Concordia, Brazil
Concordia, Brazil

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Oliveira M.D.S.,Institute Federal Of Educacao | Feddern V.,Embrapa Suinos e Aves | Kupski L.,Grande Rio University | Cipolatti E.P.,Grande Rio University | And 2 more authors.
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2011

The aim of this study was to evaluate fermented rice bran phospholipids, lipids and fatty acid content in a fermentation solid system with Rhizopus oryzae fungus. For this, aliquots were withdrawn every 24. h over 120. h. The content of phospholipids was determined by colorimetric method. Esterified fatty acids were separated by gas chromatography, then identified and quantified. The total lipids from fermented rice bran (FB) decreased from 20.4% to 11.2% in the range between 0. h and 120. h of fermentation while phospholipid contents were increased up to 2.4mgPglipid-1. In fermented bran, oleic, palmitic and linoleic acids prevailed, with a decrease in saturated fatty acids (20%) and increase in the unsaturated ones (5%). This study showed that rice bran fermentation with R. oryzae can be applied to the production of phospholipids altering the saturated to unsaturated fatty acid ratio. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Paranhos da Costa M.J.R.,São Paulo State University | Huertas S.M.,University of the Republic of Uruguay | Gallo C.,Austral University of Chile | Dalla Costa O.A.,Embrapa Suinos e Aves
Meat Science | Year: 2012

Several initiatives, including research and development, increasing stakeholders' awareness and application of legislation and recommendation, have been carried out in Latin America to promote animal welfare and meat quality. Most activities focused on the impact of pre-slaughter conditions (facilities, equipment and handling procedures) on animal welfare and meat quality. The results are encouraging; data from Brazil, Chile and Uruguay showed that the application of the improved pre-slaughter handling practices reduced aggressive handling and the incidence of bruised carcasses at slaughter in cattle and pigs. These outcomes stimulated some to apply animal welfare concepts in livestock handling within the meat production chain as shown by the increasing demand for personnel training on the best. To attend this demand is important to expand local studies on farm animal welfare and to set up (or maintain) an efficient system for knowledge transfer to all stakeholders in the Latin America meat production chains. However, it is clear that to promote the long-term progress in this field is important to deliver practical solutions, assuring that they match the technical and financial conditions of those who are the target of training programs. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Souza R.C.,Embrapa Soja | Souza R.C.,State University Londrina | Cantao M.E.,Embrapa Suinos e Aves | Vasconcelos A.T.R.,Laboratorio Nacional Of Computacao Cientifica | And 4 more authors.
Applied Soil Ecology | Year: 2013

Soil conservation practices are critical for agricultural sustainability, and in this study the shotgun sequencing approach was used to investigate the effects on soil biodiversity of different soil- and crop-management practices in a 13-year field trial in southern Brazil. Treatments consisted of conventional tillage (CT) with plowing and disking, or no-tillage (NT) with direct sowing into the residues of previous crops, in a crop succession [soybean (summer)/wheat (winter)] or rotation [soybean/maize (summer)/wheat/lupine/oat (winter)]. About 1 million reads per treatment revealed very high levels of diversity. The majority of the sequences were attributed to the Bacteria (54%), and 0.3% and 0.2% fitted into Archaea and Eucarya domains, respectively; 46% showed no similarity with any known sequences. Major differences were associated with tillage and, to a lesser extent, with crop management. Statistically significant higher abundances with CT encompassed microorganisms associated with residue decomposition, carbon and nitrogen cycling, and xenobiosis. Eucarya were also more abundant with CT, possibly related to higher tolerance of environmental stresses. In contrast, NT showed higher abundances particularly of nitrogen-fixing Rhizobiales and Archaea that inhabit environments rich in organic matter. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Cassoli L.D.,University of Sao Paulo | Machado P.F.,University of Sao Paulo | Coldebella A.,Embrapa Suinos e Aves
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia | Year: 2010

