Concordia, Brazil
Concordia, Brazil

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Tavernari F.C.,Embrapa Swine and Poultry | Lelis G.R.,Federal University of Viçosa | Vieira R.A.,Federal University of Viçosa | Rostagno H.S.,Federal University of Viçosa | And 2 more authors.
Poultry Science | Year: 2013

Two independent experiments were conducted with male Cobb × Cobb 500 broilers to determine the optimal valine-to-digestible-lysine ratio for broiler development. We conducted a randomized block experiment with 7 treatments, each with 8 replicates of 25 starter birds (8 to 21 d of age) and 20 finisher (30 to 43 d of age) birds. To prevent any excess of digestible lysine, 93% of the recommended level of digestible lysine was used to evaluate the valine-to-lysine ratio. The utilized levels of dietary digestible lysine were 10. 7 and 9. 40 g/kg for the starting and growing phases, respectively. A control diet with 100% of the recommended level of lysine and an adequate valine-to-lysine ratio was also used. The feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion ratio, and carcass parameters were evaluated. The treatments had no significant effect on the feed intakes or carcass parameters in the starter and finisher phases. However, during both of the studied phases, we observed a quadratic effect on weight gain and the feed conversion ratio. The broilers of both phases that were fed test diets with the lower valine-to-lysine (Val/Lys) ratio had poorer performance compared with those broilers fed control diets. However, when higher Val/ Lys ratios were used for the starting and growing broilers that were fed test diets, the 2 groups had similar performance. During the starting phase, in broilers that were fed a higher Val/Lys ratio, weight gain, and the feed conversion ratio improved by 5. 5% compared with broilers fed the basal diets. The broilers in the growing phase also had improved performance (by 7 to 8%) when the test diets had higher Val/Lys ratios. Based on the analysis of the starter phase data, we concluded that the optimal digestible Val/Lys ratio for Cobb × Cobb 500 broilers is 77%, whereas for birds in the finisher phase (30 to 43 d of age), a digestible Val/Lys ratio of 76% is suggested. © 2013 Poultry Science Association Inc.

de Campos B.-H.C.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Amado T.J.C.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Bayer C.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Nicoloso R.S.,Embrapa Swine and Poultry | Fiorin J.E.,University of Cruz Alta
Revista Brasileira de Ciencia do Solo | Year: 2011

Soil organic matter (SOM) plays a crucial role in soil quality and can act as an atmospheric C-CO 2 sink under conservationist management systems. This study aimed to evaluate the long-term effects (19 years) of tillage (CT-conventional tillage and NT-no tillage) and crop rotations (R0-monoculture system, R1-winter crop rotation, and R2-intensive crop rotation) on total, particulate and mineralassociated organic carbon (C) stocks of an originally degraded Red Oxisol in Cruz Alta, RS, Southern Brazil. The climate is humid subtropical Cfa 2a (Köppen classification), the mean annual precipitation 1,774 mm and mean annual temperature 19.2 °C. The plots were divided into four segments, of which each was sampled in the layers 0-0.05, 0.05-0.10, 0.10-0.20, and 0.20-0.30 m. Sampling was performed manually by opening small trenches. The SOM pools were determined by physical fractionation. Soil C stocks had a linear relationship with annual crop C inputs, regardless of the tillage systems. Thus, soil disturbance had a minor effect on SOM turnover. In the 0-0.30 m layer, soil C sequestration ranged from 0 to 0.51 Mg ha -1 yr -1, using the CT R0 treatment as base-line; crop rotation systems had more influence on soil stock C than tillage systems. The mean C sequestration rate of the cropping systems was 0.13 Mg ha -1 yr -1 higher in NT than CT. This result was associated to the higher C input by crops due to the improvement in soil quality under long-term no-tillage. The particulate C fraction was a sensitive indicator of soil management quality, while mineral-associated organic C was the main pool of atmospheric C fixed in this clayey Oxisol. The C retention in this stable SOM fraction accounts for 81 and 89 % of total C sequestration in the treatments NT R1 and NT R2, respectively, in relation to the same cropping systems under CT. The highest C management index was observed in NT R2, confirming the capacity of this soil management practice to improve the soil C stock qualitatively in relation to CT R0. The results highlighted the diversification of crop rotation with cover crops as a crucial strategy for atmospheric C-CO 2 sequestration and SOM quality improvement in highly weathered subtropical Oxisols.

