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Andres A.,Embrapa Temperate Agriculture | Andres A.,University of Turin | Concenco G.,Embrapa Western Region Agriculture | Theisen G.,Embrapa Temperate Agriculture | And 2 more authors.
Experimental Agriculture | Year: 2012

The weedy variety of Oryza sativa occurs in several rice cultivation areas reducing both grain yield and quality. Prevention and crop rotation are considered the basic means to reduce its presence. Weed control in sorghum is generally attained with atrazine. In this study, the efficacy of both chemical and mechanical methods for control, under different soil tillage conditions, of weedy rice and barnyardgrass during sorghum cultivation was evaluated with the aim to reduce the application rate of atrazine. In the case of chemical control, the atrazine rate (1000, 1500, 2000, 2500 and 3000 ga.i. ha-1) and application timing (pre-and post-emergence) were assessed. With the mechanical control method, the number of interventions (inter-row hoeing with sorghum at 3, 4-5 and 6-8 leaves) to avoid weed competition was determined. The effect of the tillage system on weed population was investigated comparing conventional (ploughing), minimum-tillage (disc harrowing) and sod seeding (no-tillage) in combination with pre-and post-emergence herbicide treatments. The results showed that efficient control of weedy rice and barnyardgrass was achieved in lowlands with sorghum in rotation with rice. Both chemical and mechanical methods of weed control in sorghum gave a level of efficiency higher than 60%. The application of atrazine was more efficient in pre-emergence application, rather than in post-emergence treatments, in all soil tillage systems tested. On both weed species, the most suitable application rate was the pre-emergence treatment with 1500 ga.i. ha-1, and the adoption of higher rates did not significantly increase the herbicidal efficacy. The adoption of two or three mechanical interventions resulted in sorghum yield higher than the chemical post-emergence application, and similar to the application of atrazine in pre-emergence. Higher yield results were in accordance to greater weed control, being obtained in the conventional tillage system. © 2012 Cambridge University Press.


de Albuquerque Nunes W.A.G.,Embrapa Western Region Agriculture | Menezes J.F.S.,University of Rio Verde | de Melo Benites V.,Embrapa Soils | de Unior S.A.,Adecoagro Ivinhema Valley | Dos Oliveira A.S.,CAMDA
Scientia Agricola | Year: 2015

Slaughterhouses generate large amounts of rumen content and its use as a fertilizer may offer an environmentally friendly strategy for its management. The effect of an organic fertilizer produced from slaughterhouse waste on the fertility of sandy and clayey soils as well as soybean yield (Glycine max L.) and corn (Zea mays L.) crops was evaluated. Field experiments were set up and five rates up to 16 t ha−1 of organic fertilizer (293 kg ha−1 N, 334 kg ha−1 P and 27 kg ha−1 K) were applied annually, before sowing in spring/summer, as well as a mineral fertilization of 300 kg ha−1 in the formulation 2-20-20 for soybean and 300 kg ha−1 of 12-15-15 for corn. The organic fertilizer changed soil fertility in the field experiments by increasing pH, Ca, Mg, K, P-Mehlich and P-resin. Such effects were more evident in the sandy than in the clayey soil, and the most superficial layer was affected more. The organic fertilizer rate needed to achieve maximum yield decreased for corn in both soils and for soybean in the sandy soil, although the amounts required may still be regarded as high. © 2015, Scientia Agricola. All rights reserved.


Garcia R.A.,Embrapa Western Region Agriculture | Li Y.,University of Florida | Rosolem C.A.,São Paulo State University
Soil Science Society of America Journal | Year: 2013

Growing cover crops in systems under no tillage affects different pools of soil organic matter, and eventually soil physical attributes are modified. The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in soil organic matter and their relationship with soil physical attributes as affected by plant species grown in rotation with soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] under no-till for 3 yr. Crop rotations included grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench], ruzigrass [Urochloa ruziziensis (R. Germ, and CM. Evard) Crins] and sorghum mixed with ruzigrass, all grown in fall/winter, followed by pearl millet [Pennisetum americanum (L.) Leeke], sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) and sorghum-sudangrass [S. bicolor × S. sudanense (Piper) Stapf] grown during the spring, plus a fallow check plot. Soybean was grown as the summer crop. Millet and sorghum-sudangrass cropped in spring showed higher root and shoot production as spring cropping. In fall/winter, sorghum mixed with ruzigrass yielded higher phytomass compared with sole cropping. Soil physical attributes and organic matter fractioning were positively affected by cropping millet and sorghum-sudangrass whereas intermediate effects were observed after sunn hemp. Maintaining fallow in spring had negative effects on soil organic matter and physical properties. Ruzigrass and sorghum mixed with ruzigrass cropped in fall/winter resulted in better soil quality. Spring cover crops were more efficient in changing soil bulk density, porosity, and aggregates down to 0 to 10 cm; on the other hand, fall/winter cropping showed significant effects on bulk density in the uppermost soil layer. Total C levels in soil were increased after a 3-yr rotation period due to poor initial physical conditions. Fractions of particulate organic C, microbial C, and C in macroaggregates were the most affected by crop rotations, and showed high relation with improved soil physical attributes (porosity, density, and aggregates larger than 2 mm). © Soil Science Society of America, All rights reserved.


