Embrapa Sede

Brasília, Brazil

Embrapa Sede

Brasília, Brazil
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Gomes E.G.,Embrapa Sede | De Abreu U.G.P.,Embrapa Pantanal | De Mello J.C.C.B.S.,Federal University of Fluminense
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia | Year: 2015

This study evaluated the performance of 21 beef cattle modal production systems that conduct only the raising phase. These production systems were developed in 21 municipalities in seven Brazilian states. We used two different DEA BCC models, corresponding to different points of view. Firstly we used an economic model that measured the ability of a production system to generate revenue with the preservation of native forest, using labor, capital, and current spending as inputs. The socio-environmental approach, corresponding to the second BCC model, uses the production factor labor as an output. In that model our interest was to assess whether the capital costs generate economic, environmental, and social benefits. Weight restrictions were imposed on the output variables of each model to explain the proposed viewpoints and to avoid inconsistent results. The results pointed out sources of inefficiency in terms of labor with low qualification, and use of bulls of questionable quality, factors that are common in extensive systems. These are some of the major bottlenecks in animal production systems as a whole. © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia.

Martha Jr. G.B.,Embrapa Estudos e Capacitacao | Alves E.,Embrapa Sede | Contini E.,Embrapa Estudos e Capacitacao
Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira | Year: 2011

Integrated crop-livestock systems (ICLS) have been proposed as a technology solution to meet sustainability criteria, but this claim has been based mainly on agronomic and environmental indicators. In the present study, the economic perspective of ICLS was explored. The potential economic benefits of these systems may be reflected in economies of scope (cost reduction associated with producing multiple outputs) or in the risk-reducing effects of diversification. Furthermore, they may involve lower yield variability and overall higher yields. The accurate measurement of interactions between crop and animal (pasture) components is a key step to be pursued. Decision making toward diversified vis-à-vis specialized agricultural systems must be made according to relative prices. ICLS out-compete specialized livestock systems but do not show competitive rates of return in comparison to specialized soybean systems. The high demand for capital in ICLS, particularly for the acquisition of growing animals for fattening, explains ICLS' lower return rates and is perceived as a major constraint on the widespread adoption of mixed systems. The design of innovative financing mechanisms will be essential to foster and speed large-scale adoption of the technology. Index terms: risk analysis, diversification, economies of scope, degraded pasture, beef cattle, soybean.

Marouelli W.A.,Embrapa Hortalicas | de Medeiros M.A.,Embrapa Sede | de Souza R.F.,University of Brasilia | Resende F.V.,Embrapa Hortalicas
Horticultura Brasileira | Year: 2011

The efficient use of water and the environmental diversity are crucial to the balance and sustainability of the organic production system of tomatoes. The present study aimed to evaluate the organic production of tomato cultivated as a single crop and in consortium with coriander, under sprinkler and drip irrigation. The experiment was carried out at an organic production area on the Federal District of Brazil. The experimental design was randomized blocks with treatments arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial (two irrigation systems × two cropping schemes). No significant interaction between the both factors occurred, and there was no significant effect of the cropping scheme over the evaluated variables. Although the crop cycle has been reduced when tomato was drip irrigated, the fruit yield was not affected by the irrigation systems. The larger reduction in the stand of plants observed under sprinkler irrigation has been compensated by an increase in the number of fruits per plant, without a change on the fruit mass. The smaller volume of soil explored by the tomato roots associated with the higher incidence of South American tomato pinworm (Tuta absoluta) and mainly powdery mildew (Leveillula taurica) may have limited the yield of drip irrigated tomato. The fruit decay rate on sprinkle irrigated plants was twice the rate found on the drip irrigated system.

