Bento Gonçalves, Brazil
Bento Gonçalves, Brazil

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Klock C.L.,Centro Universitario Univates | Johann L.,Grande Rio University | Botton M.,Embrapa Uva e Vinho | Ferla N.J.,Centro Universitario Univates
Check List | Year: 2011

The mitefauna associated to Merlot and Chardonnay grapevine cultivars and associated plants in the municipalities of Bento Gonc{ogonek}alves and Candiota, Rio Grande do Sul was investigated. The study was developed between October 2006 and September 2007, where 20 grapevine plants were randomly chosen from each municipality and monthly sampled. Three leaves of each plant were taken. A total of 11,598 mites belonging to 14 families and to 52 species were found. Fifty-nine percent of the total specimens were collected in Candiota, being 93% associated to the Merlot cultivar. Higher species richness was observed on associated plants. Phytoseiidae showed the highest species richness, with ten species, and Eriophyidae showed the highest abundance, with 8,675 specimens. Calepitrimerus vitis (Nalepa, 1905) and Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks, 1904) were the most common phytophagous mites, while Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor, 1954) and Pronematus anconai (Baker,1943) were the most common predators. © 2011 Check List and Authors.

Camargo U.A.,Vino Vitis Consultoria Ltda | Tonietto J.,Embrapa Uva e Vinho | Hoffmann A.,Embrapa Uva e Vinho
Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura | Year: 2011

Viticulture was introduced in Brazil by Portuguese settlers in the 16th century, becoming a commercial activity in the south of the country, after 1875. Vineyards of American grapes were predominant until the middle of 20th century, when some Vitis vinifera varieties were planted. For a long time Brazilian viticulture was limited to the southern and southeastern states as a typical temperate culture. In the 1960's viticulture was expanded into the tropical regions of Brazil, while there was also an important icrease in the grape growing area in the traditional temperate zones. Nowadays the grape growing area in Brazil is around 83.700 ha, producing between 1.300 and 1.400 thousand tons. In Brazil, grape production is concentrated at the states of Rio Grande do Sul, São Paulo, Pernambuco, Paraná, Bahia, Santa Catarina and Minas Gerais. Most of the grape and its products (wine and juice) are consumed by Brazilian market. Concentrated grape juice and fresh grapes are the main products exported. Diversity is the main characteristic of Brazilian viticulture: there is a wide genetic diversity on vineyards and grapes are cultivated in different environments, using several production systems and cultural practices. This paper presents a general view of Brazilian viticulture and the main technological and innovation advances obtained in grape culture in the last decades. Emphasis is on new cultivars, on new techniques and cultural practices used - mostly on tropical viticulture - and on systems of certification for wines and other products from grapes.

The protected cultivation of grapes is an alternative to reduce the incidence of fungal diseases in regions with excess rainfall. The use of plastic covering on vine planting rows produces changes in the microclimate around the plant, due mainly to the absence of freely available water on leaves and berries. These changes hinder the development of fungal diseases, such as bunch rot - currently one of the biggest challenges in disease control in traditional grape growing regions like Serra Gaúcha - and reduce fungicide use. However, powdery mildew, whose incidence under high relative humidity conditions is usually low, must be closely monitored in protected cultivation. Also, fungicides must be used with caution as plastic covering reduces the incidence of ultraviolet radiation and rainfall on clusters, thereby increasing the residual effect of fungicides. The higher accumulation of fungicide on grapes directly affects their in natura consumption and compromises yeast fermentation during the winemaking process. In general, plastic covering is efficient in controlling fungal diseases and in reducing fungicide use, but it must be regarded as a new cultivation system as it requires distinct disease control compared to conventional cultivation. The used plastic covering must be regarded as crop residues, demanding specific precautions against environmental contamination.

Berenschot A.S.,Instituto Agronomico | Quecini V.,Embrapa Uva e Vinho
Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants | Year: 2014

Flower color and plant architecture are important commercially valuable features for ornamental petunias (Petunia x hybrida Vilm.). Photoperception and light signaling are the major environmental factors controlling anthocyanin and chlorophyll biosynthesis and shade-avoidance responses in higher plants. The genetic regulators of these processes were investigated in petunia by in silico analyses and the sequence information was used to devise a reverse genetics approach to probe mutant populations. Petunia orthologs of photoreceptor, light-signaling components and anthocyanin metabolism genes were identified and investigated for functional conservation by phylogenetic and protein motif analyses. The expression profiles of photoreceptor gene families and of transcription factors regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis were obtained by bioinformatic tools. Two mutant populations, generated by an alkalyting agent and by gamma irradiation, were screened using a phenotype-independent, sequence-based method by high-throughput PCR-based assay. The strategy allowed the identification of novel mutant alleles for anthocyanin biosynthesis (CHALCONE SYNTHASE) and regulation (PH4), and for light signaling (CONSTANS) genes. © 2013 Prof. H.S. Srivastava Foundation for Science and Society.

This study aimed to estimate the coefficients of repeatability (r), determination or degree of predictability (R2) of clones characteristics of wine grapes varities, and determine the number of measurements required, capable to provide levels of certainty (80, 90 and 95%) of the real prediction l value of individuals for each character. The study was conducted from average data of eight characteristics from two experiments on the behavior of clones from two grape varieties, evaluated between the years 1989 and 1992. Based on the average of two experiments of each harvest, it was obtained estimates of the repeatability coefficient () and the coefficient of determination or degree of predictability (R2) for all traits. In the estimation of the repeatability coefficient, the method of analysis of variance was used. Coefficient of repeatability obtained for the two varieties have values very similar magnitude. Repeatability estimates for the eight characteristics are superior to 0.60, demonstrating constancy of clones performance in several crops and reliable genotypic discrimination more than 80%. The use of three crops is suitable for the selection to be accomplished with predictability of the real value of above 80% genotype. © 2015, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria. All Rights Reserved.

