent information have proved moderately effective in changing prescribing behaviours. Objectives: Testing the short and long-term effectiveness on general practitioners' prescribing of small groups meetings led by pharmacists. Methods: Two cluster open randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were carried out in a large scale NHS setting. Ad hoc prepared evidence based material were used considering a therapeutic area approach - TEA, with information materials on osteoporosis or prostatic hyperplasia - and a single drug oriented approach - SIDRO, with information materials on me-too drugs of 2 different classes: barnidipine or prulifloxacin. In each study, all 115 Primary Care Groups in a Northern Italy area (2.2 million inhabitants, 1737 general practitioners) were randomised to educational small groups meetings, in which available evidence was provided together with drug utilization data and clinical scenarios. Main outcomes were changes in the six-months prescription of targeted drugs. Longer term results (24 and 48 months) were also evaluated. Results: In the TEA trial, one of the four primary outcomes showed a reduction (prescription of alfuzosin compared to tamsulosin and terazosin in benign prostatic hyperplasia: prescribing ratio -8.5%, p = 0.03). Another primary outcome (prescription of risedronate) showed a reduction at 24 and 48 months (-7.6%, p = 0.02; and -9,8%, p = 0.03), but not at six months (-5.1%, p = 0.36). In the SIDRO trial both primary outcomes showed a statistically significant reduction (prescription of barnidipine -9.8%, p = 0.02; prescription of prulifloxacin -11.1%, p = 0.04), which persisted or increased over time. Interpretation: These two cluster RCTs showed the large scale feasibility of a complex educational program in a NHS setting, and its potentially relevant long-term impact on prescribing habits, in particular when focusing on a single drug. National Health systems should invest in independent drug information programs. Trial Registration: Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN05866587. © 2014 Magrini et al. Source

Formoso G.,Emilia Romagna Regional Agency for Health and Social Care | Paltrinieri B.,Emilia Romagna Regional Agency for Health and Social Care | Marata A.M.,Emilia Romagna Regional Agency for Health and Social Care | Gagliotti C.,Emilia Romagna Regional Agency for Health and Social Care | And 4 more authors.
BMJ (Online)

Objectives: To test the hypothesis that a multifaceted, local public campaign could be feasible and influence antibiotic prescribing for outpatients. Design: Community level, controlled, non-randomised trial. Setting: Provinces of Modena and Parma in Emilia-Romagna, northern Italy, November 2011 to February 2012. Population: 1 150 000 residents of Modena and Parma (intervention group) and 3 250 000 residents in provinces in the same region but where no campaign had been implemented (control group). Interventions: Campaign materials (mainly posters, brochures, and advertisements on local media, plus a newsletter on local antibiotic resistance targeted at doctors and pharmacists). General practitioners and paediatricians in the intervention area participated in designing the campaign messages. Main outcomes measures: Primary outcome was the average change in prescribing rates of antibiotics for outpatient in five months, measured as defined daily doses per 1000 inhabitants/day, using health districts as the unit of analysis. Results: Antibiotic prescribing was reduced in the intervention area compared with control area (-4.3%, 95% confidence interval-7.1% to-1.5%). This result was robust to "sensitivity analysis" modifying the baseline period from two months (main analysis) to one month. A higher decrease was observed for penicillins resistant to β lactamase and a lower decrease for penicillins susceptible to β lactamase, consistent with the content of the newsletter on antibiotic resistance directed at health professionals. The decrease in expenditure on antibiotics was not statistically significant in a district level analysis with a two month baseline period (main analysis), but was statistically significant in sensitivity analyses using either a one month baseline period or a more powered doctor level analysis. Knowledge and attitudes of the target population about the correct use of antibiotics did not differ between the intervention and control areas. Conclusions: A local low cost information campaign targeted at citizens, combined with a newsletter on local antibiotic resistance targeted at doctors and pharmacists, was associated with significantly decreased total rates of antibiotic prescribing but did not affect the population's knowledge and attitudes about antibiotic resistance. Source

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