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Andres A.,Embrapa Temperate Agriculture | Andres A.,University of Turin | Concenco G.,Embrapa Western Region Agriculture | Theisen G.,Embrapa Temperate Agriculture | And 2 more authors.
Experimental Agriculture

The weedy variety of Oryza sativa occurs in several rice cultivation areas reducing both grain yield and quality. Prevention and crop rotation are considered the basic means to reduce its presence. Weed control in sorghum is generally attained with atrazine. In this study, the efficacy of both chemical and mechanical methods for control, under different soil tillage conditions, of weedy rice and barnyardgrass during sorghum cultivation was evaluated with the aim to reduce the application rate of atrazine. In the case of chemical control, the atrazine rate (1000, 1500, 2000, 2500 and 3000 ga.i. ha-1) and application timing (pre-and post-emergence) were assessed. With the mechanical control method, the number of interventions (inter-row hoeing with sorghum at 3, 4-5 and 6-8 leaves) to avoid weed competition was determined. The effect of the tillage system on weed population was investigated comparing conventional (ploughing), minimum-tillage (disc harrowing) and sod seeding (no-tillage) in combination with pre-and post-emergence herbicide treatments. The results showed that efficient control of weedy rice and barnyardgrass was achieved in lowlands with sorghum in rotation with rice. Both chemical and mechanical methods of weed control in sorghum gave a level of efficiency higher than 60%. The application of atrazine was more efficient in pre-emergence application, rather than in post-emergence treatments, in all soil tillage systems tested. On both weed species, the most suitable application rate was the pre-emergence treatment with 1500 ga.i. ha-1, and the adoption of higher rates did not significantly increase the herbicidal efficacy. The adoption of two or three mechanical interventions resulted in sorghum yield higher than the chemical post-emergence application, and similar to the application of atrazine in pre-emergence. Higher yield results were in accordance to greater weed control, being obtained in the conventional tillage system. © 2012 Cambridge University Press. Source

De Vasconcelos M.A.,Federal University of Ceara | Cunha C.O.,Federal University of Ceara | Sousa Arruda F.V.,Federal University of Ceara | Carneiro V.A.,Federal University of Ceara | And 7 more authors.

To study the interactions between a Rhizobium tropici strain and lectins isolated from the seeds of Canavalia ensiformis (ConA) and Canavalia brasiliensis (ConBr), a lectin fluorescence assay was performed. In addition, an experiment was designed to evaluate the effect of the two lectins on bacterial growth. Both lectins were found to bind to R. tropici cells, but the interactions were inhibited by D-mannose. Interestingly, only ConBr stimulated bacterial growth in proportion to the concentrations used (15.6-500 μg/mL), and the bacterial growth stimulation was inhibited by D-mannose as well. Structure/Function analyses by bioinformatics were carried out to evaluate the volume and carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) configuration of ConA and ConBr. The difference of spatial arrangement and volume of CRD may indicate the variation between biological activities of both lectins. The results suggest that ConBr could be a promising tool for studies focusing on the interactions between rhizobia and host plants. © 2012 by the authors. Source

De Vasconcelos M.A.,Federal University of Ceara | Cunha C.O.,Federal University of Ceara | Arruda F.V.S.,Federal University of Ceara | Carneiro V.A.,Federal University of Ceara | And 6 more authors.

Rhizobium tropici is a Gram-negative bacterium that induces nodules and fixed atmospheric nitrogen in symbiotic association with Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean) and some other leguminous species. Lectins are proteins that specifically bind to carbohydrates and, consequently, modulate different biological functions. In this study, the D-glucose/D-mannose-binding lectins (from seeds of Dioclea megacarpa, D. rostrata and D. violacea) and D-galactose-binding lectins (from seeds of Bauhinia variegata, Erythina velutina and Vatairea macrocarpa) were purified using chromatographic techniques and evaluated for their effect on the growth of R. tropici CIAT899. All lectins were assayed with a satisfactory degree of purity according to SDS-PAGE analysis, and stimulated bacterial growth; in particular, the Dioclea rostrata lectin was the most active among all tested proteins. As confirmed in the present study, both D-galactose- and D-glucose/D-mannose-binding lectins purified from the seeds of leguminous plants may be powerful biotechnological tools to stimulate the growth of R. tropici CIAT99, thus improving symbiotic interaction between rhizobia and common bean and, hence, the production of this field crop. © 1996-2013 MDPI AG (Basel, Switzerland). Source

Scorza Junior R.P.,Embrapa Western Region Agriculture | da Silva J.P.,State University of Mato Grosso do Sul
Engenharia Agricola

For an accurate use of pesticide leaching models it is necessary to assess the sensitivity of input parameters. The aim of this work was to carry out sensitivity analysis of the pesticide leaching model PEARL for contrasting soil types of Dourados river watershed in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Sensitivity analysis was done by carrying out many simulations with different input parameters and calculating their influence on the output values. The approach used was called one-at-a-time sensitivity analysis, which consists in varying independently input parameters one at a time and keeping all others constant with the standard scenario. Sensitivity analysis was automated using SESAN tool that was linked to the PEARL model. Results have shown that only soil characteristics influenced the simulated water flux resulting in none variation of this variable for scenarios with different pesticides and same soil. All input parameters that showed the greatest sensitivity with regard to leached pesticide are related to soil and pesticide properties. Sensitivity of all input parameters was scenario dependent, confirming the need of using more than one standard scenario for sensitivity analysis of pesticide leaching models. Source

Garcia R.A.,Embrapa Western Region Agriculture | Li Y.,University of Florida | Rosolem C.A.,Sao Paulo State University
Soil Science Society of America Journal

Growing cover crops in systems under no tillage affects different pools of soil organic matter, and eventually soil physical attributes are modified. The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in soil organic matter and their relationship with soil physical attributes as affected by plant species grown in rotation with soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] under no-till for 3 yr. Crop rotations included grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench], ruzigrass [Urochloa ruziziensis (R. Germ, and CM. Evard) Crins] and sorghum mixed with ruzigrass, all grown in fall/winter, followed by pearl millet [Pennisetum americanum (L.) Leeke], sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) and sorghum-sudangrass [S. bicolor × S. sudanense (Piper) Stapf] grown during the spring, plus a fallow check plot. Soybean was grown as the summer crop. Millet and sorghum-sudangrass cropped in spring showed higher root and shoot production as spring cropping. In fall/winter, sorghum mixed with ruzigrass yielded higher phytomass compared with sole cropping. Soil physical attributes and organic matter fractioning were positively affected by cropping millet and sorghum-sudangrass whereas intermediate effects were observed after sunn hemp. Maintaining fallow in spring had negative effects on soil organic matter and physical properties. Ruzigrass and sorghum mixed with ruzigrass cropped in fall/winter resulted in better soil quality. Spring cover crops were more efficient in changing soil bulk density, porosity, and aggregates down to 0 to 10 cm; on the other hand, fall/winter cropping showed significant effects on bulk density in the uppermost soil layer. Total C levels in soil were increased after a 3-yr rotation period due to poor initial physical conditions. Fractions of particulate organic C, microbial C, and C in macroaggregates were the most affected by crop rotations, and showed high relation with improved soil physical attributes (porosity, density, and aggregates larger than 2 mm). © Soil Science Society of America, All rights reserved. Source

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