Embrapa Rice and Beans

Barra de Santo Antônio, Brazil

Embrapa Rice and Beans

Barra de Santo Antônio, Brazil
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De Faria L.C.,Embrapa Rice and Beans | Melo P.G.S.,Federal University of Goais | Pereira H.S.,Embrapa Rice and Beans | Melo L.C.,Embrapa Rice and Beans
Crop Science | Year: 2017

The objective of this study was to estimate the genetic gain for yield of black-grained common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) developed by the Embrapa breeding program of Brazil. Genetic gain estimates were generated from 403 field tests conducted in all regions of Brazil in three growing seasons over 16 yr, from 1993 to 2008. Genetic gains were estimated by two indirect methods and were compared with those found through a direct estimation method. The first methodology used the mixed model approach to calculate the best unbiased linear estimate of cycle means, as fixed effects, and the best unbiased predictor of the genotype effect within cycles, as random effects. The second methodology of generalized least squares considered a model of fixed effects, except for the error. For the direct method, 24 lines consisting of the three highest yielding of each of the eight breeding cycles were evaluated in 21 environments. The estimated percentage of annual genetic gain in grain yield by the direct method over the 16-yr period (1.23%, P < 0.01) was significant and close to the result of the fixed model analysis (1.20%, P < 0.05) and by the mixed model (1.02%, P = 0.068). These results show that the indirect methods using a fixed model and the mixed model were consistent in determining genetic gain and can be used as an alternative to the direct method. © Crop Science Society of America.

Pereira L.A.,Federal University of Lavras | Ramalho M.A.P.,Federal University of Lavras | Abreu A.F.B.,Embrapa Rice and Beans | Guilherme S.R.,Federal University of Lavras
Scientia Agricola | Year: 2017

In common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) harvesting is carried out in the field. It is therefore necessary that cultivars be tolerant to viviparity, i.e., germination of grains still in the pods. Study of the percentage of germination of beans in the pods under laboratory conditions, where humidity content is high, has been proposed. Furthermore, under question is whether the thickness of the pod wall affects water uptake by the pods and, consequently, viviparity. Thus, the aim of the present study was to verify if there is variance among progenies for viviparity and if it is influenced by pod thickness. We assessed the parents, Pérola and ESAL 686, the F1, and a number of segregating generations in two crop seasons, in relation to the percentage of germination of seeds in the pods (PGSP) and pod wall thickness (PWT), and data on individual plants were obtained. The same traits were also assessed using the F2:3, F3:4 and F4:5 progenies. Taking into account the genetic and phenotypic parameters estimates, especially the level of high heritability, selection to less viviparity in common bean has to be carried out to evaluate PGSP in progenies. © 2017, Scientia Agricola. All rights reserved.

de Morais Junior O.P.,Federal University of Goais | Pereira J.A.,Embrapa Mid North | Melo P.G.S.,Federal University of Goais | Guimaraes P.H.R.,Federal University of Goais | De Morais O.P.,Embrapa Rice and Beans
Crop Science | Year: 2017

Cultivated red rice (Oryza sativa L.) is the most important special type of rice in Brazil and makes an excellent food, mainly because of its nutritional value. Genetic variability, useful for rice breeding programs, exists among red rice accessions. The objectives of the present study were: (i) to determine the nature of gene action and magnitude of genetic components conditioning grain yield (GY), plant height (PH), and days to flowering (DTF); and (ii) to determine the combining ability for these traits in nine red rice lines (female parents) and four commercial cultivars (male parents). Thirteen parents, an F2 generation of 18 crosses, and a check cultivar were evaluated at two locations (Goianira and Teresina, Brazil) using a randomized complete block design with four replications. Data (unbalanced because of lost plots) from this incomplete set of crosses in a factorial mating design were subjected to variance analyses using a general linear model. According to Baker’s ratio, nonadditive genetic effects were more important than additive effects for the expression of the three traits. The dominance deviations were predominantly negative for GY and DTF and were positive for PH. Crosses tended to be more productive (higher GY) and earlier (fewer DTF) than parental lines. General combining ability was largest for the MNA1106 line with red pericarp. The MNA1106/SCS 119 Rubi cross exhibited the highest potential for selection of high-yielding red rice lines. MNA1101/SCS 119 Rubi, MNA1101/SCS 116 Satoru, MNA1102/SCS 119 Rubi, MNA1103/ IRGA 424, MNA1104/SCS 116 Satoru, and MNA1108/IRGA 424 crosses were considered the most promising sources of earliness for developing early-maturing red rice lines. © Crop Science Society of America.

