Baltimore, MD, United States
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Iwamoto M.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Mu Y.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Bulens S.N.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Nadle J.,California Emerging Infections Program | And 8 more authors.
Pediatrics | Year: 2013

Objective: To describe trends in the incidence of invasive methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections in children during 2005-2010. Methods: We evaluated reports of invasive MRSA infections in pediatric patients identified from population-based surveillance during 2005-2010. Cases were defined as isolation of MRSA from a normally sterile site and classified on the basis of the setting of the positive culture and presence or absence of health care exposures. Estimated annual changes in incidence were determined by using regression models. National age- and race-specific incidences for 2010 were estimated by using US census data. Results: A total of 876 pediatric cases were reported; 340 (39%) were among infants. Overall, 35% of cases were hospital-onset, 23% were health care-associated community-onset, and 42% were communityassociated (CA). The incidence of invasive CA-MRSA infection per 100 000 children increased from 1.1 in 2005 to 1.7 in 2010 (modeled yearly increase: 10.2%; 95% confidence interval: 2.7%-18.2%). No significant trends were observed for health care-associated community-onset and hospital-onset cases. Nationally, estimated invasive MRSA incidence in 2010 was higher among infants aged <90 days compared with older infants and children (43.9 vs 2.0 per 100 000) and among black children compared with other races (6.7 vs 1.6 per 100 000). Conclusions: Invasive MRSA infection in children disproportionately affects young infants and black children. In contrast to reports of declining incidence among adults, there were no significant reductions in health care-associated MRSA infections in children. Concurrently, the incidence of CA-MRSA infections has increased, underscoring the need for defining optimal strategies to prevent MRSA infections among children with and without health care exposures. © 2013 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.


See I.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Mu Y.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Cohen J.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Cohen J.,Atlanta Research and Education Foundation | And 13 more authors.
Clinical Infectious Diseases | Year: 2014

Studies are conflicting regarding the importance of the fluoroquinolone-resistant North American pulsed-field gel electrophoresis type 1 (NAP1) strain in Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) outcome. We describe strain types causing CDI and evaluate their association with patient outcomes. Methods. CDI cases were identified from population-based surveillance. Multivariate regression models were used to evaluate the associations of strain type with severe disease (ileus, toxic megacolon, or pseudomembranous colitis within 5 days; or white blood cell count =15 000 cells/μ L within 1 day of positive test), severe outcome (intensive care unit admission after positive test, colectomy for C. difficile infection, or death within 30 days of positive test), and death within 14 days of positive test. Results. Strain typing results were available for 2057 cases. Severe disease occurred in 363 (17.7%) cases, severe outcome in 100 (4.9%), and death within 14 days in 56 (2.7%). The most common strain types were NAP1 (28.4%), NAP4 (10.2%), and NAP11 (9.1%). In unadjusted analysis, NAP1 was associated with greater odds of severe disease than other strains. After controlling for patient risk factors, healthcare exposure, and antibiotic use, NAP1 was associated with severe disease (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.36-2.22), severe outcome (AOR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.09-2.54), and death within 14 days (AOR, 2.12; 95% CI, 1.22-3.68). Conclusions. NAP1 was the most prevalent strain and a predictor of severe disease, severe outcome, and death. Strategies to reduce NAP1 prevalence, such as antibiotic stewardship to reduce fluoroquinolone use, might reduce CDI morbidity. © 2014 Infectious Diseases Society of America.

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