Londrina, Brazil
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Lima A.A.,University of Brasilia | Aragao C.W.S.,University of Brasilia | de Castro M.E.B.,Embrapa Genetic Resources and Biotechnology | de Oliveira J.V.C.,University of Sao Paulo | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

One of the interesting features of Anticarsia gemmatalis multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus isolate 2D (AgMNPV-2D) genome is the absence of chitinase (chiA) and cathepsin (v-cath) genes. This characteristic may be responsible for the lack of liquefaction and melanization in A. gemmatalis larvae killed by AgMNPV-2D infection. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that CHIA and V-CATH proteins from Choristonera fumiferana DEF multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (CfDEFNPV) are able to liquefy and melanize the cuticle of A. gemmatalis larvae infected by a recombinant AgMNPV containing chiA and v-cath genes inserted in its genome. A fragment from the CfDefNPV genome containing chiA and v-cath genes was inserted into the genome of AgMNPV-2D. The recombinant virus (vAgp2100Cf.chiA/v-cath) was purified and used to infect insect cells and larvae. Transcripts of v-cath and chiA genes were detected along the infection of insect cells by qRT-PCR, from early to late phases of infection. The analysis of A. gemmatalis larvae killed by vAgp2100Cf.chiA/v-cath infection confirmed the hypothesis proposed. The vAgp2100Cf.chiA/v-cath showed higher insecticidal activity against third instar A. gemmatalis larvae when compared to AgMNPV-2D. The mean time to death was also lower for the vAgp2100Cf.chiA/v-cath when compared to AgMNPV-2D at 10 days post infection. Occlusion body production was higher in A. gemmatalis larvae infected with vAgp2100Cf.chiA/v-cath when compared to AgMNPV-2D. Enzyme assays showed higher chitinase and cysteine protease activities in insect cells and insects infected with vAgp2100Cf.chiA/v-cath when compared to AgMNPV-2D. The introduction of chiA and v-cath genes into the genome of AgMNPV improves its insecticidal activity against A. gemmatalis larvae and this recombinant virus could be used as an alternative to the wild type virus to control this important insect pest. © 2013 Lima et al.


De Freitas Bueno R.C.O.,University of Rio Verde | De Freitas Bueno A.,Embrapa Soybean | Moscardi F.,State University Londrina | Postali Parra J.R.,University of Sao Paulo | Hoffmann-Campo C.B.,Embrapa Soybean
Pest Management Science | Year: 2011

BACKGROUND: Defoliation by Anticarsia gemmatalis (Hübner), Pseudoplusia includens (Walker), Spodoptera eridania (Cramer), S. cosmioides (Walker) and S. frugiperda (JE Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) was evaluated in four soybean genotypes. A multiple-species economic threshold (ET), based upon the species' feeding capacity, is proposed with the aim of improving growers' management decisions on when to initiate control measures for the species complex.RESULTS: Consumption by A. gemmatalis, S. cosmioides or S. eridania on different genotypes was similar. The highest consumption of P. includens was 92.7 cm 2 on Codetec 219RR; that of S. frugiperda was 118 cm 2 on Codetec 219RR and 115.1 cm 2 on MSoy 8787RR. The insect injury equivalent for S. cosmoides, calculated on the basis of insect consumption, was double the standard consumption by A. gemmatalis, and statistically different from the other species tested, which were similar to each other.CONCLUSIONS: As S. cosmioides always defoliated nearly twice the leaf area of the other species, the injury equivalent would be 2 for this lepidopteran species and 1 for the other species. The recommended multiple-species ET to trigger the beginning of insect control would then be 20 insect equivalents per linear metre. © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.


Zobiole L.H.S.,State University of Maringá | de Oliveira Jr. R.S.,State University of Maringá | Kremer R.J.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Muniz A.S.,State University of Maringá | de Oliveira Jr. A.,Embrapa Soybean
Journal of Plant Nutrition | Year: 2010

Global production of glyphosate-resistant (GR) soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] continues to increase annually; however, there are no particular specific fertilizer recommendations for the transgenic varieties used in this system largely because reports of glyphosate effects on mineral nutrition of GR soybeans are lacking. Several metabolites or degradation products of glyphosate have been identified or postulated to cause undesirable effects on GR soybeans. In this work we used increasing glyphosate rates in different application on cv. 'BRS 242 GR' in order to evaluate photosynthetic parameters, macro- and micronutrient uptake and accumulation and shoot and root dry biomass production. Increasing glyphosate rates revealed a significant decrease in photosynthesis, macro and micronutrients accumulation in leaf tissues and also decreases in nutrient uptake. The reduced biomass in GR soybeans represents additive effects from the decreased photosynthetic parameters as well as lower availability of nutrients in tissues of the glyphosate treated plants.


