Thomas E.,Bioversity International |
Valdivia J.,National University of Costa Rica |
Caicedo C.A.,Bioversity International |
Quaedvlieg J.,Independent consultant |
And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2017
Understanding the factors that underlie the production of non-timber forest products (NTFPs), as well as regularly monitoring production levels, are key to allow sustainability assessments of NTFP extractive economies. Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa, Lecythidaceae) seed harvesting from natural forests is one of the cornerstone NTFP economies in Amazonia. In the Peruvian Amazon it is organized in a concession system. Drawing on seed production estimates of >135,000 individual Brazil nut trees from >400 concessions and ethno-ecological interviews with >80 concession holders, here we aimed to (i) assess the accuracy of seed production estimates by Brazil nut seed harvesters, and (ii) validate their traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) about the variables that influence Brazil nut production. We compared productivity estimates with actual field measurements carried out in the study area and found a positive correlation between them. Furthermore, we compared the relationships between seed production and a number of phenotypic, phytosanitary and environmental variables described in literature with those obtained for the seed production estimates and found high consistency between them, justifying the use of the dataset for validating TEK and innovative hypothesis testing. As expected, nearly all TEK on Brazil nut productivity was corroborated by our data. This is reassuring as Brazil nut concession holders, and NTFP harvesters at large, rely on their knowledge to guide the management of the trees upon which their extractive economies are based. Our findings suggest that productivity estimates of Brazil nut trees and possibly other NTFP-producing species could replace or complement actual measurements, which are very expensive and labour intensive, at least in areas where harvesters have a tradition of collecting NTFPs from the same trees over multiple years or decades. Productivity estimates might even be sourced from harvesters through registers on an annual basis, thus allowing a more cost-efficient and robust monitoring of productivity levels. © 2017 Thomas et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
dos Santos M.R.A.,Embrapa Rondonia |
de Souza C.A.,Federal University of Rondônia |
Paz E.S.,Federal University of Rondônia
Revista Ciencia Agronomica | Year: 2017
The genus Capsicum belongs to the Solanaceae botanical family and is notable for the production of secondary metabolites of medicinal and economical importance. In vitro methods have been successfully utilized for the large scale production of plant secondary metabolites. The objective of this study was to establish a protocol for callus induction from leaves, nodal and internodal segments of the cultivar C. annuum var. annuum cv. Iberaba Jalapeño, and to determine the growth pattern of the calluses, aiming at the identification of the deceleration phase, when the callus cells must be subcultured for the establishment of cell suspensions and the production of secondary metabolites. The explants were inoculated into a medium supplemented with BA and 2,4-D in factorial combination. Percentage of callus induction and the explant area covered by callus cells (ACCC) were evaluated. The procedures that resulted in higher proliferation of callus cells were repeated in order to determine the growth curve of the calluses. The highest callus induction percentage and ACCC were observed with the combination of 2.22 μM BA + 18.10 μM 2,4-D for leaf and internodal explants and 2.22 μM BA + 9.05 μM 2,4-D for nodal explants. The calluses produced were friable and whitish, and their growth pattern followed a sigmoid shape. The deceleration phase started on the 31st day of cultivation for leaf explants, on the 26th for internodal explants, and on the 29th day for nodal explants.
Akbar H.,Urbana University |
Schmitt E.,Embrapa Rondonia |
Ballou M.A.,Texas Tech University |
Correa M.N.,Federal University of Pelotas |
And 2 more authors.