Pires L.P.M.,Federal University of Lavras | Ramalho M.A.P.,Federal University of Lavras | Abreu A.F.B.,Embrapa Rice and Beans | Ferreira M.C.,University of Sao Paulo
Scientia Agricola | Year: 2014

Plant with a more upright architecture offers many advantages to farmers. Recurrent mass selection (RS) programs for carioca type common bean have been implemented for the purpose of obtaining new lines that will generate the high yields that are associated with upright plant architecture. This study aimed to assess the efficiency of recurrent mass selection (RS) for upright plant architecture in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and the effect of RS on grain yield and to verify whether or not there is still variability in the population that favors continuing selection programs, using information obtained from progenies evaluated in cycle five (CV) and cycle eight (CVIII) of the RS program. Mass selection for more upright plants was performed visually in the "S0" generation before flowering. Progenies S0:3 and S0:4 were evaluated in 2009 (CV) and 2011 (CVIII). Heritability (h2) and RS progress were estimated using adjusted means. After eight selection cycles, the population subjected to RS still had enough genetic variability to achieve continued success through recurrent selection. The RS progress was 1.62 % per cycle for the growth habit scores and 6.81 % for grain yield.

Mascarin G.M.,Embrapa Rice and Beans | Mascarin G.M.,National United University | Mascarin G.M.,University of Sao Paulo | Jackson M.A.,National United University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Invertebrate Pathology | Year: 2015

A major constraint to the commercial use of fungal biocontrol agents is the availability of low-cost production media and processes. Previous attempts in producing Beauveria blastospores using liquid culture fermentation processes required long fermentation times (6-8days) and produced cells that had poor survival after desiccation and storage. In this study, isolates of Beauveria bassiana and Isaria fumosorosea were evaluated for blastospore yield, desiccation tolerance, storage stability, and biocontrol efficacy using fermentation media containing acid hydrolyzed casein or cottonseed flour as the nitrogen source. Cultures of B. bassiana and I. fumosorosea grown in media containing cottonseed flour produced high blastospore concentrations (>1×109mL-1) after 3days which is comparatively less expensive nitrogen source than acid hydrolyzed casein. The resultant air-dried blastospores (<3% moisture) of all fungal isolates survived drying (61-86% viability), irrespective of the nitrogen source tested. Storage stability at 4°C varied with nitrogen source and fungal strain. Air-dried blastospores of B. bassiana strains showed half-lives >14months in contrast to 9.2-13.1months for I. fumosorosea. Blastospores of B. bassiana and I. fumosorosea killed Bemisia tabaci whitefly nymphs faster and required lower concentrations compared with aerial conidia. Our findings support the use of liquid culture fermentation as a cost-effective process to rapidly produce high yields of stable and infective blastospores of either B. bassiana or I. fumosorosea. These results support further evaluation of blastospore sprayable formulations for the control of soft-bodied insects. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

Colombari Filho J.M.,Embrapa Rice and Beans | Geraldi I.O.,University of Sao Paulo
Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology | Year: 2014

In plant breeding programs, the knowledge about the appropriate sample size for the evaluation of populations is very important. A small sample reduces the chance of selecting superior genotypes, whereas a very large sample may lead to unnecessary increases in cost and labor. A population consisting of 192 soybean lines was divided in groups of 24 lines, which were assessed for grain yield in eight randomized complete block experiments. Analyses of variance were performed for each experiment as well as for groups of experiments, resulting in analyses of variance consisting of 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, 168, and 192 lines. As the sample size increased, the width of confidence intervals of parameter estimates decreased, stabilizing with samples of 144 lines. Therefore, an appropriate sample size for the evaluation of soybean inbred populations should contain about 150 lines.

Mascarin G.M.,Embrapa Rice and Beans | Kobori N.N.,Embrapa Rice and Beans | de Jesus Vital R.C.,Embrapa Rice and Beans | Jackson M.A.,National United University | Quintela E.D.,Embrapa Rice and Beans
World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology | Year: 2014

We investigated the potential production and desiccation tolerance of microsclerotia (MS) by Brazilian strains of Metarhizium anisopliae (Ma), M. acridum (Mc) and M. robertsii (Mr). These fungi were grown in a liquid medium containing 16 g carbon l-1 with a carbon:nitrogen ratio of 50:1. One hundred milliliters cultures were grown in 250 ml Erlenmeyer flasks in a rotary incubator shaker at 28 °C and 200 rpm for 5 days. Five-day-old MS were harvested, mixed with diatomaceous earth (DE) and air-dried for 2 days at 30 °C. The air-dried MS-DE granular preparations were milled by mortar + pestle and stored in centrifuged tubes at either 26 or -20 °C. Desiccation tolerance and conidia production were assessed for dried MS granules by measuring hyphal germination after incubation for 2 days on water agar plates at 26 °C and for conidia production following 7 days incubation. Yields of MS by all strains of Metarhizium were 6.1-7.3 × 106 l-1 after 3 days growth with maximum MS yields (0.7-1.1 × 107 l-1) after 5 days growth. No differences in biomass accumulation were observed after 3 days growth, whereas Ma-CG168 showed the highest biomass accumulation after 5 days growth. Dried MS-DE preparations of all fungal strains were equally tolerant to desiccation (≥93 % germination) and the highest conidia production was obtained by MS granules of Mc-CG423 (4 × 109 conidia g-1). All MS granules showed similar stability after storage at either 26 or -20 °C for 3.5 months. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Geraldine A.M.,Federal University of Goais | Lopes F.A.C.,Federal University of Goais | Carvalho D.D.C.,University of Brasilia | Barbosa E.T.,Embrapa Rice and Beans | And 4 more authors.
Biological Control | Year: 2013