Onoyama S.S.,Embrapa Hortalicas | Reifschneider F.J.B.,Embrapa Hortalicas | Moita A.W.,Embrapa Hortalicas | da S e Souza G.,Embrapa Sede
Horticultura Brasileira | Year: 2010

Capsicum (chili and bell peppers) breeders at Embrapa Vegetables are focusing project activities to satisfy the demands of both growers and final consumers in order to increase the chances of success in, long-term development of new cultivars. So, a prospection study on consumer demands and perception on bell peppers was started in 2007 in order to identify the main attributes taken in consideration during the act of purchase. This work was divided in two parts: a pilot study with 444 consumers at one supermarket and a survey with 500 consumers of fresh bell pepper, carried out by interviews at five supermarkets in Brasilia, Brazil, which represent distinct income segments. Data were analyzed by categorical data analysis using SAS (Procedure CATMOD) to rank the attributes in order of importance; to contrast the attribute means; and to verify the psychosocial influence on ranking the attributes during the purchase act. In addition, correspondence analysis was used for graphical representation of the attributes separated by the level of importance. During purchase, consumers prioritize the attributes related to the visual aspect (appearance) and firmness of the fruits. Also, differences of perception by gender, age, educational level, marital status and supermarket location were detected. Based on the collected evidence, elderly people are more concerned about nutritional value. Plant breeding programs can be better focused utilizing inputs from similar studies.

de Sa L.A.N.,Laboratorio Of Quarentena Costa Lima | Pessoa M.C.P.Y.,Laboratorio Of Quarentena Costa Lima | de Moraes G.J.,University of Sao Paulo | Marinho-Prado J.S.,Laboratorio Of Quarentena Costa Lima | And 2 more authors.
Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira | Year: 2016

The objective of this work was to address the classical biological control of pests in Brazil, regarding procedures to import and export native biological material. A brief introduction will be given on the current legal issues on the use of biocontrol agents, as well as some considerations on the existing quarantine pests and actions already carried out in the country. The safety in the introduction of exotic organisms is important for Brazilian phytosanitary defense and for a higher adoption of classical biocontrol, making it available for integrated pest management (IPM). Legal and normative aspects establish the procedures that must to be adopted, not only to protect bioprospecting and native organisms, but also to minimize risks to the national genetic patrimony associated with the introduction of exotic organisms. Furthermore, the import/export procedures adopted for vegetal and useful organisms for pest biological control and for other genetic material must be subjected to phytosanitary measures performed in government-certified quarantine facilities and diagnostic laboratories. Finally, the quarantine activities listed here are strategic for safeguarding the country from potential problems arising from border transit of living organisms.

Branco M.C.,Embrapa Sede | de Alcantara F.A.,Embrapa Arroz e Feijao
Horticultura Brasileira | Year: 2011

Growing vegetables in backyards and in community gardens gained importance as an alternative policy for the reduction of poverty and the increasing of household food intake since the final years of the late century in Brazil. The Brazilian experiences have been reported in different scientific publications but until now, there has not been an attempt to evaluate those results. For that purpose, Brazilian scientific publications were sought in the sites www.google.com.br, www.scielo.com.br, www.periodicos.capes.gov.br and in the Lattes platform from CNPq. The results showed that the majority of publications were available to download free. The number of publications increased between 1996 and 2009 and most of them were published in Congresses and Meetings. Vegetable cultivation contributed to increase of the welfare of population. Nonetheless, several difficulties were reported: chiefly among these, the lack of social organization, lack of access to technical assistance, capital, land and water. Until now, the majority of these projects have been of short duration (less than three years); therefore it is necessary to carry out long term researches in order to evaluate strategies for overcoming these difficulties.

de Simoni Gouveia J.J.,Federal University of Vale do São Francisco | de Simoni Gouveia J.J.,Federal University of Ceará | da Silva M.V.G.B.,Embrapa Gado de Leite | Paiva S.R.,Embrapa Sede | de Oliveira S.M.P.,Federal University of Ceará
Genetics and Molecular Biology | Year: 2014

The identification of regions that have undergone selection is one of the principal goals of theoretical and applied evolutionary genetics. Such studies can also provide information about the evolutionary processes involved in shaping genomes, as well as physical and functional information about genes/genomic regions. Domestication followed by breed formation and selection schemes has allowed the formation of very diverse livestock breeds adapted to a wide variety of environments and with special characteristics. The advances in genomics in the last five years have enabled the development of several methods to detect selection signatures and have resulted in the publication of a considerable number of studies involving livestock species. The aims of this review are to describe the principal effects of natural/artificial selection on livestock genomes, to present the main methods used to detect selection signatures and to discuss some recent results in this area. This review should be useful also to research scientists working with wild animals/non-domesticated species and plant biologists working with breeding and evolutionary biology. © 2014, Sociedade Brasileira de Genética.

