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Manaus, Brazil

Soares B.V.,Federal University of Amapa | Neves L.R.,Laboratory for Aquatic Organism Health | Oliveira M.S.B.,University of the Amazon | Chaves F.C.M.,Embrapa Western Amazon | And 4 more authors.
Aquaculture | Year: 2016

This study investigated the in vivo and in vitro antiparasitic effects of the essential oil of Lippia alba and the blood-related and histopathological alterations that it causes in Colossoma macropomum. In the in vitro trial, the anthelminthic effects of 160, 320, 640, 1280 and 2560. mg/L of the essential oil were tested against monogenoideans (Anacanthorus spathulatus, Notozothecium janauachensis and Mymarothecium boegeri) of the gills of this fish, which are its natural parasites. The concentrations of 1280 mg/L and 2560 mg/L showed 100% efficacy after 20. min of exposure to the essential oil, while at lower concentrations this efficacy against the gill monogenoideans only occurred after 2-3 h of in vitro exposure. However, in the controls, mortality of all of these monogenoideans only occurred after 9 h. A total of 240 fry were distributed into four treatments (20 fish per repetition) and three repetitions were used in the in vivo trial for baths with 100 and 150 mg/L of the essential oil of L. alba, for 30 min. The efficacy in this trial against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis in fish exposed to 100 and 150 mg/L of the essential oil was 40.7% and 50.3%, respectively. However, for monogenoideans, there was efficacy of 14.0% only in the fish exposed to 100 mg/L of the essential oil used. Moreover, the fish exposed to these concentrations of the essential oil presented increased plasma glucose levels, thus denoting signs of stress. Severe lesions such as hyperplasia, fusion of the lamellar epithelium, capillary dilatation, epithelial detachment, lamellar aneurysm, epithelial rupture with hemorrhage, congestion, edema, necrosis, mucous cell proliferation, chloride cells and lamellar hypertrophy were observed in the gills of the fish exposed to 100 and 150 mg/L of the essential oil of L. alba. Alterations to total protein levels, hemoglobin, hematocrit, red blood cell number, thrombocytes number, white blood cell number, lymphocytes, eosinophils and blood neutrophil number was also observed in these fish. The essential oil of L. alba showed great potential for antiparasitic treatment, given that it had high in vitro efficacy against monogenoideans and in vivo efficacy against the protozoon I. multifiliis. Because of the low concentrations of the essential oil (100 and 150 mg/L) that were tolerated by the fish and thus could be used in the therapeutic baths, the efficacy against monogenoideans was low. This indicates that there is a need for additional strategies for using this essential oil in antiparasitic treatments, since the concentrations that eliminate these ectoparasites are toxic for the hosts. Lastly, this was the first study on the antiparasitic activity of L. alba. Statement of Relevance: The manuscript entitled "Antiparasitic activity of the essential oil of Lippia alba on ectoparasites of Colossoma macropomum (tambaqui) and its physiological and histopathological effects", represents original article on use of the essential oil of Lippia alba on ectoparasites of tambaqui, an important finfish of Amazon region. This manuscript includes treatment in vitro against monogeneans, and in vivo against protozoans and monogeneans, besides histopathological and hematological features of the fish exposed to different concentrations of L. alba, a medical plant from South and Central America. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Moraes L.A.C.,Embrapa Soybean | Moreira A.,Embrapa Soybean | Moraes V.H.F.,Embrapa Western Amazon | Cordeiro E.R.,Embrapa Western Amazon
Journal of Plant Interactions | Year: 2014

The presence of high cyanogenic glycoside concentrations may predispose plant to the tapping panel dryness (TPD). This study aimed to verify the involvement of cyanogenesis in the reduction of latex stability and in the establishment of TPD. The following parameters were evaluated in rubber tree trunk bark: concentration of cyanogenic glycosides with determination of cyanogenic potential (HCNp) and latex stability with lutoid bursting index (LBI). The study of the relationship between cyanogenesis and TPD was performed by semiquantitative comparison of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) gas released from the trunk bark under the following conditions: without (0%) and with (100%) TPD. The positive correlations between HCNp values and LBI indicate that cyanogenic glycosides present in the bark reduce latex stability, resulting in low yield due to the short duration of flow during tapping. The largest amount of HCN released by trunk bark tissues when the plant exhibits TPD symptoms strengthens the evidence of the involvement of this compound in the establishment of this condition. © 2013 Taylor & Francis.

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