da Silva M.L.B.,Embrapa Swine and Poultry | Mezzari M.P.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Ibelli A.M.G.,Embrapa Swine and Poultry | Gregory K.B.,Carnegie Mellon University
International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation | Year: 2014

Biogas production from anaerobic biodegradation of livestock waste is a potential source of renewable energy. In addition to methane, biodegradation of this high-strength waste also produces sulfide that must be removed in order to prevent costly corrosive impacts on infrastructure. In this work, an anaerobic, phototrophic microbial community enriched from the native population in a swine waste lagoon was evaluated for its potential to remove sulfide from swine waste biogas. Batch experiments with the consortium attained removal efficiencies greater than 97% for sulfide concentrations above 1200ppm. 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that the dominant population was most closely related to the isolate Azospirillum strain C5 (similarity index of 99%). Photomicrograph of the enriched consortium revealed the presence of cells with intracellular globules resembling sulfur storage. The enrichment of Azospirillum-like and the concomitant sulfide consumption suggest that this microorganism played an important role in sulfide removal in the bioreactor. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Bertechini A.G.,Federal University of Lavras | Mazzuco H.,Embrapa Swine and Poultry | Rodrigues E.C.,Federal University of Lavras | Ramos E.M.,Federal University of Lavras
Poultry Science | Year: 2014

This study evaluated the performance and viability of light egg-type males, usually euthanized at the hatcheries, from White and Brown Leghorn laying hen lines. One-day-old male chicks, half from each hen line, were raised in floor pens until they were 42 d of age. The birds were distributed into 48 floor pens, furnished with tube feeders and nipple drinkers, and submitted to 24 h of continuous light, 3 feeding phases (1-7, 8-21, and 22-42 d) and diets composed of corn and soybean meal as the main ingredients. A completely randomized design was used in a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement (phase levels of ME dietary treatments × strain) of 6 replicates of 40 birds each. The variables evaluated were bird performance, carcass quality, and yield at 42 d of age. Mortality and cannibalism were not observed during the entire experimental period, although the birds' beaks were not trimmed. The brown males line showed higher feed consumption and BW gain and better feed conversion compared with the white male line (P < 0.05). Metabolizable energy (kcal/kg) levels of 3,200 (1 to 7 d), 3,050 (8 to 21 d), and 3,200 (22 to 42 d) provided better performance (P < 0.05) in both lines. The carcass yields were similar (P > 0.05) between the 2 lines; males from the white line showed higher breast yield, and the brown line males showed higher yield of thighs and drumstick (P < 0.05). The treatments had no effect on meat quality (P > 0.05). Overall, the results suggest that there is great viability for the use of male chicks from laying hens of both leghorn lines as a high quality protein source for human consumption. © 2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

Cunha A.,Embrapa Swine and Poultry | Feddern V.,Embrapa Swine and Poultry | De Pra M.C.,Contestado University | Higarashi M.M.,Embrapa Swine and Poultry | And 2 more authors.
Fuel | Year: 2013

This study optimized the conversion of animal fat wastes into ethylic biodiesel by alkali-catalyzed process under mild conditions. A mix of chicken and swine fat residues was used as feedstock for biodiesel production. A full 33 factorial design was used to optimize process parameters for maximum fatty acid ethyl esters yield. Factors were evaluated at three different levels: temperature (30; 50; 70 °C), ethanol:fat molar ratio (6:1; 7:1; 8:1) and catalyst concentration (0.44; 0.88; 1.32 wt.%). Effects of the process variables were analyzed using response surface methodology. Moreover, optimum conditions were applied in a bench-scale reactor and biofuel produced was characterized. It was observed that at high temperatures (50 and 70 °C), phase separation between biodiesel and glycerol was impaired. Although high conversion was achieved (96.2%) at 70 °C, this condition is not recommended because no spontaneous phase separation was verified. On the other hand, 30 °C was identified as the best temperature for biodiesel ethanolysis, using 0.96 wt.% catalyst and 7:1 ethanol:fat molar ratio. With these conditions, it is possible to achieve around 83% conversion. Despite the oxidative stability and total glycerin, biodiesel measured properties agreed with quality requirements established by Official Regulations (ASTM 6751 and EN 14214). © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

de Oliveira Ferreira A.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Jorge Carneiro Amado T.,Federal University of Santa Maria | da Silveira Nicoloso R.,Embrapa Swine and Poultry | de Moraes Sa J.C.,State University of Ponta Grossa | And 3 more authors.
Soil and Tillage Research | Year: 2013