Oliveira M.F.,Embrapa Soybean | Nelson R.L.,Urbana University | Geraldi I.O.,University of Sao Paulo | Cruz C.D.,Federal University of Viçosa | de Toledo J.F.F.,Embrapa Soybean
Field Crops Research | Year: 2010

Core collections are of strategic importance as they allow the use of a small part of a germplasm collection that is representative of the total collection. The objective of this study was to develop a soybean core collection of the USDA Soybean Germplasm Collection by comparing the results of random, proportional, logarithmic, multivariate proportional and multivariate logarithmic sampling strategies. All but the random sampling strategy used stratification of the entire collection based on passport data and maturity group classification. The multivariate proportional and multivariate logarithmic strategies made further use of qualitative and quantitative trait data to select diverse accessions within each stratum. The 18 quantitative trait data distribution parameters were calculated for each core and for the entire collection for pairwise comparison to validate the sampling strategies. All strategies were adequate for assembling a core collection. The random core collection best represented the entire collection in statistical terms. Proportional and logarithmic strategies did not maximize statistical representation but were better in selecting maximum variability. Multivariate proportional and multivariate logarithmic strategies produced the best core collections as measured by maximum variability conservation. The soybean core collection was established using the multivariate proportional selection strategy. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Zobiole L.H.S.,State University of Maringá | de Oliveira Jr. R.S.,State University of Maringá | Huber D.M.,Purdue University | Constantin J.,State University of Maringá | And 3 more authors.
Plant and Soil | Year: 2010

Although glyphosate-resistant (GR) technology is used in most countries producing soybeans (Glycine max L.), there are no particular fertilize recommendations for use of this technology, and not much has been reported on the influence of glyphosate on GR soybean nutrient status. An evaluation of different cultivar maturity groups on different soil types, revealed a significant decrease in macro and micronutrients in leaf tissues, and in photosynthetic parameters (chlorophyll, photosynthetic rate, transpiration and stomatal conductance) with glyphosate use (single or sequential application). Irrespective of glyphosate applications, concentrations of shoot macro- and micronutrients were found lower in the near-isogenic GR-cultivars compared to their respective non-GR parental lines Shoot and root dry biomass were reduced by glyphosate with all GR cultivars evaluated in both soils. The lower biomass in GR soybeans compared to their isogenic normal lines probably represents additive effects from the decreased photosynthetic parameters as well as lower availability of nutrients in tissues of the glyphosate treated plants. © Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2009.


de Freitas Bueno A.,Embrapa Soybean | Ceolin Bortolotto O.,Federal University of Paraná | Pomari-Fernandes A.,Instituto AgronOmico do Parana | Franca-Neto J.D.B.,Embrapa Soybean
Crop Protection | Year: 2015

The objective of this study was to assess the stink bug economic threshold for soybean integrated pest management decisions. For this purpose, a replicated experiment was implement in a commercial soybean crop located in Arapongas, Parana State, Brazil, during two crop seasons: 2010/2011 and 2011/12. Treatments consisted of different stink bug densities triggering the application of insecticides, 1/4 of the economic threshold (ET) (= 0.5 stink bugs m-1) and ET (= 2 stink bugs m-1), and without applying an insecticide (control). The stink bugs were quantified weekly and all specimens were identified to the species level. At harvest, yield and quality of the seeds were also measured. In all crops, Euschistus heros was the most abundant species. The highest yield and percentage of viable seeds were found in the 'BMX Power RR' cultivar (indeterminate growth cultivar), indicating a better seed quality. At the end of the experiment, there was no observed difference in yield between different stink bug management thresholds, indicating the effectiveness of the control when adopting ET. This study demonstrates that decreasing the economic threshold increased the number of required insecticide applications, but did not increase yield or bean quality neither the net income when an economic analysis was performed. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Paucar-Menacho L.M.,University of Campinas | Paucar-Menacho L.M.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Amaya-Farfan J.,University of Campinas | Berhow M.A.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | And 3 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2010

Soybean is a major source of protein and other nutrients and non-nutrient bioactives for human health. The objective was to compare the bioactive compounds of a low-protein (BRS 133) soybean in comparison to a high-protein (BRS 258) soybean cultivar. The high-protein soybean contained 17% lower carbohydrates and a lower chemical score (63) in relation to the low-protein soybean, which had a higher chemical score (76), associated with the higher methionine content (1.2%). Cultivar BRS 258 had more calcium (15.5%), phosphorus (30.1%), iron (18.7%), copper (9.0%) and zinc (11.5%), and a higher concentrations of lunasin, BBI and lectin (20.3%, 19.0% and 27.1%, respectively) than the low-protein cultivar. BRS 133 had 75.4% higher concentration of total isoflavones (5.1% of total aglycones) and 31.0% total saponins, as compared to BRS 258. It was concluded that the low-protein soybean cultivar contained higher isoflavones and saponins, but lower levels of minerals and bioactive peptides, such as lunasin. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd.