Sprayers handling pads, among other designations, are described as sites intended for the preparation of pesticides and load of agricultural pulverization equipments. By the environmental and labour legislation, these points are seen as environmental security equipment in the rural surroundings (environment). There is enough technical bibliography that describes the constructive and handling processes of such sites, but there is insufficient clarity about how this consensual manner was reached, with little scientific basis about its collective advantages and risks. Some aspects such as the impermeabilization, material formation, management of floor and residue of agrochemicals, interfere in the capacity of preventing possible polluters reaching the soil, surface and groundwater, also influencing its final disposal. Some functional aspects still require answers, such as possibility of the floor retaining and storing the pollutant and becoming a emitter in long-term, the definition lifetime equipment, amongst others. Recently there have been advances in the constructive philosophy of sprayers handling pads, with the introduction of residue redressing in situ, through biodegradation which became known as biobeds, amongst others. The objective of this revision is to discuss the different types of floor bads and management of these places, its risks and possibilities of becoming environmental liabilities.

The production and commercialization of Brazilian grape juice is increasing annually, mainly due to its typicality, quality, and nutritional value. The present research was carried out in view of the great significance of Brazilian grape juice for the grape and wine industry. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to assess its composition as well as the discrimination between grape juice and other beverages. Twenty four samples of whole, sweetened, and reprocessed grape juices, grape nectar, and grape beverage were evaluated. Classical variables were analyzed by means of physicochemical methods; tartaric and malic acids, by HPLC; methanol, by gas chromatography; minerals, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. These products were discriminated by the Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Results show that whole and sweetened grape juices were discriminated from other grape products because they featured higher values of total soluble solids, tartaric and malic acids, most minerals, phenolic compounds, and K/Na ratio, whereas grape nectar and grape beverage presented higher values of oBrix/titratable acidity ratio. Reprocessed juice was discriminated due to its higher concentrations of Li and Na and lower hue.

The amount of water used in irrigation systems is usually calculated using the local reference evapotranspiration (ETo) values. Several methods can be used for ETo calculation, and Hargreaves method is one of the most popular. This method uses estimated values of global solar radiation (Rs), based on the difference between the maximum (Tmax) and minimum (Tmin) air temperature. However, the Rs may be calculated by other methods, such as the Bristow-Campbell, which also is based on the difference between Tmax and Tmin. In this study were estimated daily values of ETo by the method of Hargreaves in Jales - SP, Brazil, with and without the use of the Bristow-Campbell equation to calculate the Rs. These values were compared with those from the Penman-Monteith method, which is considered standard for the estimation of ETo. The evaluations had considered the wet and dry periods in the region. The use of the Bristow-Campbell equation improved the performance of the Hargreaves method, in relation to the Penman-Monteith, and the performance during the dry period of the year was higher than that of the wet season.

Fabraea leaf spot, caused by the fungus Entomosporium mespili, is one of the major diseases affecting pear (Pyrus sp.) in Brazil. Considering the lack of standardized methods to quantify this disease on leaves, the aim of this study was to develop a diagrammatic scale to quantify the severity of Fabraea leaf spot of pear. To standardize the assessment, we developed a diagrammatic logarithmic scale with seven levels (0.3, 1.0, 2.3, 5.1, 11.1, 22.4 and 40.0% diseased leaf area). To validate the scale, nine raters estimated the severity of 60 scanned leaf images at different severity levels. The evaluations were done in two steps: with and without the aid of the scale. The actual severity was obtained through the program Quant. v.1.0. The accuracy and the precision of raters were determined by simple linear regression between actual and estimated severity. The proposed scale provided good levels of accuracy and precision, good repeatability of estimates, and rapid and easy assessment, constituting thus a useful tool in epidemiological studies and for the development of strategies to control Fabraea leaf spot of pear.

In competition assays, many factors are evaluated aiming the differentiation of apple cultivars and to undertake the use of recommendations. Regarding productive performance, cultivars that exhibit regular yields throughout the years, produce regularly over the years and have higher cumulative fruit yield, stand out over other cultivars. The present study was carried out along six harvesting seasons to determine yield precocity by means of the application of an earliness index and the cumulative fruit yield of nine apple cultivars grafted onto two different rootstocks. The highest indexes for yield earliness were presented by the cultivars Daiane, Mishima and Fuji Select grafted onto the M-9 rootstock and by the cultivars Fuji Suprema, Daiane and Gala Real cultivars grafted onto the Marubakaido/M-9 rootstock. ‘Baigent’ and ‘Cripps Pink’, grafted onto M-9, and ‘Maxi-Gala’, ‘Baigent’, ‘Daiane’ and ‘Gala Real’, grafted onto Marubakaido/M-9, had higher cumulative yields after six harvesting seasons. The cultivars ‘Daiane’ and ‘Gala Real’, grafted onto Marubakaido/M-9, presented better performances for both investigated parameters: earliness index of fruit yields and cumulative fruit yields. The earliness index for fruit yield is an important parameter to distinguish apple cultivars, along with other characteristics, such as production and fruit quality. © 2015, Sociedade Brasileira de Fruticultura. All rights reserved.

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