De Vasconcelos M.A.,Federal University of Ceará | Cunha C.O.,Federal University of Ceará | Sousa Arruda F.V.,Federal University of Ceará | Carneiro V.A.,Federal University of Ceará | And 7 more authors.
Molecules | Year: 2012

To study the interactions between a Rhizobium tropici strain and lectins isolated from the seeds of Canavalia ensiformis (ConA) and Canavalia brasiliensis (ConBr), a lectin fluorescence assay was performed. In addition, an experiment was designed to evaluate the effect of the two lectins on bacterial growth. Both lectins were found to bind to R. tropici cells, but the interactions were inhibited by D-mannose. Interestingly, only ConBr stimulated bacterial growth in proportion to the concentrations used (15.6-500 μg/mL), and the bacterial growth stimulation was inhibited by D-mannose as well. Structure/Function analyses by bioinformatics were carried out to evaluate the volume and carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) configuration of ConA and ConBr. The difference of spatial arrangement and volume of CRD may indicate the variation between biological activities of both lectins. The results suggest that ConBr could be a promising tool for studies focusing on the interactions between rhizobia and host plants. © 2012 by the authors.


Concenco G.,Embrapa Western Region Agriculture | Silva C.J.,Embrapa Western Region Agriculture | Staut L.A.,Embrapa Western Region Agriculture | Pontes C.S.,Embrapa Western Region Agriculture | And 2 more authors.
Planta Daninha | Year: 2012

In the Western Region of Brazil, it is usual to have two agricultural harvests in the same cropping season. Usually the first crop is soybean, followed by corn. In areas where corn is not planted due to a delayed harvest of soybean, farmers generally do not use winter crops. For these areas, the planting of winter oilseed crops aiming at the production of biofuels is one of the best alternatives; in addition, this would help in reducing the occurrence of weed species at the following summer crop. This study aimed to assessing the weed community in distinct winter crops post soybean crop, in terms of species composition, level of infestation and severity of occurrence. The following treatments were evaluated: agriculture under a no-till system with winter fallow, winter oilseed crops (crambe, radish, rapeseed) with no-till agriculture in the summer, and agriculture under a conventional tillage system with winter fallow. Phytosociological evaluations of all treatments were carried out 75 DAE of the oilseed crops, and the diversity indexes of Margalef, Menhinick, Simpson, and Shannon- Weiner were determined. Areas were also grouped by cluster analysis based on UPGMA applied at Jaccard's similarity matrix. Among the treatments with winter coverage, radish was the most efficient crop in suppressing the occurrence of weed species. The area with conventional tillage agriculture and winter fallow allowed for a higher occurrence of troublesome weeds. On the other hand, the area under fallow showed the highest absolute level of infestation. Overall, oilseed crops in the winter contribute to lower levels of infestation by weed species in these areas.


De Vasconcelos M.A.,Federal University of Ceará | Cunha C.O.,Federal University of Ceará | Arruda F.V.S.,Federal University of Ceará | Carneiro V.A.,Federal University of Ceará | And 6 more authors.
Molecules | Year: 2013

Rhizobium tropici is a Gram-negative bacterium that induces nodules and fixed atmospheric nitrogen in symbiotic association with Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean) and some other leguminous species. Lectins are proteins that specifically bind to carbohydrates and, consequently, modulate different biological functions. In this study, the D-glucose/D-mannose-binding lectins (from seeds of Dioclea megacarpa, D. rostrata and D. violacea) and D-galactose-binding lectins (from seeds of Bauhinia variegata, Erythina velutina and Vatairea macrocarpa) were purified using chromatographic techniques and evaluated for their effect on the growth of R. tropici CIAT899. All lectins were assayed with a satisfactory degree of purity according to SDS-PAGE analysis, and stimulated bacterial growth; in particular, the Dioclea rostrata lectin was the most active among all tested proteins. As confirmed in the present study, both D-galactose- and D-glucose/D-mannose-binding lectins purified from the seeds of leguminous plants may be powerful biotechnological tools to stimulate the growth of R. tropici CIAT99, thus improving symbiotic interaction between rhizobia and common bean and, hence, the production of this field crop. © 1996-2013 MDPI AG (Basel, Switzerland).


