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Tse M.,University of Hong Kong | Kim M.,Emergency Center for Transboundary Animal Diseases | Chan C.-H.,University of Hong Kong | Ho P.-L.,University of Hong Kong | And 3 more authors.
Clinical and Vaccine Immunology | Year: 2012

The reverse zoonotic transmission of the pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza virus to swine necessitates enhanced surveillance of swine for influenza virus infection. Using a well-characterized panel of naturally infected swine sera, we evaluated and optimized the performances of three commercially available competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), namely, the IDEXX Influenza A Ab test, IDEXX AI MultiS-Screen Ab test, and IDVet ID Screen influenza A antibody competition ELISA, for detecting influenza A virus-reactive antibodies in swine. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis suggests that adjustment of the manufacturer-recommended cutoff values optimizes the sensitivity and specificity of these assays, making them applicable for seroepidemiology studies of swine influenza. Using such optimized cutoff levels, the sensitivity and specificity of the IDEXX Influenza A Ab test were 86% and 89%, respectively; those for the IDEXX AI MultiS-Screen Ab test were 91% and 87%, respectively; and those for the IDVet ID Screen influenza A test were 95% and 79%, respectively. Copyright © 2012, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Source


Graham F.F.,University of Canterbury | White P.S.,Emergency Center for Transboundary Animal Diseases | Harte D.J.G.,Kenepuru Science Center | Kingham S.P.,University of Canterbury
Epidemiology and Infection | Year: 2012

This study evaluated the spatio-temporal variation of Legionella spp. in New Zealand using notification and laboratory surveillance data from 1979 to 2009 and analysed the epidemiological trends. To achieve this we focused on changing incidence rates and occurrence of different species over this time. We also examined whether demographic characteristics such as ethnicity may be related to incidence. The annual incidence rate for laboratory-proven cases was 2.5/100 000 and 1.4/100 000 for notified cases. Incidence was highest in the European population and showed large geographical variations between 21 District Health Boards. An important finding of this study is that the predominant Legionella species causing disease in New Zealand differs from that found in other developed countries, with about 30-50% of cases due to L. longbeachae and a similar percentage due to L. pneumophila for any given year. The environmental risk exposure was identified in 420 (52%) cases, of which 58% were attributed to contact with compost; travel was much less significant as a risk factor (6.5%). This suggests that legionellosis has a distinctive epidemiological pattern in New Zealand. © 2011 Cambridge University Press. Source


Patel E.,Kenya International Livestock Research Institute | Mwaura S.,Kenya International Livestock Research Institute | Kiara H.,Kenya International Livestock Research Institute | Morzaria S.,Emergency Center for Transboundary Animal Diseases | And 2 more authors.
Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases | Year: 2016

The Infection and Treatment Method (ITM) of vaccination against the apicomplexan parasite Theileria parva has been used since the early 1970s and is still the only commercially available vaccine to combat the fatal bovine disease, East Coast fever (ECF). The disease is tick-transmitted and results in annual economic losses of at least $300 million per year. While this vaccine technology has been available for over 40 years, few attempts have been made to standardize the production process and characterize the vaccine. The latest batch was produced in early 2008 at the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI). The vaccine production involves the use of cattle free from parasites routinely monitored throughout the production process, and a pathogen-free tick colony. This paper describes the protocol used in the recent production, and the process improvements, including improved quality control tools, that had not been employed in previous ITM productions. The paper also describes the processes involved in determining the appropriate field dose, which involved a three-step in vivo study with various dilutions of the vaccine stabilate. The vaccine was shown to be safe and viable after production, and a suitable field dose was identified as 1 ml of a 1:100 dilution. © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. Source


Setiawaty V.,National Health Research Institute | Dharmayanti N.L.P.I.,Indonesian Research Center for Veterinary Science | Misriyah,Directorate of Vectorborne Disease Control | Pawestri H.A.,National Health Research Institute | And 4 more authors.
Zoonoses and Public Health | Year: 2015

WHO, FAO and OIE developed a 'four-way linking' framework to enhance the cross-sectoral sharing of epidemiological and virological information in responding to zoonotic disease outbreaks. In Indonesia, outbreak response challenges include completeness of data shared between human and animal health authorities. The four-way linking framework (human health laboratory/epidemiology and animal health laboratory/epidemiology) was applied in the investigation of the 193rd human case of avian influenza A(H5N1) virus infection. As recommended by the framework, outbreak investigation and risk assessment findings were shared. On 18 June 2013, a hospital in West Java Province reported a suspect H5N1 case in a 2-year-old male. The case was laboratory-confirmed that evening, and the information was immediately shared with the Ministry of Agriculture. The human health epidemiology/laboratory team investigated the outbreak and conducted an initial risk assessment on 19 June. The likelihood of secondary cases was deemed low as none of the case contacts were sick. By 3 July, no secondary cases associated with the outbreak were identified. The animal health epidemiology/laboratory investigation was conducted on 19-25 June and found that a live bird market visited by the case was positive for H5N1 virus. Once both human and market virus isolates were sequenced, a second risk assessment was conducted jointly by the human health and animal health epidemiology/laboratory teams. This assessment concluded that the likelihood of additional human cases associated with this outbreak was low but that future sporadic human infections could not be ruled out because of challenges in controlling H5N1 virus contamination in markets. Findings from the outbreak investigation and risk assessments were shared with stakeholders at both Ministries. The four-way linking framework clarified the type of data to be shared. Both human health and animal health teams made ample data available, and there was cooperation to achieve risk assessment objectives. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH. Source


Bourouiba L.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Wu J.,York University | Newman S.,Emergency Center for Transboundary Animal Diseases | Takekawa J.,U.S. Geological Survey | And 6 more authors.
Journal of the Royal Society Interface | Year: 2010

Virulent outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) since 2005 have raised the question about the roles of migratory and wild birds in the transmission of HPAI. Despite increased monitoring, the role of wild waterfowl as the primary source of the highly pathogenic H5N1 has not been clearly established. The impact of outbreaks of HPAI among species of wild birds which are already endangered can nevertheless have devastating consequences for the local and non-local ecology where migratory species are established. Understanding the entangled dynamics of migration and the disease dynamics will be key to prevention and control measures for humans, migratory birds and poultry. Here, we present a spatial dynamic model of seasonal migration derived from first principles and linking the local dynamics during migratory stopovers to the larger scale migratory routes. We discuss the effect of repeated epizootic at specific migratory stopovers for bar-headed geese (Anser indicus). We find that repeated deadly outbreaks of H5N1 on stopovers during the autumn migration of bar-headed geese could lead to a larger reduction in the size of the equilibrium bird population compared with that obtained after repeated outbreaks during the spring migration. However, the opposite is true during the first few years of transition to such an equilibrium. The age-maturation process of juvenile birds which aremore susceptible to H5N1 reinforces this result. © 2010 The Royal Society. Source

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