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of storage temperature and sample age on the total bacterial count (TBC) of milk samples preserved with azidiol to verify whether a single sample could be used to perform regulatory milk analysis under the Normative Instruction 51 (IN-51). Three hundred and twenty milk aliquots were used collected from an expansion tank to assess three storage temperatures (0 °C - frozen: 7 °C - refrigerated, and 24 °C - room temperature), three types of conservation (bronopol, azidiol and no preservative) and four sample ages (1, 3, 5, and 7 days). For the total bacteria count, refrigerated control samples, with azidiol and one day old samples, and for composition and somatic cell count (SCC), the controls were defined as one day old refrigerated samples containing bronopol. Samples conserved with bronopol presented lower total bacteria count than the control regardless of storage temperature and sample age. Milk samples conserved with azidiol and stored refrigerated presented lower SCC, regardless of age, compared to refrigerated samples conserved with bronopol. The fat and lactose contents decreased after the fifth day. Two samples had to be collected: one for SCC determination and composition containing bronopol and another for the total bacteria count containing azidiol. Milk samples used for total bacteria count can be tested up to 7 days if they are kept at 7 °C with the addition of azidiol. © 2010 Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia.


Cipolatti E.P.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Silva M.J.A.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Klein M.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Feddern V.,Embrapa Suinos e Aves | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Molecular Catalysis B: Enzymatic | Year: 2014

Nanostructures are very attractive for enzymatic immobilization processes, since they possess ideal characteristics to equilibrate principal factors which determine biocatalysts efficiency, including specific surface area, mass transfer resistance and effective enzyme loading. A lot of materials are used at nano-size in processes of immobilization, like silica, chitosan, gold, diamond, metals, including graphene and zirconium. The functionalization of these supports is thoroughly studied. The focus of this review is to present the current status and some trends in enzymatic nanoimmobilization. Some applications of nanoimmobilized enzymes are explained in this review as well, considering biodiesel production, esters synthesis and biosensors. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Kunz A.,Embrapa Suinos e Aves | Steinmetz R.L.R.,Embrapa Suinos e Aves | Bortoli M.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Agricola e Ambiental | Year: 2010

Swine production is growing fast in Brazil and the contribution of the modern swine production represented by confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs), has been very important. The high animal concentration in small areas point out a very intensive environmental impact due to the concentration of organic matter and nutrients in their effluents. There are a lot of alternatives to treat swine manure: physical physico-chemical and biological treatments; these processes can be used together and sequentialy. In this paper, a solid-liquid separation process was studied based on coagulation and flocculation with tannin extracts in a settling tank, that is used as a part of a swine manure compact treatment system to treat swine manure. The process was adjusted in a laboratory scale and some modification was introduced in the full scale plant. A comparison between the pre and post adjustment process was performed. The process modification increase the COD removal from 46 to 56% and the settled solids concentration in the effluent from settling tank was also reduced.


Viancelli A.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Kunz A.,Embrapa Suinos e Aves | Steinmetz R.L.R.,Embrapa Suinos e Aves | Kich J.D.,Embrapa Suinos e Aves | And 5 more authors.
Chemosphere | Year: 2013

Swine effluents must be correctly handled to avoid negative environmental impacts. In this study, the profiles of two swine manure treatment systems were evaluated: a solid-liquid separation step, followed by an anaerobic reactor, and an aerobic step (System 1); and a biodigester followed by serial lagoons (System 2). Both systems were described by the assessment of chemical, bacterial and viral parameters. The results showed that in System 1, there was reduction of chemicals (COD, phosphorus, total Kjeldhal nitrogen - TKN - and NH3), total coliforms and Escherichia coli; however, the same reduction was not observed for Salmonella sp. Viral particles were significantly reduced but not totally eliminated from the effluent. In System 2, there was a reduction of chemicals, bacteria and viruses with no detection of Salmonella sp., circovirus, parvovirus, and torque teno virus in the effluent. The chemical results indicate that the treated effluent can be reused for cleaning swine facilities. However, the microbiological results show a need of additional treatment to achieve a complete inactivation for cases when direct contact with animals is required. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Sommavilla R.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Hotzel M.J.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Dalla Costa O.A.,Embrapa Suinos e Aves
Animal | Year: 2011

