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Concordia, Brazil

Souza R.C.,Embrapa Soja | Souza R.C.,State University Londrina | Cantao M.E.,Embrapa Suinos e Aves | Vasconcelos A.T.R.,Laboratorio Nacional Of Computacao Cientifica | And 4 more authors.
Applied Soil Ecology

Soil conservation practices are critical for agricultural sustainability, and in this study the shotgun sequencing approach was used to investigate the effects on soil biodiversity of different soil- and crop-management practices in a 13-year field trial in southern Brazil. Treatments consisted of conventional tillage (CT) with plowing and disking, or no-tillage (NT) with direct sowing into the residues of previous crops, in a crop succession [soybean (summer)/wheat (winter)] or rotation [soybean/maize (summer)/wheat/lupine/oat (winter)]. About 1 million reads per treatment revealed very high levels of diversity. The majority of the sequences were attributed to the Bacteria (54%), and 0.3% and 0.2% fitted into Archaea and Eucarya domains, respectively; 46% showed no similarity with any known sequences. Major differences were associated with tillage and, to a lesser extent, with crop management. Statistically significant higher abundances with CT encompassed microorganisms associated with residue decomposition, carbon and nitrogen cycling, and xenobiosis. Eucarya were also more abundant with CT, possibly related to higher tolerance of environmental stresses. In contrast, NT showed higher abundances particularly of nitrogen-fixing Rhizobiales and Archaea that inhabit environments rich in organic matter. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

Cassoli L.D.,University of Sao Paulo | Machado P.F.,University of Sao Paulo | Coldebella A.,Embrapa Suinos e Aves
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of storage temperature and sample age on the total bacterial count (TBC) of milk samples preserved with azidiol to verify whether a single sample could be used to perform regulatory milk analysis under the Normative Instruction 51 (IN-51). Three hundred and twenty milk aliquots were used collected from an expansion tank to assess three storage temperatures (0 °C - frozen: 7 °C - refrigerated, and 24 °C - room temperature), three types of conservation (bronopol, azidiol and no preservative) and four sample ages (1, 3, 5, and 7 days). For the total bacteria count, refrigerated control samples, with azidiol and one day old samples, and for composition and somatic cell count (SCC), the controls were defined as one day old refrigerated samples containing bronopol. Samples conserved with bronopol presented lower total bacteria count than the control regardless of storage temperature and sample age. Milk samples conserved with azidiol and stored refrigerated presented lower SCC, regardless of age, compared to refrigerated samples conserved with bronopol. The fat and lactose contents decreased after the fifth day. Two samples had to be collected: one for SCC determination and composition containing bronopol and another for the total bacteria count containing azidiol. Milk samples used for total bacteria count can be tested up to 7 days if they are kept at 7 °C with the addition of azidiol. © 2010 Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia. Source

Oliveira M.D.S.,Institute Federal Of Educacao | Feddern V.,Embrapa Suinos e Aves | Kupski L.,Grande Rio University | Cipolatti E.P.,Grande Rio University | And 2 more authors.
Bioresource Technology

The aim of this study was to evaluate fermented rice bran phospholipids, lipids and fatty acid content in a fermentation solid system with Rhizopus oryzae fungus. For this, aliquots were withdrawn every 24. h over 120. h. The content of phospholipids was determined by colorimetric method. Esterified fatty acids were separated by gas chromatography, then identified and quantified. The total lipids from fermented rice bran (FB) decreased from 20.4% to 11.2% in the range between 0. h and 120. h of fermentation while phospholipid contents were increased up to 2.4mgPglipid-1. In fermented bran, oleic, palmitic and linoleic acids prevailed, with a decrease in saturated fatty acids (20%) and increase in the unsaturated ones (5%). This study showed that rice bran fermentation with R. oryzae can be applied to the production of phospholipids altering the saturated to unsaturated fatty acid ratio. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Sommavilla R.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Hotzel M.J.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Dalla Costa O.A.,Embrapa Suinos e Aves

The aim of this study was to compare the short-term post-weaning behaviour of piglets treated either neutrally or aversively during the suckling period. A total of 24 lactating sows and their litters were housed in different rooms according to treatment. A female experimenter (P1) was in charge of feeding and cleaning from days 10 to 27 after birth. For the aversive treatment (Aver), P1 was noisy, moved harshly and unpredictably and shouted frequently during routine cleaning of facilities and animal handling. For the neutral treatment (Neut), P1 used a soft tone of voice and was careful during the same routine. At weaning, the avoidance response of piglets to an approaching experimenter in a novel place was assessed in four piglets from each litter. Scores ranged from 1 (experimenter could touch piglet) to 4 (piglet escaped as soon as person moved). The test was repeated twice, with a 1-h interval, with P1, who wore blue trousers and white T-shirt, and a second handler unfamiliar to the piglets (P2, who wore blue coveralls). Thereafter, litters from the same treatment were mixed and housed in separate rooms, balanced for gender and live weight (n = 12 groups of 4 piglets/treatment). Behaviour time budgets were registered by scan sampling every 2-min, for 4 h per day, for 4 days. Piglets were weighed at birth, at weaning and on day 5. Effects of treatment and handler on responses to the avoidance test were analysed with non-parametric tests and effects of treatment with a mixed model for repeated measures. Avoidance score was higher for Aver than Neut piglets when tested with P1 (P = 0.04) but not with P2 (P = 0.8). When piglets' responses to the different handlers were compared within each treatment, no significant differences were found. Frequencies of resting were lower (P < 0.001), whereas escape attempts (P < 0.03), agonistic interactions (P < 0.02) and frequency of presence at feeder (P < 0.001) were higher in the Aver than in the Neut groups. Feed and water intake and weight gain did not differ between treatments. We conclude that 4-week-old piglets can discriminate a handler according to the nature of treatment received during suckling. In addition, piglets treated aversively seem to have more difficulty adapting to weaning than those treated neutrally during the suckling period. © 2011 The Animal Consortium. Source

Cipolatti E.P.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Silva M.J.A.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Klein M.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Feddern V.,Embrapa Suinos e Aves | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Molecular Catalysis B: Enzymatic

Nanostructures are very attractive for enzymatic immobilization processes, since they possess ideal characteristics to equilibrate principal factors which determine biocatalysts efficiency, including specific surface area, mass transfer resistance and effective enzyme loading. A lot of materials are used at nano-size in processes of immobilization, like silica, chitosan, gold, diamond, metals, including graphene and zirconium. The functionalization of these supports is thoroughly studied. The focus of this review is to present the current status and some trends in enzymatic nanoimmobilization. Some applications of nanoimmobilized enzymes are explained in this review as well, considering biodiesel production, esters synthesis and biosensors. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

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