Continuous residue inputs when associated with minimum soil disturbance gradually promote the stratification of soil organic carbon (SOC) in the soil profile. In temperate soils, this characteristic has been used as an indicator of quality of soil management. However, few studies have been conducted with this indicator in tropical and subtropical climates or with the main soil orders in these areas. To fill this gap, this study was carried out in a subtropical climate with two of the major Brazilian soil orders, Oxisol and Alfisol, that together account for 63% of Brazilian agricultural soils. This study tested the hypothesis that the CSR is affected by soil order and climate type. The main treatments were soil tillage and different cropping systems in two long-term experiments carried out in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The first experiment, established in 1985, was conducted over a clayey Hapludox (Oxisol) soil. The main plots were treated with one of two tillage systems (conventional tillage -CT; and no-tillage -NT). The subplots were treated with one of three cropping systems: (a) continuous crop succession (R0) -wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)/soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill); (b) winter crop rotation (R1)-wheat/soybean/black oat (Avena strigosa Schreber)/soybean; (c) summer and winter crop rotation (R2) -wheat/soybean/black oat/soybean/black oat. +. common vetch (Vicia sativa L. Walp)/maize (Zea mays L.)/forage radish (Raphanus sativus var. oleiferus Metzg.). The second experiment was established in 1991 over a sandy loam distrophic Paleudalf (Alfisol) soil. Five cropping systems were analyzed under no-till: (a) maize. +. jack beans (Canavalia ensiformis DC)/soybean (M/JB); (b) maize/fallow/soybean (M/F); (c) maize/ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.). +. common vetch/soybean (M/R); (d) maize. +. velvet beans (Stizolobium cinereum Piper and Tracy)/soybean (M/VB); and (e) maize/radish oil/soybean (M/FR). The carbon stratification ratio (CSR) was assessed in the 19th and 22nd experimental years for Oxisol and in the 10th and 17th years for Alfisol. This index was calculated through the ratio of SOC stocks in the 0-0.05 and 0.05-0.15. m soil layers. The CPI was determined through the ratio of SOC stocks in the 0-0.15. m soil layer in a given treatment compared with native vegetation. Regardless of the soil order, SOC was influenced by C input and the tillage system; there was a positive linear relationship between CSR and CPI. The relationship between the CSR and the carbon pool index (CPI) was used to infer the quality of soil management. Higher CSR and CPI indices were found under treatments with minimum soil disturbance and intensive crop rotation. Lower CSR and CPI values were associated with frequent mobilization and lower crop diversity. These CSR indices sensitively distinguished the intensity of tillage (NT replacing CT) and cropping systems (cover crops replacing winter fallow or crop succession). The CSR values in subtropical soils investigated were lower than those reported for temperate soils. The soil order affected the critical CSR value being lower in the Oxisol than in the Alfisol. Our findings recommend accept our hypothesis that the CSR is affected by climate and soil order. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Angnes G.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Nicoloso R.S.,Embrapa Swine and Poultry | da Silva M.L.B.,Embrapa Swine and Poultry | de Oliveira P.A.V.,Embrapa Swine and Poultry | And 3 more authors.
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2013

This work evaluated N dynamics that occurs over time within swine slurry composting piles. Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) analyzes were conducted to estimate concentrations of bacteria community harboring specific catabolic nitrifying-ammonium monooxygenase (amoA), and denitrifying nitrate- (narG), nitrite- (nirS and nirG), nitric oxide- (norB) and nitrous oxide reductases (nosZ) genes. NH3-N, N2O-N, N2-N emissions represented 15.4±1.9%, 5.4±0.9%, and 79.1±2.0% of the total nitrogen losses, respectively. Among the genes tested, temporal distribution of narG, nirS, and nosZ concentration correlated significantly (p<0.05) with the estimated N2 emissions. Denitrifying catabolic gene ratio (cnorB+qnorB)/nosZ≥100 was indicative of N2O emission potential from the compost pile. Considering our current empirical limitations to accurately measure N2 emissions from swine slurry composting at field scale the use of these catabolic genes could represent a promising monitoring tool to aid minimize our uncertainties on biological N mass balances in these systems. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Bressan C.R.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Kunz A.,Embrapa Swine and Poultry | Schmidell W.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Soares H.M.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Water, Air, and Soil Pollution | Year: 2013