Gene Regulation and Systems Biology | Year: 2013
Polyunsaturated (PUFA) long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) are more potent in eliciting molecular and tissue functional changes in monogastrics than saturated LCFA. From -21 through 10 days relative to parturition dairy cows were fed no supplemental LCFA (control), saturated LCFA (SFAT; mainly 16:0 and 18:0), or fish oil (FISH; high-PUFA). Twenty-seven genes were measured via quantitative RT-PCR in liver tissue on day -14 and day 10. Expression of nuclear receptor co-activators (CARM1, MED1), LCFA metabolism (ACSL1, SCD, ACOX1), and inflammation (IL6, TBK1, IKBKE) genes was lower with SFAT than control on day -14. Expression of SCD, however, was markedly lower with FISH than control or SFAT on both -14 and 10 days. FISH led to further decreases in expression on day 10 of LCFA metabolism (CD36, PLIN2, ACSL1, ACOX1), intracellular energy (UCP2, STK11, PRKAA1), de novo cholesterol synthesis (SREBF2), inflammation (IL6, TBK1, IKBKE), and nuclear receptor signaling genes (PPARD, MED1, NRIP1). No change in expression was observed for PPARA and RXRA. The increase of DGAT2, PLIN2, ACSL1, and ACOX1 on day 10 versus -14 in cows fed SFAT suggested upregulation of both beta-oxidation and lipid droplet (LD) formation. However, liver triacylglycerol concentration was similar among treatments. The hepatokine FGF21 and the gluconeogenic genes PC and PCK1 increased markedly on day 10 versus -14 only in controls. At the levels supplemented, the change in the profile of metabolic genes after parturition in cows fed saturated fat suggested a greater capacity for uptake of fatty acids and intracellular handling without excessive storage of LD. © the author(s), publisher and licensee Libertas Academica Ltd.
Ferrao L.F.V.,Federal University of Viçosa |
Caixeta E.T.,Federal University of Viçosa |
Souza F.F.,Embrapa Rondonia |
Zambolim E.M.,Federal University of Viçosa |
And 3 more authors.
Plant Systematics and Evolution | Year: 2013
The genetic variability characterization of the accessions of the germplasm collection, using molecular markers, is being applied as a complementary strategy to the traditional approaches to redefine the plant genetic resources. In this study, we compared the informativeness and efficiency of the molecular markers RAPD, AFLP and SSR in the analysis of 94 accessions of Coffea canephora germplasm held by the breeding program of the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Embrapa), Rondônia State, Brazil. For this, we considered the marker's discriminatory power and level of polymorphism detected and also the genetic relationships and clustering (dendrogram) analysis. The RAPD marker yielded low-quality data and problems in the discrimination of some accessions, being less recommended for genetic studies of C. canephora. The SSRs had a higher level of information content and yielded high-quality data, while AFLP was the most efficient marker system because of the simultaneous detection of abundant polymorphism markers per few reactions. Our results indicate that AFLP and SSR, allies to the intrinsic characteristics of each technique, are the most suitable molecular markers for genetic studies of C. canephora. However, the choice of AFLP or SSR in the species characterization should be made in agreement with some characteristics that are discussed in this work. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Wien.
PubMed | Embrapa Suinos e Aves, Embrapa Pecuaria Sudeste, University Estadual Julio Of Mesquita Filho, Embrapa Rondonia and Federal University of São Carlos
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Ticks and tick-borne diseases | Year: 2016
The levels of infection by Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina were estimated by absolute quantification through the quantitative PCR technique (qPCR). Fifty-one contemporaneous Angus cattle were evaluated on two occasions. The number of standard female Rhipicephalus microplus ticks present on the left side of the body was counted and blood samples were drawn from the tail vein into tubes containing the anticoagulant EDTA. The blood samples were submitted to DNA extraction and used to quantify the number of copies (NC) of DNA from B. bovis and B. bigemina by qPCR. The data on tick count and number of DNA copies were transformed for normalization and analyzed by a mixed model method. A multivariate model with repeated measures of the same animal, including the effects of collection, parasite species and their interaction, was used. The repeatability values were obtained from the matrix of (co)variances and were expressed for each species. The correlations between the counts of different species on the same animal, in the same collection or different collections, were also estimated. The results showed the qPCR could distinguish the two between infection by the two Babesia species. Infection levels by B. bovis and B. bigemina were detected in 100% and 98% of the animals, respectively. Significant differences were found (P<0.05) between the NC of the two Babesia species, B. bovis 1.490.07 vs. B. bigemina 0.820.06. Low repeatabilities were found for the counts of R. microplus and NC of B. bovis and B. bigemina: 0.05, 0.10 and 0.02, respectively. The correlations between R. microplus count and NC of B. bovis and B. bigemina were both very near zero. However, an association was observed between the NC of the two species, with a correlation coefficient of 0.30 for measures from the same collection. The absence of associations between the quantity of DNA from B. bovis and B. bigemina and the tick counts suggests that the variation of parasitemia by the hemoparasites did not depend on the tick infestation levels at the moment of each collection. The repeatability values estimated indicate that under the study conditions, the variations in the tick infestation levels and of parasitemia by B. bovis and B. bigemina depend more on factors related to each collection than on intrinsic factors of the animal.
