Ellingson R.A.,University of California at Los Angeles |
Swift C.C.,Emeritus |
Jacobs D.K.,University of California at Los Angeles
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution | Year: 2014
North Pacific Bay gobies (Teleostei: Gobioidei: Gobionellidae) inhabit bays, beaches, coastal lagoons, and estuaries of temperate Asia and North America, but are absent from the boreal northernmost Pacific. Previously, morphological characters conventionally subdivided the clade into two groups - an elongate-bodied, infaunal-inhabiting "Astrabe" group, and a deeper-bodied, non-infaunal "Chasmichthys" group - each with a disjunct East-West (amphi-) Pacific distribution. Here we use mitochondrial and multi-locus nuclear DNA sequence data to show that several morphological characters previously used to delimit these two groups have in fact arisen independently on both sides of the Pacific, revealing convergence of ecologically adaptive characters within a geographically divided clade. Basal divergence of the resultant tree coincides with a dramatic global cooling event at the Eocene/Oligocene transition, without evidence of subsequent trans-Pacific migration. A novel approach to partitioning sequence data by relative rate, as opposed to traditional gene/codon position partitioning, was used to help distinguish phylogenetic signal from noise on a per-site basis. Resulting improvements in topology and nodal support, along with decreased computational effort, suggest that this partitioning strategy may be useful for future studies in phylogenetics and phylogenomics. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.
Nalamachu S.,International Clinical Research Institute |
Nalamachu S.,University of Kansas |
Postgraduate Medicine | Year: 2014
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are a class of analgesics that includes traditional nonselective and selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors that block the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and thromboxane. Indomethacin is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug with potent antipyretic, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory activity that has been effectively used in the management of mild-to-moderate pain since the mid-1960s. It is commonly prescribed for the relief of acute gouty arthritis pain, but has demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of various other painful conditions. Numerous comparative studies have affirmed the clinical utility of indomethacin relative to other widely used analgesics. This review provides an historic overview of indomethacin and its efficacy compared with other commonly used analgesics, and discusses new indomethacin drug products. © 2014, Postgraduate Medicine.
Richmond J.Q.,U.S. Geological Survey |
Jacobs D.K.,University of California at Los Angeles |
Backlin A.R.,U.S. Geological Survey |
Swift C.C.,Emeritus |
And 2 more authors.
Conservation Genetics | Year: 2014
Much remains to be understood about the evolutionary history and contemporary landscape genetics of unarmored threespine stickleback in southern California, where populations collectively referred to as Gasterosteus aculeatus williamsoni have severely declined over the past 70+ years and are now endangered. We used mitochondrial sequence and microsatellite data to assess the population genetics and phylogeography of unarmored populations sampled immediately downstream from the type locality of G. a. williamsoni in the upper Santa Clara River, and assessed their distinctiveness with respect to low-armor populations in the downstream sections of the river and the adjacent Ventura River. We also characterized the geographic limits of different plate morphs and evaluated the congruence of those boundaries with barriers to dispersal in both river systems and to neutral genetic variation. We show substantial population structuring within the upper reach of the Santa Clara River, but little partitioning between the lower Santa Clara and Ventura Rivers—we attribute these patterns to different ancestry between spatially subdivided populations within the same drainage, a predominance of downstream gene flow, and ability for coastal dispersal between the Santa Clara and Ventura Rivers. We also show that alleles from introduced low-plate stock have infiltrated a native population in at least one upper Santa Clara River tributary, causing this formerly unarmored population to become gradually low-plated over a 30 + year time period. Measures of genetic diversity, census surveys, and severe habitat disturbance all indicate that unarmored stickleback near the type locality are currently at high risk of extinction. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht (outside the USA).
Wazwaz A.-M.,Saint Xavier University |
Rach R.,Emeritus |
Duan J.-S.,Shanghai Institute of Technology
Mathematical Methods in the Applied Sciences | Year: 2014
In this paper, we introduce systems of Volterra integral forms of the Lane-Emden equations. We use the systematic Adomian decomposition method to handle these systems of integral forms. The Volterra integral forms overcome the singular behavior at the origin x = 0. The Adomian decomposition method gives reliable algorithm for analytic approximate solutions of these systems. Our results are supported by investigating several numerical examples. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Rach R.,Emeritus |
Duan J.-S.,Shanghai Institute of Technology |
Wazwaz A.-M.,Saint Xavier University
Applied Mathematics and Information Sciences | Year: 2016
In this paper, we propose a new modified recursion scheme for the approximate solution of higher-order, multipoint, nonlinear boundary value problems with higher-order Robin-type boundary conditions by the Adomian decomposition method. Our new approach utilizes all of the boundary conditions to derive an equivalent nonlinear Fredholm-Volterra integral equation before establishing the new modified recursion scheme for the solution. We solve several complex numerical examples obtaining a rapidly convergent sequence of analytic functions as the solution. In all cases investigated, we achieved an approximately exponential rate of convergence, thus confirming that only a few terms of the Adomian decomposition series can provide an accurate engineering model for parametric simulations. © 2016 NSP Natural Sciences Publishing Cor.
Sarna-Wojcicki A.M.,U.S. Geological Survey |
Deino A.L.,Berkeley Geochronology Center |
Fleck R.J.,U.S. Geological Survey |
McLaughlin R.J.,U.S. Geological Survey |
And 5 more authors.
