Wazwaz A.-M.,Saint Xavier University |
Rach R.,Emeritus |
Duan J.-S.,Shanghai Institute of Technology
Mathematical Methods in the Applied Sciences | Year: 2014
In this paper, we introduce systems of Volterra integral forms of the Lane-Emden equations. We use the systematic Adomian decomposition method to handle these systems of integral forms. The Volterra integral forms overcome the singular behavior at the origin x = 0. The Adomian decomposition method gives reliable algorithm for analytic approximate solutions of these systems. Our results are supported by investigating several numerical examples. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Ellingson R.A.,University of California at Los Angeles |
Swift C.C.,Emeritus |
Jacobs D.K.,University of California at Los Angeles
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution | Year: 2014
North Pacific Bay gobies (Teleostei: Gobioidei: Gobionellidae) inhabit bays, beaches, coastal lagoons, and estuaries of temperate Asia and North America, but are absent from the boreal northernmost Pacific. Previously, morphological characters conventionally subdivided the clade into two groups - an elongate-bodied, infaunal-inhabiting "Astrabe" group, and a deeper-bodied, non-infaunal "Chasmichthys" group - each with a disjunct East-West (amphi-) Pacific distribution. Here we use mitochondrial and multi-locus nuclear DNA sequence data to show that several morphological characters previously used to delimit these two groups have in fact arisen independently on both sides of the Pacific, revealing convergence of ecologically adaptive characters within a geographically divided clade. Basal divergence of the resultant tree coincides with a dramatic global cooling event at the Eocene/Oligocene transition, without evidence of subsequent trans-Pacific migration. A novel approach to partitioning sequence data by relative rate, as opposed to traditional gene/codon position partitioning, was used to help distinguish phylogenetic signal from noise on a per-site basis. Resulting improvements in topology and nodal support, along with decreased computational effort, suggest that this partitioning strategy may be useful for future studies in phylogenetics and phylogenomics. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.
Lodge C.J.,University of Melbourne |
Lodge C.J.,Murdoch Childrens Research Institute |
Lowe A.J.,University of Melbourne |
Lowe A.J.,Murdoch Childrens Research Institute |
And 12 more authors.
Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology | Year: 2011
Background: Identification of children at risk of developing asthma provides a window of opportunity for risk-reducing interventions. Allergen sensitization might identify high-risk children. Objective: We sought to determine whether skin prick tests (SPTs) to individual allergens up to age 2 years predict wheeze at age 12 years. Methods: In a birth cohort of 620 children oversampled for familial allergy, sensitization was assessed by using SPTs (monosensitized, polysensitized, or either) to 6 allergens at ages 6, 12, and 24 months. Wheeze and eczema were recorded 18 times during the first 2 years. Current wheeze was recorded at age 12 years. Adjusted associations were evaluated by multiple logistic regression. Results: A positive SPT to house dust mite (HDM) at age 1 or 2 years predicted wheeze at age 12 years (adjusted odds ratio: 1 year, 3.31 [95% CI 1.59-6.91]; 2 years, 6.37 [95% CI, 3.48-11.66]). Among wheezy 1-year-olds, those who were HDM sensitized had a 75% (95% CI, 51% to 91%) probability of wheeze at age 12 years compared with a 36% (95% CI, 23% to 50%) probability among those not sensitized. Among eczematous 1-year-olds, those who were HDM sensitized had a 67% (95% CI, 45% to 84%) probability of wheeze at age 12 years compared with a 35% (95% CI, 25% to 45%) probability among those not sensitized. Among 1-year-old children with both eczema and wheeze, the probability of wheeze at age 12 years was 64% (95% CI, 35% to 87%) if HDM sensitized and 50% (95% CI, 26% to 74%) if not. Conclusion: HDM sensitization at age 1 or 2 years in wheezing and eczematous children at increased familial allergy risk predicts asthma and may inform management of these high-risk groups. © 2011 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology.
Surgical Chronicles | Year: 2010
Galactorrhea refers to milk secretion by the woman breasts that is not related to pregnancy or breast feeding: it can be variable in quantity, spontaneous or expressible, and unilateral or bilateral. Galactorrhea is usually associated with hyperprolactinemia. Measurement of serum prolactin by specific and sensitive radioimmuno-assay is widely available; normal levels for females is 0 to 23 ng per ml. In edition to its effects on the breasts and the resultant galactorrhea, hyperprolactinenia has effects on the gonadal axis and on the adrenal cortex. As a consequence of these endocrine effects, hyperprolactinemia can express with menstrual and ovulatory disturbances (short luteal phase, oligovulation. oligoamenorrheci) and in some of the affected women with hirsutism. In addition, most women with hyperprolactinemia have decreased lipido and orgasmic dysfunction. Conservative treatment of hyperprolactinemia is by Bromocriptine, the only dopamine agonist approved for clinical use; it has direct effect on the lactotrophs. binding to their dopamine receptors, and resulting in suppression of prolactine secretion and synthesis. Prolactinomas need surgical treatment and selective transphenoidal hypophysectomy is widely available; in experienced anesthetic and neurosurgical hands, this operation cairies low mortality and morbidity. Radiotherapy can be used as primary treatment or as an alternative to surgery.
Surgical Chronicles | Year: 2010
It has been stated that the best way to go forward is to look back. Much help in diagnosing of thyroidopathies has provided by FNAC, since cytologic material is obtained by fine needle aspiration. Autoimmunity plays a large part in Graves disease. Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Riedel's thyroiditis, and the lymphocytic thyroiditis of pregnancy. Farther studies of this phenomenon will aid in our understanding of these thyroid disorders and may lead in the way to a more rational treatment of Graves disease. Unilateral lobectomy, total or near-total thyroidectomy have all been advocated as the best primary surgery for the treatment of papillary and follicular thyroid carcinoma. Recently, it has been indicated that the best procedure in treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma is total lobectomy on the affected lobe, isthmectomy, and subtotal resection of the contralateral lobe. Any lymph nodes in the neck contain metastatic lesions should be removed. It has been suggested that the study of nuclear DNA ploidy in the cells of the thyroid carcinoma gives a prognostic factor. Differentiated thyroid carcinomas with a diploid (euploicl) pattern are much less aggressive than those with an cmeuploid pattern.