PubMed | Embrapa Rondonia, Federal University of Viçosa and Embrapa Agroenergia
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Genetics and molecular research : GMR | Year: 2016
The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters via mixed models and simultaneously to select Jatropha progenies grown in three regions of Brazil that meet high adaptability and stability. From a previous phenotypic selection, three progeny tests were installed in 2008 in the municipalities of Planaltina-DF (Midwest), Nova Porteirinha-MG (Southeast), and Pelotas-RS (South). We evaluated 18 families of half-sib in a randomized block design with three replications. Genetic parameters were estimated using restricted maximum likelihood/best linear unbiased prediction. Selection was based on the harmonic mean of the relative performance of genetic values method in three strategies considering: 1) performance in each environment (with interaction effect); 2) performance in each environment (with interaction effect); and 3) simultaneous selection for grain yield, stability and adaptability. Accuracy obtained (91%) reveals excellent experimental quality and consequently safety and credibility in the selection of superior progenies for grain yield. The gain with the selection of the best five progenies was more than 20%, regardless of the selection strategy. Thus, based on the three selection strategies used in this study, the progenies 4, 11, and 3 (selected in all environments and the mean environment and by adaptability and phenotypic stability methods) are the most suitable for growing in the three regions evaluated.
Rocha R.B.,Embrapa Rondonia |
Ramalho A.R.,Embrapa Rondonia |
Teixeira A.L.,Embrapa Rondonia |
Laviola B.G.,Embrapa Agroenergia |
And 2 more authors.
Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira | Year: 2012
The objective of this work was to estimate the genetic parameters of physic nut (Jatropha curcas) grain quality traits and to quantify the genetic progress with selection. Seed oil content, and seed, kernel, and shell weights of 120 plants, randomly selected in a commercial planting, were evaluated at 36 and 48 months. Genetic progress was quantified by the evaluation of direct gains and by the use of selection indexes. The genotype x measurement interaction was significant for all evaluated traits; therefore, there are genotypes with different behavior in the two cropping seasons. The genetic parameters indicated a higher proportion of genotypic variation in the expression of the evaluated traits, and a trend of the genotypes to maintain their genetic superiority over time was observed. The genotype-ideotype selection index resulted in higher genetic gains and promoted a more balanced alteration in the trait means. The direct selection for kernel weight results in genetic gains similar to those obtained with the use of the selection indexes.
Laviola B.G.,EMBRAPA - Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária |
Alves A.A.,EMBRAPA - Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária |
Gurgel F.L.,Embrapa Amazonia Oriental |
Rosado T.B.,EMBRAPA - Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária |
And 2 more authors.
Ciencia Rural | Year: 2012
In spite of increasingly widespread interest in planting physic nut, breeding efforts are still in its infancy. In that context, an important resource recently established aiming future breeding efforts was the assembly of a germplasm bank with near 200 accessions. The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters, repeatibility coefficients and genetic correlation between seven traits, measured in 110 accessions (half sib families) of this germplasm bank in different stages of development. The results show that higher relative values of additive variance were only found for yield and height, and the existence of low environmental variation (either of temporary or permanent nature) among plots within blocks. Given the high repeatibility values found for all traits, on average three measurements are necessary to predict, accurately and efficiently, the true breeding value of an individual. Based on the results of genetic correlations, breeding effort should initially be use track trees with increased stem diameter, elevated number of branches and canopy volume so as to increase the chances of finding an exceptionally highly productive tree.