Concenco G.,Embrapa Western Region Agriculture | Salton J.C.,Embrapa Western Region Agriculture | Brevilieri R.C.,Embrapa Western Region Agriculture | Mendes P.B.,Embrapa Western Region Agriculture | Secretti M.L.,Embrapa Western Region Agriculture
Planta Daninha | Year: 2011

This study aimed at assessing the level of weed infestation indifferent areas that were submitted to different soil management for 16 years. Four management systems were studied: (1) agriculture only under conventional tillage system; (2) agriculture only under no-till system; (3) crop-livestock integrationcrop-livestock integration; (4) livestock only. These areas were sampled at three soil depths (0-5, 5-10 and 10-15 cm), and soil was stored in plastic pots and taken to a greenhouse, where soil moisture and weight were standardized. Soil was kept near 70% moisture field capacity, being revolved every 20 days when all seedling emerged from soil were counted, identified and collected for dry mass assessment. The soil coverage by weeds, number of weed seedlings and dry mass of the weedy community were assessed. A phytoecological analysis was conducted. Weed composition is differentdifferent among management systems after 16 years. Areas with livestock showed much smaller number of weed species in comparison to systems where only grain crops are grown. The presence of livestock affects the potential of germination of soil seed bank. Agriculture systems are similar in terms of weed composition along soil profile, while systems involving livestock show little relation in what regards such sampled depths. Conservationist models of land exploration contribute to reduce severity of weed species occurrence in the long term.


Scorza Junior R.P.,Embrapa Western Region Agriculture | da Silva J.P.,State University of Mato Grosso do Sul
Engenharia Agricola | Year: 2011

For an accurate use of pesticide leaching models it is necessary to assess the sensitivity of input parameters. The aim of this work was to carry out sensitivity analysis of the pesticide leaching model PEARL for contrasting soil types of Dourados river watershed in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Sensitivity analysis was done by carrying out many simulations with different input parameters and calculating their influence on the output values. The approach used was called one-at-a-time sensitivity analysis, which consists in varying independently input parameters one at a time and keeping all others constant with the standard scenario. Sensitivity analysis was automated using SESAN tool that was linked to the PEARL model. Results have shown that only soil characteristics influenced the simulated water flux resulting in none variation of this variable for scenarios with different pesticides and same soil. All input parameters that showed the greatest sensitivity with regard to leached pesticide are related to soil and pesticide properties. Sensitivity of all input parameters was scenario dependent, confirming the need of using more than one standard scenario for sensitivity analysis of pesticide leaching models.


Mateus G.P.,Agrobusiness Technology Agency | Borghi E.,Embrapa Fisheries | Castro G.S.A.,São Paulo State University | Garcia R.A.,Embrapa Western Region Agriculture | Crusciol A.C.,São Paulo State University
Revista Ciencia Agronomica | Year: 2011

Choosing species with high phytomass production to be cropped in no tillage system is extremely important in dry winter regions. The purpose of this research was to study plant biomass production and accumulation of nutrients in shoots of Giant Guinea sorghum plants (Sorghum bicolor subspecies bicolor race Guinea) sown in different sowing dates. A randomized complete block design with six treatments and four replications was performed. Treatments consisted of six sowing dates (09/25/2000; 10/25/2000; 11/24/2000; 12/22/2000; 02/22/2001 and 04/03/2001). At flowering, dry matter production, number and diameter of stems and plant height were evaluated. Macro and micronutrient levels and accumulation were determined as well as C/N ratio. Plant cycle decreased as sowing date was delayed and, consequently, dry matter production and C/N ratio decreased as well. The opposite was observed for nutrient contents. "Giant Guinea" sorghum is sensitive to photoperiod thus late sowing reduces plant development, which leads to low biomass production and nutrient accumulation. "Giant Guinea" sorghum cultivated as cover crop is a good option when implementing no tillage system due to high dry matter production and N, P, and K recycling.


Scorza Junior R.P.,Embrapa Western Region Agriculture | da Silva J.P.,State University of Mato Grosso do Sul | Rigitano R.L.O.,Federal University of Lavras
Engenharia Agricola | Year: 2010

The understanding of unsaturated soil water flow at process-level is essential to develop proper management actions for environmental protection in agricultural systems. One important tool for simulation of soil water flow that has been used worldwide is the SWAP model. The aim of this work was to test and to calibrate the SWAP model by inverse modeling to describe moisture profiles in a Brazilian very clayey Latossol in Dourados, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The SWAP model was tested in an experimental field of 0.09 ha cultivated with soybean and soil profiles were sampled eight times between December 2006 and October 2007. The SWAP input values (i.e. soil water retention curves and meteorological data) were based on in-situ measurements. Simulations with uncalibrated soil water retention curves resulted in moisture profiles that were too wet for almost all sampling dates, in particular between 0-10 cm depth. After calibration of soil water retention curves, there was a good improvement in the simulated moisture profiles, which were within the range of measured values for almost all depths and sampling dates.

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