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Nova Londrina, Brazil

Zobiole L.H.S.,State University of Maringa | de Oliveira Jr. R.S.,State University of Maringa | Kremer R.J.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Muniz A.S.,State University of Maringa | de Oliveira Jr. A.,Embrapa Soybean
Journal of Plant Nutrition | Year: 2010

Global production of glyphosate-resistant (GR) soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] continues to increase annually; however, there are no particular specific fertilizer recommendations for the transgenic varieties used in this system largely because reports of glyphosate effects on mineral nutrition of GR soybeans are lacking. Several metabolites or degradation products of glyphosate have been identified or postulated to cause undesirable effects on GR soybeans. In this work we used increasing glyphosate rates in different application on cv. 'BRS 242 GR' in order to evaluate photosynthetic parameters, macro- and micronutrient uptake and accumulation and shoot and root dry biomass production. Increasing glyphosate rates revealed a significant decrease in photosynthesis, macro and micronutrients accumulation in leaf tissues and also decreases in nutrient uptake. The reduced biomass in GR soybeans represents additive effects from the decreased photosynthetic parameters as well as lower availability of nutrients in tissues of the glyphosate treated plants. Source

Paucar-Menacho L.M.,University of Campinas | Paucar-Menacho L.M.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Amaya-Farfan J.,University of Campinas | Berhow M.A.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | And 3 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2010

Soybean is a major source of protein and other nutrients and non-nutrient bioactives for human health. The objective was to compare the bioactive compounds of a low-protein (BRS 133) soybean in comparison to a high-protein (BRS 258) soybean cultivar. The high-protein soybean contained 17% lower carbohydrates and a lower chemical score (63) in relation to the low-protein soybean, which had a higher chemical score (76), associated with the higher methionine content (1.2%). Cultivar BRS 258 had more calcium (15.5%), phosphorus (30.1%), iron (18.7%), copper (9.0%) and zinc (11.5%), and a higher concentrations of lunasin, BBI and lectin (20.3%, 19.0% and 27.1%, respectively) than the low-protein cultivar. BRS 133 had 75.4% higher concentration of total isoflavones (5.1% of total aglycones) and 31.0% total saponins, as compared to BRS 258. It was concluded that the low-protein soybean cultivar contained higher isoflavones and saponins, but lower levels of minerals and bioactive peptides, such as lunasin. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Carmo E.L.,University of Rio Verde | Bueno A.F.,Embrapa Soybean | Bueno R.C.O.F.,University of Rio Verde
BioControl | Year: 2010

We evaluated the side-effects of insecticides, herbicides and fungicides on adults of the egg parasitoid Telenomus remus (Nixon) under laboratory conditions. The protocol was adapted from that proposed by the Pesticides and Beneficial Organisms Working Group of the International Organization for Biological Control (IOBC) for Trichogramma cacoeciae (Marchal). Chlorpyrifos, acephate, beta-cyfluthrin + imidacloprid, spinosad, and pyrethroids were harmful to the parasitoid, whereas methoxyfenozide, diflubenzuron, and flufenoxuron had no effect. Of the herbicides examined, only glyphosate + imazethapyr and 2,4-D amine were classified as harmless on the first and second days of parasitism; paraquat was the most harmful. Other herbicides were harmless on the first day of parasitism, but caused various levels of reduction of T. remus parasitism on the second day. The fungicides were harmless or only slightly harmful. © 2010 International Organization for Biological Control (IOBC). Source

Carpentieri-Pipolo V.,University Estabdual Of Londrina | Pipolo A.E.,Embrapa Soybean | Abdel-Haleem H.,University of Georgia | Boerma H.R.,University of Georgia | Sinclair T.R.,North Carolina State University
Euphytica | Year: 2012

Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) genotype PI 416937 has been identified as expressing a 'slow-wilting' phenotype in the field and this has been traced to a low hydraulic conductance in its leaves. The transpiration rate of de-rooted shoots of this genotype has been found to be insensitive to the aquaporin inhibitor silver nitrate compared to elite cultivars which are silver nitrate sensitive. These results indicated that PI 416937 might have a unique aquaporin population. The objective of this study was to determine if QTLs could be identified that are associated with the lack of sensitivity in PI 416937 to silver. To identify the genomic locations and genetic bases of this trait, a recombinant inbred line population was derived from a mating between PI 416937 and the cultivar 'Benning'. The RILs were all phenotyped for their response to the silver inhibitor and the results were subjected to a QTL analysis. Four QTL were identified as putatively associated with the silver response (qSV). These QTL explained from 17.7 to 24.7% of the phenotypic variation with qSV_Gm12 explaining the greatest amount of phenotypic variation. The qSV_Gm03 and qSV_Gm10 QTL inherited their positive alleles from PI 416937, while qSV_Gm05 and qSV_Gm12 inherited their favorable alleles from Benning. Co-localized silver nitrate response QTL with other morpho-physiological traits could help to explain soybean plant's ability to tolerate water-deficit stress. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

Lima A.A.,University of Brasilia | Aragao C.W.S.,University of Brasilia | de Castro M.E.B.,Embrapa Genetic Resources and Biotechnology | de Oliveira J.V.C.,University of Sao Paulo | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

One of the interesting features of Anticarsia gemmatalis multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus isolate 2D (AgMNPV-2D) genome is the absence of chitinase (chiA) and cathepsin (v-cath) genes. This characteristic may be responsible for the lack of liquefaction and melanization in A. gemmatalis larvae killed by AgMNPV-2D infection. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that CHIA and V-CATH proteins from Choristonera fumiferana DEF multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (CfDEFNPV) are able to liquefy and melanize the cuticle of A. gemmatalis larvae infected by a recombinant AgMNPV containing chiA and v-cath genes inserted in its genome. A fragment from the CfDefNPV genome containing chiA and v-cath genes was inserted into the genome of AgMNPV-2D. The recombinant virus (vAgp2100Cf.chiA/v-cath) was purified and used to infect insect cells and larvae. Transcripts of v-cath and chiA genes were detected along the infection of insect cells by qRT-PCR, from early to late phases of infection. The analysis of A. gemmatalis larvae killed by vAgp2100Cf.chiA/v-cath infection confirmed the hypothesis proposed. The vAgp2100Cf.chiA/v-cath showed higher insecticidal activity against third instar A. gemmatalis larvae when compared to AgMNPV-2D. The mean time to death was also lower for the vAgp2100Cf.chiA/v-cath when compared to AgMNPV-2D at 10 days post infection. Occlusion body production was higher in A. gemmatalis larvae infected with vAgp2100Cf.chiA/v-cath when compared to AgMNPV-2D. Enzyme assays showed higher chitinase and cysteine protease activities in insect cells and insects infected with vAgp2100Cf.chiA/v-cath when compared to AgMNPV-2D. The introduction of chiA and v-cath genes into the genome of AgMNPV improves its insecticidal activity against A. gemmatalis larvae and this recombinant virus could be used as an alternative to the wild type virus to control this important insect pest. © 2013 Lima et al. Source

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