Embrapa South Animal Husbandry and Sheep

Brazil

Embrapa South Animal Husbandry and Sheep

Brazil
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Fonseca I.,Federal University of Viçosa | Cardoso F.F.,Embrapa South Animal Husbandry and Sheep | Higa R.H.,Embrapa Agriculture Informatics | Giachetto P.F.,Embrapa Agriculture Informatics | And 5 more authors.
Livestock Science | Year: 2015

Mastitis is an inflammatory response in the mammary gland caused by an influx of somatic cells, composed mainly of neutrophils, macrophages and lymphocytes. The speed and efficacy of the host's immune response to the invasive pathogen affects the establishment, persistence and severity of the infection. To characterize the gene expression and response mechanism to infection by Streptococcus agalactiae (S. agalactiae) in zebu dairy cows of the Gyr breed, we carried out a transcriptome study of the cells present in the milk from 17 animals. Milk samples were collected before inoculation (hour 0) and 4, 9 and 24. hafter inoculation of the bacteria into one of the quarters and at 0 and 24. hfrom one of the quarters not inoculated. The transcriptome analysis was done by the microarray and real-time PCR techniques. The microarray technique revealed the existence of 32 differentially expressed genes between inoculation and 4. hafterward. The validation of these results by real-time PCR was done for eight genes. Besides these eight genes, the expression of six others was evaluated by real-time PCR even though they did not present a significant difference by the microarray technique. Of the 14 genes analyzed by real-time PCR, all showed a significant difference in expression for at least one of the comparisons between times. This analysis indicated an increase in the expression of all the genes that presented a significant difference in relation to hour 0, with most of them presenting maximum expression 24. hafter inoculation of the pathogen. Comparison of the gene expression between the inoculated and non-inoculated quarters showed greater expression in nine genes in the inoculated quarters. Analyses of gene networks revealed three modules with distinct characteristics 24. hafter inoculation and showed that some mechanisms are altered in Gyr dairy cows after infection of the mammary gland by S. agalactiae. In this study it was possible to verify changes in the expression of at least 14 genes related to the immune response of zebuine animals against intramammary infection caused by S. agalactiae. These genes can play important roles in fighting intramammary infection and maintaining the tissue during infection. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


Gaspar E.B.,Embrapa South Animal Husbandry and Sheep | Sakai Y.I.,Adolfo Lutz Institute | De Gaspari E.,Adolfo Lutz Institute
Experimental Parasitology | Year: 2014

The experimental system of Taenia crassiceps cysticerci infection in BALB/c mice is considered to be the most representative model of cysticercosis. In our work, mice were sacrificed 7 and 30. days after infection, and pouch fluid was collected to determine the number of accumulated cells and the concentrations of IFNγ, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10 and nitric oxide. The injection of 50 nonbudding cysticerci into normal mouse dorsal air pouches induced a high level of IFNγ and nitric oxide production relative to the parasite load. The air pouch provides a convenient cavity that allows studying the cellular immunological aspects of the T. crassiceps parasite. The nonbudding cysticerci recovered from the air pouches contained cells that can reconstitute complete cysts in the peritoneal cavity of mice. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that the air pouch model is an alternative tool for the evaluation of the immune characteristics of T. crassiceps infection. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.


Benavides M.V.,Embrapa Fisheries and Aquaculture | de Souza C.J.H.,Embrapa Fisheries and Aquaculture | Moraes J.C.F.,Embrapa South Animal Husbandry and Sheep | Berne M.E.A.,Federal University of Pelotas
Small Ruminant Research | Year: 2016

Genetic parameter estimates for faecal egg counts (FEC), weaning and shearing weights and wool traits were evaluated in 720 Australian Merino lambs raised in Southern Brazil. Weaned lambs were naturally exposed to nematode larvae-contaminated pastures with the objective of recording individual gastrointestinal parasite infection responses. Phenotypic and genetic correlations among production traits such as birth, weaning and shearing weights and wool production traits (greasy and clean fleece weights, scouring yield, mean fibre diameter, and staple length) were estimated. Results showed a high variability for FEC counts among individuals, with a heritability estimate of 0.365 ± 0.001, and low phenotypic and genetic correlations between FEC and all productive traits, except for a negative shearing live weight (rG = -0.305 ± 0.002 and rP = -0.140 ± 0.001). These results indicate that selection for low FEC would ensure genetic progress in reducing gastrointestinal parasite infection levels without limiting major sheep production traits for Merino sheep raised in a humid sub-tropical environment. © 2016 Published by Elsevier B.V.

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