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Passo Fundo, Brazil

Lucini T.,Federal University of Parana | Panizzi A.R.,Embrapa Trigo
Florida Entomologist | Year: 2016

The poorly known stink bug, Edessa loxdalii Westwood (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) was intercepted in Francisco Beltrão, Paraná State, Brazil (26.0808333°S, 53.0547222°W) feeding and reproducing on soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merrill (Fabales: Fabaceae), on oriental raisin tree, Hovenia dulcis Thunb. (Rosales: Rhamnaceae), and on the wild solanaceous plant Solanum corymbiflorum (Sendtn.) Bohs. (Solanales: Solanaceae). Preliminary data obtained in the laboratory on a mixture of natural foods indicated a delayed development time and high nymphal mortality. Source


Panizzi A.R.,Embrapa Trigo
Neotropical Entomology | Year: 2013

The integrated pest management (IPM) of soybean developed and implemented in Brazil was one of the most successful programs of pest management in the world. Established during the 1970s, it showed a tremendous level of adoption by growers, decreasing the amount of insecticide use by over 50%. It included outstanding approaches of field scouting and decision making, considering the economic injury levels (EILs) for the major pests. Two main biological control programs were highly important to support the soybean IPM program in Brazil, i.e., the use of a NPVAg to control the major defoliator, the velvet bean caterpillar, Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner, and the use of egg parasitoids against the seed-sucking stink bugs, in particular, the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.). These two biological control programs plus pests scouting, and the use of more selective insecticides considering the EILs supported the IPM program through the 1980s and 1990s. With the change in the landscape, with the adoption of the no-tillage cultivation system and the introduction of more intense multiple cropping, and with the lower input to divulge and adapt the IPM program to this new reality, the program started to decline during the years 2000s. Nowadays, soybean IPM is almost a forgotten control technology. In this mini-review article, suggestions are made to possibly revive and adapt the soybean IPM to contemporary time. © 2013 Sociedade Entomológica do Brasil. Source


Carpentieri-Pipolo V.,Embrapa Trigo
Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology | Year: 2015

UEL 175 is lipoxygenase-free soybean cultivar and has absence of the antinutritional factors kunitz trypsin inhibitor (SKTI). UEL 175 presents high yield potential and good adaptation under no-tillage. It is resistant to soybean stem canker, brown stem rot, frogeye leaf spot, and bacterial pustule. © 2015, Brazilian Society of Plant Breeding. All right reserved. Source


Maciel J.L.N.,Embrapa Trigo | Ceresini P.C.,Sao Paulo State University | Castroagudin V.L.,Sao Paulo State University | Zala M.,ETH Zurich | And 2 more authors.
Phytopathology | Year: 2014

Since its first report in Brazil in 1985, wheat blast, caused by Magnaporthe oryzae (anamorph: Pyricularia oryzae), has become increasingly important in South America, where the disease is still spreading. We used 11 microsatellite loci to elucidate the population structure of the wheat blast pathogen in wheat fields in central-western, southeastern, and southern Brazil. No subdivision was found among the wheat-infecting populations, consistent with high levels of gene flow across a large spatial scale. Although the clonal fraction was relatively high and the two mating type idiomorphs (MAT1-1 and MAT1-2) were not at similar frequencies, the clone-corrected populations from Distrito Federal and Goiás, Minas Triangle, and São Paulo were in gametic equilibrium. Based on these findings, we propose that populations of the wheat blast pathogen exhibit a mixed reproductive system in which sexual reproduction is followed by the local dispersal of clones. Seedling virulence assays with local wheat cultivars differentiated 14 pathotypes in the current population. Detached head virulence assays differentiated eight virulence groups on the same wheat cultivars. There was no correlation between seedling and head reactions. © 2014 The American Phytopathological Society. Source


Pereira J.F.,Embrapa Trigo | Zhou G.,CSIRO | Zhou G.,University of Tasmania | Delhaize E.,CSIRO | And 3 more authors.
Annals of Botany | Year: 2010

Background and Aims: Expected increases in world population will continue to make demands on agricultural productivity and food supply. These challenges will only be met by increasing the land under cultivation and by improving the yields obtained on existing farms. Genetic engineering can target key traits to improve crop yields and to increase production on marginal soils. Soil acidity is a major abiotic stress that limits plant production worldwide. The goal of this study was to enhance the acid soil tolerance of wheat by increasing its resistance to Al3+ toxicity. Methods: Particle bombardment was used to transform wheat with TaALMT1, the Al3+ resistance gene from wheat, using the maize ubiquitin promoter to drive expression. TaALMT1 expression, malate efflux and Al3+ resistance were measured in the T1 and T2 lines and compared with the parental line and an Al 3+-resistant reference genotype, ET8. Key Results: Nine T2 lines showed increased TaALMT1 expression, malate efflux and Al3+ resistance when compared with untransformed controls and null segregant lines. Some T2 lines displayed greater Al3+ resistance than ET8 in both hydroponic and soil experiments. Conclusions: The Al3+ resistance of wheat was increased by enhancing TaALMT1 expression with biotechnology. This is the first report of a major food crop being stably transformed for greater Al3+ resistance. Transgenic strategies provide options for increasing food supply on acid soils. © The Author 2010. Source

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