Field outcomes of 10 Trichoderma spp. isolates against white mold (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum) on common beans were matched to laboratory results, to identify the causes of variance related to biocontrol effectiveness. Laboratory assays estimated sclerotia parasitism and production of the cell wall-degrading enzymes (CWDEs) lipase, NAGase, β-1,3-glucanase, β-glucosidase and protease. Field trials were carried out in 2009 and 2010 under a randomized block design and sprinkling irrigation, where 2×1012sporesmL-1 of each antagonist were applied to the plots at the early R5 stage. The density of S. sclerotiorum apotheciam-2 and disease severity were assessed, respectively at R7 and R8 stages, with yield and its components also estimated for each year. Field results were analyzed jointly by the Tukey-Kramer multiple comparison test, and all variables from both field and laboratory experiments were subjected to principal component analysis (PCA). In both years, isolates TR696 and TR356 of Trichoderma asperellum were effective in reducing apothecia density and disease severity. Biocontrol increased the number of pods per plant and yields up to 40% when compared to controls, even under higher disease pressure in 2010. PCA demonstrated in 2009 and 2010 that apothecia density, disease severity, NAGase, β-1,3-glucanase and number of pods were the main sources of the first component of variance. Such results suggest that the CWDEs NAGase and β-1,3-glucanase and sclerotia parasitism are key components of Trichoderma spp. action in biocontrol of S. sclerotiorum in the field, and may be used as markers to hasten the selection of new, promising isolates. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

Siqueira B.D.S.,Federal University of Goais | Vianello R.P.,Embrapa Rice and Beans | Fernandes K.F.,Federal University of Goais | Bassinello P.Z.,Embrapa Rice and Beans
LWT - Food Science and Technology | Year: 2013

Instrumental texture analysis is a fast and practical tool that has been used to assess bean cooking quality. However, lack of standardization for sample preparation has resulted in quite divergent reports in literature. So, five bean cooking methods were evaluated to identify and establish the best one that differentiates hardness of fresh and aged grains. Bean hardness was highly affected by cooking time and temperature. Mattson Bean Cooker and hot air oven were not adequate, providing undercooked grains with hardness above 4N. Hardness of grains cooked on a hotplate decreased as the cooking time increased from 30 to 60min. Likewise, with the autoclave at milder condition (105°C/10min) the grains were harder (2.99N for fresh grains and 3.40N for aged grains), while at severe condition (115°C/20min) softer grains were obtained (0.77N for fresh grains and 1.01N for aged grains). The suitable methods to prepare cooked bean for instrumental texture analyses seem to be the hotplate cooking for 45 or 60min and the autoclave procedure at 110°C/15min, once they promoted the grain softening and discriminated fresh and aged beans. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

de Aguiar R.A.,Federal University of Goais | da Cunha M.G.,Federal University of Goais | Lobo Junior M.,Embrapa Rice and Beans
Biological Control | Year: 2014

Field trials were carried out to evaluate six treatments combining biological agents and chemical fungicides applied via chemigation against white mold (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum) on processing tomatoes. The experiment was performed in Goiânia, Brazil, with tomato hybrid Heinz 7155 in 2009 and 2010 in a field previously infested with S. sclerotiorum sclerotia. Treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design in a 2×3 factorial structure (with and without Trichoderma spp. 1.0 ×109 viable conidia mL-1 ha-1) ×fluazinam (1.0Lha-1), procimidone (1.5Lha-1) and control, applied by drip irrigation. Treatments were applied three times 10days apart, starting one month after transplanting. Each treatment consisted of plots with three 72-meter rows with four plants m-1 and 1.5m spacing between rows, with three replications. Based on disease incidence evaluated weekly, the area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC) was obtained. Yield and its components were evaluated in addition to fruit pH and °Brix. Results were subjected to ANOVA, Scott-Knott (5%), and regression analysis. Biocontrol using Trichoderma spp. via chemigation singly or in combination with synthetic fungicides fluazinam and procimidone reduced AUDPC and increased fruit yield up to 25tha-1. The best treatment for controlling white mold also increased pulp yield around 1.0 and 7.0tha-1 in 2009 and 2010, respectively. The present work demonstrated the advantages of white mold biological control in processing tomato crops, where drip irrigation favored Trichoderma spp. delivery close to the plants and to the inoculum source. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

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