Pfeifer L.F.M.,Embrapa Rondonia |
Siqueira L.G.B.,Embrapa Gado de Leite |
Adams G.P.,University of Saskatchewan |
Pierson R.A.,University of Saskatchewan |
Singh J.,University of Saskatchewan
Animal Reproduction Science | Year: 2012
The objectives of this study were to: (1) evaluate the feasibility of ultrasonic biomicroscopy (UBM) for imaging ovarian follicles in vivo in cows and heifers, (2) compare the transvaginal to the transrectal approach, (3) compare the number of follicles detected by UBM to conventional ultrasonography (US), and (4) identify cumulus-oocyte-complexes (COC) within follicles by UBM. Mature cows (. n=. 5) and peri-pubertal heifers (. n=. 5) were examined once using conventional B-mode US (Aloka 900) with a 7.5. MHz transrectal, and a 5. MHz transvaginal transducers. A second series of examinations was performed using UBM (Visualsonics Vevo 660) equipped with a 30. MHz transrectal and a 40. MHz transvaginal transducer. A three- to four-fold increase in the number of small follicles (<3. mm) was detected using the transvaginal approach with UBM compared to conventional US in both heifers (32.4. ±. 4.24 compared to 7.2. ±. 1.4; P<. 0.0001) and cows (35.0. ±. 13.8 compared to 10.7. ±. 7.5; P=. 0.0013). However, fewer follicles (all sizes combined) were detected using the transrectal approach with UBM compared to conventional US in both heifers (8.6. ±. 5.6 compared to 17.6. ±. 4.9;P=. 0.02) and cows (5.3. ±. 6.1 compared to 20.3. ±. 7; P=. 0.04). In heifers, COC-like structures were identified in 39 of 202 (19.3%) follicles examined. In conclusion, UBM using a transvaginal approach is feasible and may be used for in vivo assessment of early antral follicles as small as 0.4. mm, and COC within follicles. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.
Khan M.J.,Urbana University |
Khan M.J.,COMSATS Institute of Information Technology |
Jacometo C.B.,Federal University of Pelotas |
Graugnard D.E.,Urbana University |
And 4 more authors.
Gene Regulation and Systems Biology | Year: 2014
Hepatic metabolic gene networks were studied in dairy cattle fed control (CON, 1.34 Mcal/kg) or higher energy (overfed (OVE), 1.62 Mcal/kg) diets during the last 45 days of pregnancy. A total of 57 target genes encompassing PPARα-targets/co-regulators, hepatokines, growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) axis, lipogenesis, and lipoprotein metabolism were evaluated on -14, 7, 14, and 30 days around parturition. OVE versus CON cows were in more negative energy balance (NEB) postpartum and had greater serum non-esterifed fatty acids (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), and liver triacylglycerol (TAG) concentrations. Milk synthesis rate did not differ. Liver from OVE cows responded to postpartal NEB by up-regulating expression of PPARα-targets in the fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis pathways, along with gluconeogenic genes. Hepatokines (fbroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4)) and apolipoprotein A-V (APOA5) were up-regulated postpartum to a greater extent in OVE than CON. OVE led to greater blood insulin prepartum, lower NEFA:insulin, and greater lipogenic gene expression suggesting insulin sensitivity was not impaired. A lack of change in APOB, MTTP, and PNPLA3 coupled with upregulation of PLIN2 postpartum in cows fed OVE contributed to TAG accumulation. Postpartal responses in NEFA and FGF21 with OVE support a role of this hepatokine in diminishing adipose insulin sensitivity. © the authors, publisher and licensee Libertas Academica Limited.