European Federation of Neurological Societies/Peripheral Nerve Society guideline on the use of skin biopsy in the diagnosis of small fiber neuropathy. Report of a joint task force of the European Federation of Neurological Societies and the Peripheral Nerve Society
Lauria G.,Carlo Besta Neurological Institute |
Hsieh S.-T.,National Taiwan University Hospital |
Johansson O.,Karolinska Institutet |
Kennedy W.R.,University of Minnesota |
And 6 more authors.
Journal of the Peripheral Nervous System | Year: 2010
Revision of the guidelines on the use of skin biopsy in the diagnosis of peripheral neuropathy, published in 2005, has become appropriate due to publication of more relevant papers. Most of the new studies focused on small fiber neuropathy (SFN), a subtype of neuropathy for which the diagnosis was first developed through skin biopsy examination. This revision focuses on the use of this technique to diagnose SFN. Task force members searched the Medline database from 2005, the year of the publication of the first EFNS guideline, to June 30th, 2009. All pertinent papers were rated according to the EFNS and PNS guidance. After a consensus meeting, the task force members created a manuscript that was subsequently revised by two experts (JML and JVS) in the field of peripheral neuropathy and clinical neurophysiology, who were not previously involved in the use of skin biopsy. Distal leg skin biopsy with quantification of the linear density of intraepidermal nerve fibers (IENF), using generally agreed upon counting rules, is a reliable and efficient technique to assess the diagnosis of SFN (level A recommendation). Normative reference values are available for bright-field immunohistochemistry (level A recommendation) but not yet for confocal immunofluorescence or the blister technique. The morphometric analysis of IENF density, either performed with bright-field or immunofluorescence microscopy, should always refer to normative values matched for age (level A recommendation). Newly established laboratories should undergo adequate training in a well established skin biopsy laboratory and provide their own stratified age and gender-matched normative values, intra- and interobserver reliability, and interlaboratory agreement. Quality control of the procedure at all levels is mandatory (Good Practice Point). Procedures to quantify subepidermal nerve fibers and autonomic innervated structures, including erector pili muscles, and skin vessels are under development but need to be confirmed by further studies. Sweat gland innervation can be examined using an unbiased stereologic technique recently proposed (level B recommendation). A reduced IENF density is associated with the risk of developing neuropathic pain (level B recommendation), but it does not correlate with its intensity. Serial skin biopsies might be useful for detecting early changes of IENF density, which predict the progression of neuropathy, and to assess degeneration and regeneration of IENF (level C recommendation). However, further studies are warranted to confirm the potential usefulness of skin biopsy with measurement of IENF density as an outcome measure in clinical practice and research. Skin biopsy has not so far been useful for identifying the etiology of SFN. Finally, we emphasize that 3-mm skin biopsy at the ankle is a safe procedure based on the experience of 10 laboratories reporting absence of serious side effects in approximately 35,000 biopsies and a mere 0.19% incidence of non-serious side effects in about 15 years of practice (Good Practice Point). © 2010 Peripheral Nerve Society and European Federation of Neurological Societies.
Briani C.,University of Padua |
Argyriou A.A.,Saint Andrews State General Hospital of Patras |
Argyriou A.A.,University of Patras |
Izquierdo C.,Hospital Universitari Of Bellvitge Ico Duran ynals |
And 11 more authors.
Journal of the Peripheral Nervous System | Year: 2014
This prospective study sought to identify the potential reversibility of oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy (OXAIPN) by following-up its long-term course 2 years after discontinuation of oxaliplatin (OXA)-based chemotherapy. Participants were 91 colorectal cancer patients treated with OXA-based chemotherapy. Neurological assessment, clinical Total Neuropathy Score© (TNSc©) and nerve conduction studies were performed at baseline (T0), the end of chemotherapy (T1) and 2 years (T2) after discontinuation of chemotherapy. A total of 73 of 91 (80%) patients experienced OXAIPN at T1. At a median follow-up of 25 months, persistence of chronic OXAIPN was present in 61 of 73 patients (84%) and complete resolution was present in 12 patients (17%). Longitudinal comparison of TNSc© values between T1 and T2 revealed that the overall severity of OXAIPN in those 61 patients significantly decreased over time. Median TNSc© values were nine (range: 2-15) at T1 vs. four (range: 2-12) at T2 (P < 0.001). Likewise, sensory nerve conduction measures at T2 significantly improved in all sensory nerves tested, compared with T1. Severity of OXAIPN at T2 was significantly associated (P < 0.001) with high severity of OXAIPN at T1. In conclusion, persistence of OXAIPN beyond 2 years after finishing chemotherapy is common. Clinical and neurophysiological improvement is observed, although recovery is often incomplete. © 2015 Peripheral Nerve Society.
