Embrapa Trigo

Passo Fundo, Brazil

Embrapa Trigo

Passo Fundo, Brazil
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Lucini T.,Federal University of Paraná | Panizzi A.R.,Embrapa Trigo
Florida Entomologist | Year: 2016

The poorly known stink bug, Edessa loxdalii Westwood (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) was intercepted in Francisco Beltrão, Paraná State, Brazil (26.0808333°S, 53.0547222°W) feeding and reproducing on soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merrill (Fabales: Fabaceae), on oriental raisin tree, Hovenia dulcis Thunb. (Rosales: Rhamnaceae), and on the wild solanaceous plant Solanum corymbiflorum (Sendtn.) Bohs. (Solanales: Solanaceae). Preliminary data obtained in the laboratory on a mixture of natural foods indicated a delayed development time and high nymphal mortality.

Nunes M.R.,University of Sao Paulo | Denardin J.E.,Embrapa Trigo | Pauletto E.A.,Federal University of Pelotas | Faganello A.,Embrapa Trigo | Pinto L.F.S.,Federal University of Pelotas
Soil and Tillage Research | Year: 2015

Soil compaction has always been a problem to the agricultural productivity, mainly in clayey soils under the no-tillage (NT). Alternatives to mitigate this problem are necessary. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of seeder equipped with fixed shanks openers, working at three depths, in a Ferralic Nitisol (Rhodic), under NT on the mitigation of soil compaction and corn (. Zea mays L.) plant development. The test comprised three treatments regarding the depth at which the shank openers of a seeder used to sow corn worked: openers reaching up to 0.05. m; openers reaching up to 0.07. m; and openers reaching up to 0.17. m. The effect of these treatments was evaluated in relation to the determination of soil physical parameters, and corn plant parameters. The use of a seeder equipped with fixed shanks openers up to 0.17. m depth caused an increase in soil macroporosity and total porosity, and a decrease in soil bulk density, soil resistance to penetration and degree of compactness in the layer between 0.07 and 0.17. m. The improved physical conditions of the soil in this layer led to a further development of the root system of plants in greater depth, and consequently to a better development of corn plants with higher stalk diameter, root density and root length. The use of a seeder equipped with fixed shanks openers working up to 0.17. m depth, therefore, promoted physical improvement to the soil, favoring the development of corn plants, and presenting potential to mitigate the compaction of clayey soils under NT. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Mello V.M.,University of Brasilia | Oliveira G.V.,University of Brasilia | Mandarino J.M.G.,Embrapa Soja | Carrao-Panizzi M.C.,Embrapa Trigo | Suarez P.A.Z.,University of Brasilia
Industrial Crops and Products | Year: 2013

The catalytic activity of several low-toxic metal compounds was tested in the polymerization of soybean oil to produce biobased resins suitable to be used as binder in printing inks (offset). Soybean was polymerized in the absence and presence of different complexes of the type M(Carboxylate)2 (M=Ni, Fe, Co, Cu and Sn) and all compounds showed activity. The best result was obtained using Ni(II), when was observed an apparent kinematic constant up to 2.4 times higher than when in the absence of any metal compound. It was also observed that the catalytic activity of the Ni(II) strongly depends upon the metal content and the reaction temperature. Testing different vegetable oils was observed that the catalytic activity was dependent on the number of double-bonds of the oil. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Maciel J.L.N.,Embrapa Trigo | Ceresini P.C.,São Paulo State University | Castroagudin V.L.,São Paulo State University | Zala M.,ETH Zurich | And 2 more authors.
Phytopathology | Year: 2014

