Manaus, Brazil
Manaus, Brazil

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Soares B.V.,Federal University of Amapá | Neves L.R.,Laboratory for Aquatic Organism Health | Oliveira M.S.B.,University of the Amazon | Chaves F.C.M.,Embrapa Western Amazon | And 4 more authors.
Aquaculture | Year: 2016

This study investigated the in vivo and in vitro antiparasitic effects of the essential oil of Lippia alba and the blood-related and histopathological alterations that it causes in Colossoma macropomum. In the in vitro trial, the anthelminthic effects of 160, 320, 640, 1280 and 2560. mg/L of the essential oil were tested against monogenoideans (Anacanthorus spathulatus, Notozothecium janauachensis and Mymarothecium boegeri) of the gills of this fish, which are its natural parasites. The concentrations of 1280 mg/L and 2560 mg/L showed 100% efficacy after 20. min of exposure to the essential oil, while at lower concentrations this efficacy against the gill monogenoideans only occurred after 2-3 h of in vitro exposure. However, in the controls, mortality of all of these monogenoideans only occurred after 9 h. A total of 240 fry were distributed into four treatments (20 fish per repetition) and three repetitions were used in the in vivo trial for baths with 100 and 150 mg/L of the essential oil of L. alba, for 30 min. The efficacy in this trial against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis in fish exposed to 100 and 150 mg/L of the essential oil was 40.7% and 50.3%, respectively. However, for monogenoideans, there was efficacy of 14.0% only in the fish exposed to 100 mg/L of the essential oil used. Moreover, the fish exposed to these concentrations of the essential oil presented increased plasma glucose levels, thus denoting signs of stress. Severe lesions such as hyperplasia, fusion of the lamellar epithelium, capillary dilatation, epithelial detachment, lamellar aneurysm, epithelial rupture with hemorrhage, congestion, edema, necrosis, mucous cell proliferation, chloride cells and lamellar hypertrophy were observed in the gills of the fish exposed to 100 and 150 mg/L of the essential oil of L. alba. Alterations to total protein levels, hemoglobin, hematocrit, red blood cell number, thrombocytes number, white blood cell number, lymphocytes, eosinophils and blood neutrophil number was also observed in these fish. The essential oil of L. alba showed great potential for antiparasitic treatment, given that it had high in vitro efficacy against monogenoideans and in vivo efficacy against the protozoon I. multifiliis. Because of the low concentrations of the essential oil (100 and 150 mg/L) that were tolerated by the fish and thus could be used in the therapeutic baths, the efficacy against monogenoideans was low. This indicates that there is a need for additional strategies for using this essential oil in antiparasitic treatments, since the concentrations that eliminate these ectoparasites are toxic for the hosts. Lastly, this was the first study on the antiparasitic activity of L. alba. Statement of Relevance: The manuscript entitled "Antiparasitic activity of the essential oil of Lippia alba on ectoparasites of Colossoma macropomum (tambaqui) and its physiological and histopathological effects", represents original article on use of the essential oil of Lippia alba on ectoparasites of tambaqui, an important finfish of Amazon region. This manuscript includes treatment in vitro against monogeneans, and in vivo against protozoans and monogeneans, besides histopathological and hematological features of the fish exposed to different concentrations of L. alba, a medical plant from South and Central America. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Moraes L.A.C.,Embrapa Soybean | Moreira A.,Embrapa Soybean | Moraes V.H.F.,Embrapa Western Amazon | Cordeiro E.R.,Embrapa Western Amazon
Journal of Plant Interactions | Year: 2014

The presence of high cyanogenic glycoside concentrations may predispose plant to the tapping panel dryness (TPD). This study aimed to verify the involvement of cyanogenesis in the reduction of latex stability and in the establishment of TPD. The following parameters were evaluated in rubber tree trunk bark: concentration of cyanogenic glycosides with determination of cyanogenic potential (HCNp) and latex stability with lutoid bursting index (LBI). The study of the relationship between cyanogenesis and TPD was performed by semiquantitative comparison of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) gas released from the trunk bark under the following conditions: without (0%) and with (100%) TPD. The positive correlations between HCNp values and LBI indicate that cyanogenic glycosides present in the bark reduce latex stability, resulting in low yield due to the short duration of flow during tapping. The largest amount of HCN released by trunk bark tissues when the plant exhibits TPD symptoms strengthens the evidence of the involvement of this compound in the establishment of this condition. © 2013 Taylor & Francis.

PubMed | Embrapa Western Amazon
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Revista de biologia tropical | Year: 2011

The African oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) is the most effective oil producer in tons per hectare. Nevertheless, its increasing cultivation in Latin America is harmed by the lethal yellowing. Genetic resistance to this anomaly can be found in the germplasm of American oil palm or caiau (E. oleifera), a native species from the Amazon rainforest. However, the procedures adopted to induce seeds of E. guineensis to germination frequently result mild for interespecific hybrids. Embryo in vitro cultivation can be a viable option. This work was aimed initially to test liquid MS medium supplemented with different glucose or sucrose concentrations for the in vitro cultivation of zygotic embryos from E. guineensis x E. oleifera controlled pollinations. Additionally we investigated different compost mixtures to acclimatize the regenerated hybrid plantlets. Concentrations of 10, 20 and 30g/L of both sugars were tested on flasks containing five mature zygotic embryos, with 15 repetitions per treatment in a total of 450 explants. The number of embryos displaying shoots and radicles at least 2mm in length per experimental unit was evaluated during phase one of in vitro cultivation. Plantlets displaying shoots and radicles were transferred to phase two of in vitro cultivation and subsequently to acclimatization, under 70% shading with manual water supply. The experiments of acclimatization were conducted with 130 plantlets randomly distributed in pure horticultural compost, 3:1 or 1:1 compost:sand mixtures and each plantlet was defined as an experimental unit. Data were submitted to ANOVA, t test and analyzes of correlation (p < or = 0.05). Highest emergence rates were 97% for shoots and 73% for radicles, observed in MS medium supplemented with 20g/L (110mM) of glucose. This sugar in concentrations of 20 or 30g/L provided balanced shoot/root development, and this was considered one of the reasons for the higher frequency of plantlet establishment. The survival percentage was 55% after the first 43 days of acclimatization and by the fourth month, 66 plants developed simultaneously longer shoot and root systems in pure horticultural compost. In conclusion, radicle development was an impairment to plantlet establishment and was overcame under media with glucose above 110mM. Acclimatization could benefit from an extended period of in vitro development.

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