The aim of this study was to compare the short-term post-weaning behaviour of piglets treated either neutrally or aversively during the suckling period. A total of 24 lactating sows and their litters were housed in different rooms according to treatment. A female experimenter (P1) was in charge of feeding and cleaning from days 10 to 27 after birth. For the aversive treatment (Aver), P1 was noisy, moved harshly and unpredictably and shouted frequently during routine cleaning of facilities and animal handling. For the neutral treatment (Neut), P1 used a soft tone of voice and was careful during the same routine. At weaning, the avoidance response of piglets to an approaching experimenter in a novel place was assessed in four piglets from each litter. Scores ranged from 1 (experimenter could touch piglet) to 4 (piglet escaped as soon as person moved). The test was repeated twice, with a 1-h interval, with P1, who wore blue trousers and white T-shirt, and a second handler unfamiliar to the piglets (P2, who wore blue coveralls). Thereafter, litters from the same treatment were mixed and housed in separate rooms, balanced for gender and live weight (n = 12 groups of 4 piglets/treatment). Behaviour time budgets were registered by scan sampling every 2-min, for 4 h per day, for 4 days. Piglets were weighed at birth, at weaning and on day 5. Effects of treatment and handler on responses to the avoidance test were analysed with non-parametric tests and effects of treatment with a mixed model for repeated measures. Avoidance score was higher for Aver than Neut piglets when tested with P1 (P = 0.04) but not with P2 (P = 0.8). When piglets' responses to the different handlers were compared within each treatment, no significant differences were found. Frequencies of resting were lower (P < 0.001), whereas escape attempts (P < 0.03), agonistic interactions (P < 0.02) and frequency of presence at feeder (P < 0.001) were higher in the Aver than in the Neut groups. Feed and water intake and weight gain did not differ between treatments. We conclude that 4-week-old piglets can discriminate a handler according to the nature of treatment received during suckling. In addition, piglets treated aversively seem to have more difficulty adapting to weaning than those treated neutrally during the suckling period. © 2011 The Animal Consortium.


The factors for disease emergence or reemergence are little known and understood, but the main one is the expansion of the human population. Other factors include climate change, globalization, and intensification of animal production. This is disturbing, given that 75% of emerging or reemerging human diseases of the last century are zoonoses, that is, animal diseases, which, besides causing human and animal fatalities, affect the economy of countries. It is estimated that the impact of animal diseases exceeds 20% of the losses in animal production worldwide. Brazil is a major agricultural producer and has most of its territory in the tropical region, harboring the greatest environmental biodiversity of the globe. Studies have pointed the Amazon region as a hot spot where diseases have emerged or will emerge. In this context, the formation of a cooperation network with strategic actions for monitoring, research, communication, and training is recommended. It is essential to foster partnerships in the areas of health, agriculture, and environment for a prompt national and global response. The objective of this work was to address the main factors involved in the emergence or reemergence of zoonoses, as well as future threats and the strategic importance of Brazilian research and surveillance.


Savegnago R.P.,São Paulo State University | Nunes B.N.,São Paulo State University | Caetano S.L.,São Paulo State University | Ferraudo A.S.,São Paulo State University | And 3 more authors.
Poultry Science | Year: 2011

Neural networks are capable of modeling any complex function and can be used in the poultry and animal production areas. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of using neural networks on an egg production data set and fitting models to the egg production curve by applying 2 approaches, one using a nonlinear logistic model and the other using 2 artificial neural network models [multilayer perceptron (MLP) and radial basis function]. Two data sets from 2 generations of a White Leghorn strain that had been selected mainly for egg production were used. In the first data set, the mean weekly egg-laying rate was ascertained over a 54-wk egg production period. This data set was used to adjust and test the logistic model and to train and test the neural networks. The second data set, covering 52 wk of egg production, was used to validate the models. The mean absolute deviation, mean square error, and R2 were used to evaluate the fit of the models. The MLP neural network had the best fit in the test and validation phases. The advantage of using neural networks is that they can be fitted to any kind of data set and do not require model assumptions such as those required in the nonlinear methodology. The results confirm that MLP neural networks can be used as an alternative tool to fit to egg production. The benefits of the MLP are the great flexibility and their lack of a priori assumptions when estimating a noisy nonlinear model. © 2011 Poultry Science Association Inc.

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