Since its first report in Brazil in 1985, wheat blast, caused by Magnaporthe oryzae (anamorph: Pyricularia oryzae), has become increasingly important in South America, where the disease is still spreading. We used 11 microsatellite loci to elucidate the population structure of the wheat blast pathogen in wheat fields in central-western, southeastern, and southern Brazil. No subdivision was found among the wheat-infecting populations, consistent with high levels of gene flow across a large spatial scale. Although the clonal fraction was relatively high and the two mating type idiomorphs (MAT1-1 and MAT1-2) were not at similar frequencies, the clone-corrected populations from Distrito Federal and Goiás, Minas Triangle, and São Paulo were in gametic equilibrium. Based on these findings, we propose that populations of the wheat blast pathogen exhibit a mixed reproductive system in which sexual reproduction is followed by the local dispersal of clones. Seedling virulence assays with local wheat cultivars differentiated 14 pathotypes in the current population. Detached head virulence assays differentiated eight virulence groups on the same wheat cultivars. There was no correlation between seedling and head reactions. © 2014 The American Phytopathological Society.

Pereira J.F.,Embrapa Trigo | Zhou G.,CSIRO | Zhou G.,University of Tasmania | Delhaize E.,CSIRO | And 3 more authors.
Annals of Botany | Year: 2010

Background and Aims: Expected increases in world population will continue to make demands on agricultural productivity and food supply. These challenges will only be met by increasing the land under cultivation and by improving the yields obtained on existing farms. Genetic engineering can target key traits to improve crop yields and to increase production on marginal soils. Soil acidity is a major abiotic stress that limits plant production worldwide. The goal of this study was to enhance the acid soil tolerance of wheat by increasing its resistance to Al3+ toxicity. Methods: Particle bombardment was used to transform wheat with TaALMT1, the Al3+ resistance gene from wheat, using the maize ubiquitin promoter to drive expression. TaALMT1 expression, malate efflux and Al3+ resistance were measured in the T1 and T2 lines and compared with the parental line and an Al 3+-resistant reference genotype, ET8. Key Results: Nine T2 lines showed increased TaALMT1 expression, malate efflux and Al3+ resistance when compared with untransformed controls and null segregant lines. Some T2 lines displayed greater Al3+ resistance than ET8 in both hydroponic and soil experiments. Conclusions: The Al3+ resistance of wheat was increased by enhancing TaALMT1 expression with biotechnology. This is the first report of a major food crop being stably transformed for greater Al3+ resistance. Transgenic strategies provide options for increasing food supply on acid soils. © The Author 2010.

Costa A.G.,Federal University of Goais | Chagas J.H.,Embrapa Trigo | Pinto J.E.B.P.,Federal University of Lavras | Bertolucci S.K.V.,Federal University of Lavras
Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira | Year: 2012

The objective of this work was to evaluate the growth and the content, yield, and chemical composition of the essential oil of peppermint (Mentha piperita) grown under different nets in Lavras, MG, Brazil. Peppermint plants were grown in five environments: full sun, black net, aluminet net, blue net, and red net, all with 50% of irradiance. The experimental design was a completely randomized block with four replicates and five plants per plot. The evaluated parameters were: vegetative growth, content, yield, and chemical analysis of the essential oil. Peppermint plants grown under full sun and black and red nets produced higher dry leaf biomass and higher essential oil content and yield. However, in full sun, the essential oil of the plants had higher contents of menthol and, under black and blue nets, of menthophurane. Therefore, it is possible to manipulate plant growth and yield and chemical composition of the essential oil of peppermint with cultivation under nets or full sun.

Nunes M.R.,Federal University of Pelotas | Denardin J.E.,Embrapa Trigo | Faganello A.,Embrapa Trigo | Pauletto E.A.,Federal University of Pelotas | Pinto L.F.S.,Federal University of Pelotas
Revista Brasileira de Ciencia do Solo | Year: 2014