Geosphere | Year: 2011
The Lawlor Tuff is a widespread dacitic tephra layer produced by Plinian eruptions and ash flows derived from the Sonoma Volcanics, a volcanic area north of San Francisco Bay in the central Coast Ranges of California, USA. The younger, chemically similar Huichica tuff, the tuff of Napa, and the tuff of Monticello Road sequentially overlie the Lawlor Tuff, and were erupted from the same volcanic field. We obtain new laser-fusion and incremental-heating 40Ar/39Ar isochron and plateau ages of 4.834 ± 0.011, 4.76 ± 0.03, ≤4.70 ± 0.03, and 4.50 ± 0.02 Ma (1 sigma), respectively, for these layers. The ages are concordant with their stratigraphic positions and are significantly older than those determined previously by the K-Ar method on the same tuffs in previous studies. Based on offsets of the ash-flow phase of the Lawlor Tuff by strands of the eastern San Andreas fault system within the northeastern San Francisco Bay area, total offset east of the Rodgers Creek-Healdsburg fault is estimated to be in the range of 36 to 56 km, with corresponding displacement rates between 8.4 and 11.6 mm/yr over the past ~4.83 Ma. We identify these tuffs by their chemical, petrographic, and magnetic characteristics over a large area in California and western Nevada, and at a number of new localities. They are thus unique chronostratigraphic markers that allow correlation of marine and terrestrial sedimentary and volcanic strata of early Pliocene age for their region of fallout. The tuff of Monticello Road is identified only near its eruptive source. © 2011 Geological Society of America.
Surgical Chronicles | Year: 2010
It has been stated that the best way to go forward is to look back. Much help in diagnosing of thyroidopathies has provided by FNAC, since cytologic material is obtained by fine needle aspiration. Autoimmunity plays a large part in Graves disease. Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Riedel's thyroiditis, and the lymphocytic thyroiditis of pregnancy. Farther studies of this phenomenon will aid in our understanding of these thyroid disorders and may lead in the way to a more rational treatment of Graves disease. Unilateral lobectomy, total or near-total thyroidectomy have all been advocated as the best primary surgery for the treatment of papillary and follicular thyroid carcinoma. Recently, it has been indicated that the best procedure in treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma is total lobectomy on the affected lobe, isthmectomy, and subtotal resection of the contralateral lobe. Any lymph nodes in the neck contain metastatic lesions should be removed. It has been suggested that the study of nuclear DNA ploidy in the cells of the thyroid carcinoma gives a prognostic factor. Differentiated thyroid carcinomas with a diploid (euploicl) pattern are much less aggressive than those with an cmeuploid pattern.
Surgical Chronicles | Year: 2010
Galactorrhea refers to milk secretion by the woman breasts that is not related to pregnancy or breast feeding: it can be variable in quantity, spontaneous or expressible, and unilateral or bilateral. Galactorrhea is usually associated with hyperprolactinemia. Measurement of serum prolactin by specific and sensitive radioimmuno-assay is widely available; normal levels for females is 0 to 23 ng per ml. In edition to its effects on the breasts and the resultant galactorrhea, hyperprolactinenia has effects on the gonadal axis and on the adrenal cortex. As a consequence of these endocrine effects, hyperprolactinemia can express with menstrual and ovulatory disturbances (short luteal phase, oligovulation. oligoamenorrheci) and in some of the affected women with hirsutism. In addition, most women with hyperprolactinemia have decreased lipido and orgasmic dysfunction. Conservative treatment of hyperprolactinemia is by Bromocriptine, the only dopamine agonist approved for clinical use; it has direct effect on the lactotrophs. binding to their dopamine receptors, and resulting in suppression of prolactine secretion and synthesis. Prolactinomas need surgical treatment and selective transphenoidal hypophysectomy is widely available; in experienced anesthetic and neurosurgical hands, this operation cairies low mortality and morbidity. Radiotherapy can be used as primary treatment or as an alternative to surgery.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2013
Bamboo has a long story linked to mankind's civilisation. About 1200 species are scattered worldwide, chiefly in the southern hemisphere in tropical, subtropical and temperate climatic areas. Erratic sexual reproduction prevents conventional breeding, but the large genetic variability of natural populations allow to select elite genotypes through the application of micropropagation procedures. Recently, besides the classical ornamental purposes, other utilisations are developed for bamboo, especially for industrial application: textile, paper, medicine, environmental, bio-remediation, etc. Because the large inter- and intra-specific variability, botanical exploration may produce again innovative results, so as the set up agronomical procedures aiming to increase the production in cultivation. Advanced technologies will produce an added value in this unexploited and not completely known germplasm. The growing mass of scientific literature emerging is the best proof of the profitable perspectives of the basic and applied research on the bamboo.
AO for ELT 2011 - 2nd International Conference on Adaptive Optics for Extremely Large Telescopes | Year: 2011
Using Magneto-Optical Filters (MOFs) it is possible to see Sodium Laser Guide Stars in the daytime sky. This makes it possible to use ELT Adaptive Optics systems for diffraction limited observations 24 hours/day. Because of the bright daytime sky this LGS-AO application is only of interest in the mid-infrared wavelength region (3.5-25 μm) where the thermal radiation of the atmospheretelescope system dominates the atmospheric scattering of sunlight. Incorporating MOFs in the LGS wavefront sensors substantially increases the amount of ELT observing time. The gain with respect to the JWST lies in the 5-6 times better linear angular resolution. The contrast gain in brightness at near-IR wavelengths is sufficient to give enough natural guide stars for tip-tilt control. The main complication associated with incorporating MOFs in ELT AO systems for daytime observations is likely the requirement to make the telescope and its enclosure robust in the daytime environment. Poorer daytime seeing conditions may also be detrimental. The use of Mica etalons and narrow band interference filters is also briefly examined. The TMT is used as a good option for the implementation of this technique.