Velasco R.,Hospital Universitari Of Bellvitge |
Bruna J.,Hospital Universitari Of Bellvitge |
Briani C.,University of Padua |
Argyriou A.A.,University of Patras |
And 9 more authors.
Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry | Year: 2014
Objectives: Peripheral neuropathy ranks among the most common dose-limiting and disabling side-effect of oxaliplatin (OXA)-based chemotherapy. The aim of this prospective, multicentre study was to define early clinical and neurophysiological markers that may help to identify patients at risk of developing severe, treatment emergent, cumulative OXA-induced peripheral neuropathy (OXAIPN). Methods: 200 colorectal cancer patients, scheduled to receive OXA-based chemotherapy, were prospectively followed. Detailed neurological assessment employing the clinical Total Neuropathy Score (TNSc), oncological rating scales (National Common Institute-Common Toxicity Criteria V.3) and nerve conduction studies (NCS) were performed at baseline, mid-treatment and at the end of chemotherapy. Symptoms of OXA-induced acute neurotoxicity were systematically recorded. Results: According to TNSc, 36 (18%) patients developed grade 3 OXAIPN. These patients were predominantly men ( p=0.005), presented a significant decrease in all NCS (p<0.001), reported more acute neuropathic symptoms (p<0.001) and received higher OXA cumulative dose ( p=0.003). Multivariate analysis showed that three variables obtained at intermediate follow-up, namely, the number of acute symptoms (OR 1.9; CI 95% 1.2 to 3.2; p=0.012) and the >30% decrease in sensory nerve action potential amplitude from the baseline value in radial (OR 41.4; CI 95% 4.98 to 343.1; p=0.001) and dorsal sural nerves (OR 24.96; CI 95% 2.6 to 239.4; p=0.005) were independently associated with the risk of developing severe OXAIPN. Conclusions: High-grade OXA neurotoxicity can be predicted by clinical and neurophysiological information obtained at mid-treatment. Neurological assessment of acute neuropathy symptoms and radial and dorsal sural nerves NCS should be carefully monitored to predict and hopefully prevent the induction of severe OXAIPN.
Campagnolo M.,University of Padua |
Ferrari S.,University of Verona |
Dalla Torre C.,University of Padua |
Cabrini I.,University of Verona |
And 6 more authors.
Journal of Neuroimmunology | Year: 2015
IgM paraproteins often present reactivity to myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) and sulfatide.We describe the clinical and neurophysiological findings, and therapy response in 21 patients with IgM paraproteinemic neuropathy (15 with anti-MAG antibodies, 1 with anti-sulfatide antibodies, and 5 with both reactivity), and in 2 with anti-sulfatide positivity and no hematological disease.All patients complained of sensory symptoms, the majority had demyelinating neuropathy. Indirect immunofluorescence on human normal sural nerves disclosed different staining patterns.Eight of 13 patients (6 anti-MAG, 1 anti-sulfatide, 1 both anti-sulfatide and anti-MAG antibodies) improved after Rituximab. IVIg, steroids and plasma-exchange were also administered with different responses. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.
PubMed | University of Verona, University of Padua and EMG Unit
Type: | Journal: Journal of neuroimmunology | Year: 2015
IgM paraproteins often present reactivity to myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) and sulfatide. We describe the clinical and neurophysiological findings, and therapy response in 21 patients with IgM paraproteinemic neuropathy (15 with anti-MAG antibodies, 1 with anti-sulfatide antibodies, and 5 with both reactivity), and in 2 with anti-sulfatide positivity and no hematological disease. All patients complained of sensory symptoms, the majority had demyelinating neuropathy. Indirect immunofluorescence on human normal sural nerves disclosed different staining patterns. Eight of 13 patients (6 anti-MAG, 1 anti-sulfatide, 1 both anti-sulfatide and anti-MAG antibodies) improved after Rituximab. IVIg, steroids and plasma-exchange were also administered with different responses.