Colistin is a peptide antibiotic widely used as a food additive in animal farming, specially swine and poultry, and also has recently been applied in human medicine to treat infections caused by multiresistant gram-negative bacteria strains. When orally administered, colistin is eliminated in feces virtually unaltered; thus, it may reach water bodies and wastewater treatment facilities in its active form. Apart from the risks associated with development of antimicrobial resistance and environmental toxicity issues, the presence of antimicrobials in wastewater can, additionally, interfere in biological processes commonly used to treat them. Nitrifying bacteria are among the most sensitive microorganisms to inhibitory compounds, including pharmaceuticals, and are useful as biosensors to access contaminant toxicity information in wastewater treatment plants. Therefore, in order to assess the colistin acute toxicity to the microorganisms involved in the nitrification processes, the nitritation and nitratation kinetics were monitored under different colistin concentrations. The results showed that only ammonia-oxidizing bacteria are sensitive to the antibiotic, presenting an IC50 of 10.8 mg L-1 of colistin when used as a commercial formulation and 67.0 mg L-1 when used as raw colistin sulfate. For nitrite-oxidizing bacteria, even the highest colistin concentration used in the assays (316 mg L-1) was not sufficient to inhibit the process. According to these results, the colistin concentrations expected in animal farming wastewater, when its dosage is used as a growth promoter, would not be enough to keep nitrification from taking place. Nevertheless, when used in higher concentrations, such as for therapeutic purposes, it could endanger the maintenance of the process. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Nicoloso R.S.,Embrapa Swine and Poultry | Rice C.W.,Kansas State University | Amado T.J.C.,Federal University of Santa Maria
Soil Science Society of America Journal | Year: 2016

The use of mathematical models predicting SOC dynamics can provide relevant information about the C storage potential of agricultural soils. We evaluated three mathematical models (first-order kinetic, C saturation, and a proposed kinetic to saturation) predicting SOC dynamics and steady-state SOC of a Hapludoll from central Kansas. The study was based on a long-term experiment (17 yr) assessing soil tillage systems (chisel tillage [CT] and notill [NT]) and N fertilizer sources (168 kg N ha-1 as NH4NO3 [MF], cattle manure [OF], and a control treatment without N [CO]. The soil under NT (0-5 cm) had significant SOC accumulation (>0.23 Mg C ha-1 yr-1) regardless of fertilization source, while the CT soil had negligible changes in SOC (<0.12 Mg C ha-1 yr-1) without the addition of organic fertilizer as an external C source. Organic fertilization increased the original SOC by 56 and 192%, reaching steady state at 15.9 and 28.0 Mg ha-1 in CT and NT soils, respectively. The SOC predicted by all three models had significant correlations (r > 0.80, p < 0.05) with measured SOC. However, the C saturation model overestimated the measured SOC under C-depleted conditions, failing RMSE and lack-of-fit tests, while the first-order kinetic model overestimated NT OF steady-state SOC by up to 58% in relation to the maximum SOC storage capacity determined for NT soils. The SOC predicted by the kinetic to saturation model agreed with both measured SOC and the maximum SOC storage capacity of NT soils. The kinetic to saturation model can be used for long-term simulation of SOC dynamics in soils that are either C depleted or close to saturation. © Soil Science Society of America. All Rights reserved.

De Pra M.C.,Contestado University | Kunz A.,Embrapa Swine and Poultry | Bortoli M.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Perondi T.,University of West Santa Catarina | Chini A.,Contestado University
Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology | Year: 2012

BACKGROUND: Considering biological nitrogen removal, the partial nitritation connected with the anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) process is a promising alternative for nitrogen elimination at high loading rates. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the establishment and operation of a partial nitritation process in an airlift reactor with simultaneous removal of total organic carbon and suspended solids using swine wastewater. RESULTS: The partial nitritation reactor was inoculated with a nitrifying sludge at 2.1 gTSS L-1 and fed with an UASB reactor effluent. High organic carbon loading rates, above 2 kgTOC m-3 d-1 have been shown to be potential inhibitors of the partial nitritation process due to competition between autotrophic and heterotrophic bacteria. In this study, the partial nitritation process was established using undiluted swine wastewater, with HRT of 24 h, 1.84 mgO2 L-1 (SD = 0.41) DO, loading rate of 1.14 gTOC L-1 d-1 and 0.91 gN-NH3 L-1 d-1 for more than 100 consecutive days. At the same time, the system proved to be an effective tool in TOC and TSS removal, reaching 84.9% (SD = 9.3) and 83.1% (SD = 0.1), respectively. CONCLUSION: This result enhances partial nitritation application as a technology for high load nitrogen converting, and allows the possibility of connection with anammox reactors. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

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