de Oliveira E.J.,Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura Tropical CNPMF | Amorim V.B.O.,Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura Tropical CNPMF | Matos E.L.S.,Federal University of Recôncavo da Bahia | Costa J.L.,Federal University of Recôncavo da Bahia | And 3 more authors.
Plant Molecular Biology Reporter | Year: 2010

A set of 81 new microsatellite markers for Carica papaya L. previously identified by data mining using freely available sequence information from Genbank were tested for polymorphism using 30 germplasm accessions from the Papaya Germplasm Bank (PGM) at Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura Tropical (CNPMF) and 18 landraces. The data were used to estimate pairwise genetic distances between the genotypes. A neighbor-joining based dendrogram was used to define clusters and infer possible genetic structuring of the collection. Most microsatellites were polymorphic (73%), with an observed number of alleles per locus ranging from one to eleven. The levels of observed and expected heterozygosity for 51 polymorphic loci varied from 0.00 to 0.85 and from 0.08 to 0.82, averaging 0.19 and 0.59, respectively. Forty-four percent of microsatellites showed polymorphism information content (PIC) higher than 0.50. The compound microsatellites seem to be more informative than dinucleotide and trinucleotide repeats in average alleles per locus and PIC. Among dinucleotides, AG/TC or GA/CT repeat motifs exhibited more informativeness than TA/AT, GT/CA and TG/AC repeat motifs. The neighbor-joining analysis based on shared allele distance could differentiate all the papaya accessions and landraces as well as differences in their genetic structure. This set of markers will be useful for examining parentage, inbreeding and population structure in papaya. © Springer-Verlag 2010.

de Abreu U.G.P.,Embrapa Pantanal CPAP | Gomes E.G.,Embrapa Sede | de Mello J.C.C.B.S.,Federal University of Fluminense | Santos S.A.,Embrapa Pantanal CPAP | Catto D.F.,Banco do Brazil
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia | Year: 2012

The objective of this study was to propose Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) models and non-parametric Malmquist indexes to evaluate the efficiency of 11 livestock farms in the Pantanal region. These farms took out a loan from 'Fundo Constitucional de Financiamento do Centro-Oeste' - FCO (Constitutional Financial Fund for the Midwest), a line of credit for financing heifer retention. The beneficiaries were the farmers whose properties met the following conditions: farms located in the plain of Pantanal, with at least 50% of native pasture; farms that were part of managerial capacity building projects intended to ensure better management and animal performance indexes; and farms with pasture areas where the activity could potentially evolve. The management of the loan on 11 farms were studied in relation to the technology introduced in the period from 2004 to 2008. Five properties presented technical efficiency below 1, that is, the technical management efficiency with the objective to increase the cattle through heifer retention and the purchase of higher genetic quality heifers was not achieved. However, the index of technological progress was above 1 on all tested farms, which means that technology was in fact incorporated in all properties, which resulted in total factor productivity growth on all farms. The main objective was fully met, even on the technically inefficient farms. © 2012 Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia.

Almeida I.G.,University of Brasilia | Ianella P.,Embrapa Sede | Faria M.T.,Embrapa Amazonia Oriental | Paiva S.R.,Embrapa Recursos Geneticos e Biotecnologia | Caetano A.R.,Embrapa Recursos Geneticos e Biotecnologia
Genetics and Molecular Research | Year: 2013

Arapaima gigas (Osteoglossidae) is one of the largest fish species in the Amazon Basin, attaining lengths of over 2.5 m and weights of over 100 kg. Its flesh is prized, and it has great potential for production in aquaculture systems. However, live pirarucu cannot be reliably sexed visually, even after sexual development, since this species does not have clear external sexual dimorphism. Simple and inexpensive methods for sexing immature pirarucu based on DNA markers would facilitate production of this species in commercial operations. We analyzed A. gigas male and female DNA pools with 566 RAPD primers, generating 2609 fragments, with an estimated 1341 segregating polymorphic markers, and an estimated average spacing of 714 kb, which corresponds to less than 0.1% of the species' genome. Two putative sex-specific fragments were initially identified in bulked samples; but they were not confirmed in a study of individual male and female samples. We suggest that A. gigas has developed a non-chromosomal system of sex determination or, alternatively, that the species has undergone a recent loss of the chromosome carrying the sex-determining locus. © FUNPEC-RP.

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