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Baltimore Highlands, MD, United States

Harrison L.H.,Maryland Emerging Infections Program | Farley M.M.,Emory University | Reingold A.L.,University of California at Berkeley | Hadler J.,Connecticut Emerging Infections Program | And 3 more authors.
AIDS | Year: 2010

Objective: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and AIDS increase the risk of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). We evaluated IPD among HIV-infected adults over a 10-year period in the US to identify opportunities for prevention of IPD among HIV-infected adults. Design: IPD and HIV surveillance in seven population-based and laboratory-based Active Bacterial Core surveillance areas. Methods: IPD cases were adults 18-64 years old with pneumococcus isolated from a normally sterile site during 1998-2007. Isolates were serotyped using the Quellung reaction. HIV/AIDS status was determined by medical record review. We calculated incidence of IPD among adults with AIDS using national case-based surveillance data. Results: Of 13 812 IPD cases among 18-64-year-olds, 3236 (23%) occurred among HIV-infected adults (with or without AIDS) and 1313 (10%) occurred among the subset of HIV-infected adults with AIDS. Compared with the period (1998-1999) before childhood 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) introduction in the US, the overall incidence of IPD among adults with AIDS decreased 25% from 399 to 298 cases per 100 000 by 2007 (P = 0.008). In 2006-2007, 8, 39 and 55% of IPD cases among adults with AIDS were caused by serotypes included in the 7-valent PCV, 13-valent PCV and 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccines, respectively. Conclusion: Sustained declines in IPD have occurred among adults with AIDS in the US, but incidence remained high 7 years after PCV7 introduction. More aggressive efforts, including HIV-prevention measures and the use of new PCVs in children and possibly HIV-infected adults, are necessary to further reduce IPD among HIV-infected adults. © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Iwamoto M.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Mu Y.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Bulens S.N.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Nadle J.,California Emerging Infections Program | And 7 more authors.
Pediatrics | Year: 2013

Objective: To describe trends in the incidence of invasive methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections in children during 2005-2010. Methods: We evaluated reports of invasive MRSA infections in pediatric patients identified from population-based surveillance during 2005-2010. Cases were defined as isolation of MRSA from a normally sterile site and classified on the basis of the setting of the positive culture and presence or absence of health care exposures. Estimated annual changes in incidence were determined by using regression models. National age- and race-specific incidences for 2010 were estimated by using US census data. Results: A total of 876 pediatric cases were reported; 340 (39%) were among infants. Overall, 35% of cases were hospital-onset, 23% were health care-associated community-onset, and 42% were communityassociated (CA). The incidence of invasive CA-MRSA infection per 100 000 children increased from 1.1 in 2005 to 1.7 in 2010 (modeled yearly increase: 10.2%; 95% confidence interval: 2.7%-18.2%). No significant trends were observed for health care-associated community-onset and hospital-onset cases. Nationally, estimated invasive MRSA incidence in 2010 was higher among infants aged <90 days compared with older infants and children (43.9 vs 2.0 per 100 000) and among black children compared with other races (6.7 vs 1.6 per 100 000). Conclusions: Invasive MRSA infection in children disproportionately affects young infants and black children. In contrast to reports of declining incidence among adults, there were no significant reductions in health care-associated MRSA infections in children. Concurrently, the incidence of CA-MRSA infections has increased, underscoring the need for defining optimal strategies to prevent MRSA infections among children with and without health care exposures. © 2013 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

See I.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Mu Y.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Cohen J.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Cohen J.,Atlanta Research and Education Foundation | And 13 more authors.
Clinical Infectious Diseases | Year: 2014

Studies are conflicting regarding the importance of the fluoroquinolone-resistant North American pulsed-field gel electrophoresis type 1 (NAP1) strain in Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) outcome. We describe strain types causing CDI and evaluate their association with patient outcomes. Methods. CDI cases were identified from population-based surveillance. Multivariate regression models were used to evaluate the associations of strain type with severe disease (ileus, toxic megacolon, or pseudomembranous colitis within 5 days; or white blood cell count =15 000 cells/μ L within 1 day of positive test), severe outcome (intensive care unit admission after positive test, colectomy for C. difficile infection, or death within 30 days of positive test), and death within 14 days of positive test. Results. Strain typing results were available for 2057 cases. Severe disease occurred in 363 (17.7%) cases, severe outcome in 100 (4.9%), and death within 14 days in 56 (2.7%). The most common strain types were NAP1 (28.4%), NAP4 (10.2%), and NAP11 (9.1%). In unadjusted analysis, NAP1 was associated with greater odds of severe disease than other strains. After controlling for patient risk factors, healthcare exposure, and antibiotic use, NAP1 was associated with severe disease (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.36-2.22), severe outcome (AOR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.09-2.54), and death within 14 days (AOR, 2.12; 95% CI, 1.22-3.68). Conclusions. NAP1 was the most prevalent strain and a predictor of severe disease, severe outcome, and death. Strategies to reduce NAP1 prevalence, such as antibiotic stewardship to reduce fluoroquinolone use, might reduce CDI morbidity. © 2014 Infectious Diseases Society of America.

Nguyen D.B.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Lessa F.C.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Belflower R.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Belflower R.,Atlanta Research and Education Foundation | And 8 more authors.
Clinical Infectious Diseases | Year: 2013

Background. Approximately 15 700 invasive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections occurred in US dialysis patients in 2010. Frequent hospital visits and prolonged bloodstream access, especially via central venous catheters (CVCs), are risk factors among hemodialysis patients. We describe the epidemiology of and recent trends in invasive MRSA infections among dialysis patients. Methods. We analyzed population-based data from 9 US metropolitan areas from 2005 to 2011. Cases were defined as MRSA isolated from a normally sterile body site in a surveillance area resident who received dialysis, and were classified as hospital-onset (HO; culture collected >3 days after hospital admission) or healthcare-associated community-onset (HACO; all others). Incidence was calculated using denominators from the US Renal Data System. Temporal trends in incidence and national estimates were calculated controlling for age, sex, and race. Results. From 2005 to 2011, 7489 cases were identified; 85.7% were HACO infections, and 93.2% were bloodstream infections. Incidence of invasive MRSA infections decreased from 6.5 to 4.2 per 100 dialysis patients (annual decrease, 7.3%) with annual decreases of 6.7% for HACO and 10.5% for HO cases. Among cases identified during 2009-2011, 70% of patients were hospitalized in the year prior to infection. Among hemodialysis cases, 60.4% of patients were dialyzed through a CVC. The 2011 national estimated number of MRSA infections was 15 169. Conclusions. There has been a substantial decrease in invasive MRSA infection incidence among dialysis patients. Most cases had previous hospitalizations, suggesting that efforts to control MRSA in hospitals might have contributed to the declines. Infection prevention measures should include improved vascular access and CVC care. © The Author 2013.

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