Bueno A.D.F.,Embrapa Soybean | Batistela M.J.,University of Rio Verde | Batistela M.J.,Monsanto Corporation | Bueno R.C.O.D.F.,University of Rio Verde | And 3 more authors.
Crop Protection | Year: 2011

This study aimed to evaluate the prophylactic use of insecticides (PUI) in comparison with integrated pest management (IPM) and biological control (BC) strategies. Five replicated experiments were carried out independently in two Brazilian soybean-producing states, Goiás and Paraná, where those pest-control strategies were evaluated during two consecutive growing seasons. The evaluated treatments were integrated pest management (IPM); prophylactic use of insecticides (PUI), a practice that has been increasingly adopted by soybean growers in Brazil as well as in other Latin American countries; biological control (BC) and the control (C), which involved no pest treatment. Although the pest infestation rates in the BC and IPM treatments were higher than that in the PUI treatment, crop productivity, in general, was similar among these treatments and differed only from the control with no pest treatment. These results indicate that the prophylactic use of insecticides on soybeans does not result in higher productivity in the field and that this practice merely requires larger amounts of pesticides, which can impair the sustainability of the soybean crop. Therefore, the use of IPM still remains the best alternative for pest management in soybean fields. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Carmo E.L.,University of Rio Verde | Bueno A.F.,Embrapa Soybean | Bueno R.C.O.F.,University of Rio Verde
BioControl | Year: 2010

We evaluated the side-effects of insecticides, herbicides and fungicides on adults of the egg parasitoid Telenomus remus (Nixon) under laboratory conditions. The protocol was adapted from that proposed by the Pesticides and Beneficial Organisms Working Group of the International Organization for Biological Control (IOBC) for Trichogramma cacoeciae (Marchal). Chlorpyrifos, acephate, beta-cyfluthrin + imidacloprid, spinosad, and pyrethroids were harmful to the parasitoid, whereas methoxyfenozide, diflubenzuron, and flufenoxuron had no effect. Of the herbicides examined, only glyphosate + imazethapyr and 2,4-D amine were classified as harmless on the first and second days of parasitism; paraquat was the most harmful. Other herbicides were harmless on the first day of parasitism, but caused various levels of reduction of T. remus parasitism on the second day. The fungicides were harmless or only slightly harmful. © 2010 International Organization for Biological Control (IOBC).


Carpentieri-Pipolo V.,University Estabdual Of Londrina | Pipolo A.E.,Embrapa Soybean | Abdel-Haleem H.,University of Georgia | Boerma H.R.,University of Georgia | Sinclair T.R.,North Carolina State University
Euphytica | Year: 2012

Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) genotype PI 416937 has been identified as expressing a 'slow-wilting' phenotype in the field and this has been traced to a low hydraulic conductance in its leaves. The transpiration rate of de-rooted shoots of this genotype has been found to be insensitive to the aquaporin inhibitor silver nitrate compared to elite cultivars which are silver nitrate sensitive. These results indicated that PI 416937 might have a unique aquaporin population. The objective of this study was to determine if QTLs could be identified that are associated with the lack of sensitivity in PI 416937 to silver. To identify the genomic locations and genetic bases of this trait, a recombinant inbred line population was derived from a mating between PI 416937 and the cultivar 'Benning'. The RILs were all phenotyped for their response to the silver inhibitor and the results were subjected to a QTL analysis. Four QTL were identified as putatively associated with the silver response (qSV). These QTL explained from 17.7 to 24.7% of the phenotypic variation with qSV_Gm12 explaining the greatest amount of phenotypic variation. The qSV_Gm03 and qSV_Gm10 QTL inherited their positive alleles from PI 416937, while qSV_Gm05 and qSV_Gm12 inherited their favorable alleles from Benning. Co-localized silver nitrate response QTL with other morpho-physiological traits could help to explain soybean plant's ability to tolerate water-deficit stress. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

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