The adoption of no-till in the humid subtropical region of Brazil based on only two precepts of conservation agriculture, soil disturbance restricted to the crop row and crop residue maintained as soil cover, has led to stratification of soil chemical properties in the 0-20 cm soil layer and physical degradation of the subsurface layer (from approximately the 5-20 cm depth), which may make for lower yields during short term droughts. The aim of this study was to evaluate the residual effect of a seed drill/fertilizer applicator equipped with fixed shanks, set at four different depths, for the sowing of maize (Zea mays L.), in mitigation of chemical and physical problems in a Latossolo Vermelho distrófico húmico (Rhodic Hapludox) under no-till for more than ten years. The treatments were: T1 = shank extremity at 5 cm depth; T2 = shank extremity at 10 cm depth; T3 = shank extremity at 15 cm depth; and T4 = shank extremity at 17 cm depth. The crop profile method was used to evaluate soil physical properties (bulk density, total porosity, macroporosity, and soil resistance to penetration) at eight and ten months after sowing the maize. The chemical properties (pH in water; available P and K; exchangeable Ca, Mg, and Al; potential acidity; and organic matter) were evaluated in layers every 2.5 cm from the 0-22.5 cm depth. The seed drill/fertilizer applicator equipped with fixed shanks for ripping the soil was able to mitigate soil physical and chemical problems, both at eight and 12 months after sowing.

Panizzi A.R.,Embrapa Trigo
Neotropical Entomology | Year: 2013

The integrated pest management (IPM) of soybean developed and implemented in Brazil was one of the most successful programs of pest management in the world. Established during the 1970s, it showed a tremendous level of adoption by growers, decreasing the amount of insecticide use by over 50%. It included outstanding approaches of field scouting and decision making, considering the economic injury levels (EILs) for the major pests. Two main biological control programs were highly important to support the soybean IPM program in Brazil, i.e., the use of a NPVAg to control the major defoliator, the velvet bean caterpillar, Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner, and the use of egg parasitoids against the seed-sucking stink bugs, in particular, the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.). These two biological control programs plus pests scouting, and the use of more selective insecticides considering the EILs supported the IPM program through the 1980s and 1990s. With the change in the landscape, with the adoption of the no-tillage cultivation system and the introduction of more intense multiple cropping, and with the lower input to divulge and adapt the IPM program to this new reality, the program started to decline during the years 2000s. Nowadays, soybean IPM is almost a forgotten control technology. In this mini-review article, suggestions are made to possibly revive and adapt the soybean IPM to contemporary time. © 2013 Sociedade Entomológica do Brasil.

Carpentieri-Pipolo V.,Embrapa Trigo
Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology | Year: 2015

UEL 175 is lipoxygenase-free soybean cultivar and has absence of the antinutritional factors kunitz trypsin inhibitor (SKTI). UEL 175 presents high yield potential and good adaptation under no-tillage. It is resistant to soybean stem canker, brown stem rot, frogeye leaf spot, and bacterial pustule. © 2015, Brazilian Society of Plant Breeding. All right reserved.

Caierao E.,Embrapa Trigo | Scheeren P.L.,Embrapa Trigo | e Silva M.S.,Embrapa Trigo | de Castro R.L.,Embrapa Trigo
Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology | Year: 2014

In forty years of genetic breeding of wheat, Embrapa (Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation) has developed over a hundred new cultivars for different regions of Brazil. Information regarding identification of these cultivars is often requested from Embrapa breeders. Data on year of release, name of pre-commercial line, the cross made, and the company unit responsible for indication of the cultivar are not always easily accessible and are often scattered throughout different documents. The aim of this study was to conduct a historical survey of all the wheat cultivars released by Embrapa, aggregating the information in a single document. Since 1974, Embrapa has released 112 wheat cultivars, including 12 by Embrapa Soybean - CNPSo (Londrina, PR), 14 by Embrapa Cerrado - CPAC (Brasília, DF), 9 by Embrapa Agropecuária Oeste - CPAO (Dourados, MS), and 77 by Embrapa Wheat - CNPT (Passo Fundo, RS). © 2014, Brazilian Society of Plant Breeding. All rights reserved.

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