Sugimoto M.,National Livestock Breeding Center |
Sasaki S.,Shirakawa Institute of Animal Genetics |
Watanabe T.,Shirakawa Institute of Animal Genetics |
Nishimura S.,Shirakawa Institute of Animal Genetics |
And 7 more authors.
Ionotropic glutamate receptors mediate most excitatory neurotransmission in the central nervous system by opening ion channels upon the binding of glutamate. Despite the essential roles of glutamate in the control of reproduction and anterior pituitary hormone secretion, there is a limited understanding of how glutamate receptors control ovulation. Here we reveal the function of the ionotropic glutamate receptor AMPA-1 (GRIA1) in ovulation. Based on a genome-wide association study in Bos taurus, we found that ovulation rate is influenced by a variation in the N-terminal leucine/ isoleucine/valine-binding protein (LIVBP) domain of GRIA1, in which serine is replaced by asparagine. GRIA1Asn has a weaker affinity to glutamate than GRIA1Ser, both in Xenopus oocytes and in the membrane fraction of bovine brain. This single amino acid substitution leads to the decreased release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in immortalized hypothalamic GT1-7 cells. Cows with GRIA1Asn have a slower luteinizing hormone (LH) surge than cows with GRIA1Ser. In addition, cows with GRIA1Asn possess fewer immature ovarian follicles before superovulation and have a lower response to hormone treatment than cows with GRIA1Ser. Our work identified that GRIA1 is a critical mediator of ovulation and that GRIA1 might be a useful target for reproductive therapy. © 2010 Sugimoto et al. Source
Iwamoto D.,Kinki University |
Kasamatsu A.,Kinki University |
Ideta A.,Embryo Transfer Center |
Urakawa M.,Embryo Transfer Center |
And 5 more authors.
The success rate of bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos to full term has been reported to be higher with G1 cells than with G0 cells. To better understand the reason for this, we analyzed the kinetics of luminescence activity in bovine SCNT embryos from G0 and G1 cells carrying a luciferase gene under the control of the β-actin promoter during early embryonic development. At 60-h postfusion, when bovine embryonic gene activation (EGA) begins, the luminescence activity was higher in G1-SCNT embryos than G0-SCNT embryos. Moreover, half of the G1-SCNT embryos exhibited homogeneous luminescence among the blastomeres, whereas more than half of the G0-SCNT embryos exhibited mosaic luminescence. To characterize the differential luminescence pattern in SCNT embryos, the expressions of several endogenous genes and the level of DNA methylation were determined in all blastomeres of SCNT embryos with or without luminescence. The expressions of several development-related genes (H2AFZ, GJA1, and BAX) and level of DNA methylation of the SCNT embryos with luminescence were the same as those of normal embryos produced by in vitro fertilization. A higher success rate in G1-SCNT embryos is thought to contribute to homogeneous expression among all blastomeres at EGA. © 2012, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Source