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Palmas de Monte Alto, Brazil

Silva T.S.C.,University of Sao Paulo | Moro G.V.,Embrapa Pesca e Aquicultura | Silva T.B.A.,University of Sao Paulo | Dairiki J.K.,Embrapa Amazonia Ocidental | Cyrino J.E.P.,University of Sao Paulo
Aquaculture Nutrition | Year: 2013

Knowledge on apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) is necessary to maximize the feed efficiency, thus lessening dietary nutrient and energy losses. This study tasks the determination of apparent digestibility of selected feedstuff to striped surubim Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum, a carnivorous, South American catfish of economic importance for fisheries and fish culture alike. Juvenile striped surubim (82.4 ± 17.7 g and 23.0 ± 1.6 cm) was distributed in 21 cylindrical, plastic cages (80 L), housed in seven 1000 L feeding tanks under constant water flow and aeration and conditioned to a two daily meals (20h00m and 22h00m) feeding regimen on a practical, reference diet (RD) (460.0 g kg-1 crude protein (CP); 19.23 kJ g-1 gross energy (GE)]. Test diets were obtained by adding of 1 g kg-1 chromium III oxide and 300 g kg-1 of one the following feedstuffs: fish meal (FM), meat and bone meal (MBM), poultry by-product meal, feather meal, blood meal, soybean meal, wheat bran, corn and corn gluten meal to the RD. After the last daily meal, fish were transferred to cylindrical, conical-bottomed aquaria (200 L) under aeration and continuous water exchange, coupled to refrigerated plastic bottles for faeces collection by sedimentation. Best ADC of protein (99.36%) and energy (86.25%) were recorded for poultry by-product meal and MBM, respectively, which are thus deemed ideal surrogate feedstuffs to FM in the formulation and processing of diets for striped surubim. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

Crusciol C.A.C.,Sao Paulo State University | Mateus G.P.,Agencia Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegocios | Pariz C.M.,Sao Paulo State University | Borghi E.,Embrapa Pesca e Aquicultura | And 2 more authors.
Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira | Year: 2011

The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the intercropping with Marandu grass on the nutrition and yield of sorghum hybrids with contrasting-cycle, in no-tillage system. It was used a randomized block experimental design in a factorial arrangement (2×2), with six replicates. The treatments consisted of two sorghum hybrids with contrasting cycles (P8118, medium cycle; and P8419, early cycle) and two crop systems (single and intercropped with Marandu grass in the seed row), with the seeding done in the early December. Nutrition, agronomic traits, production components, and dry matter and grain yields of the sorghum hybrids were evaluated. Except for potassium and sulphur, the leaf contents of the other nutrients were appropriate in all treatments for sorghum cropping. The hybrid P8118 had the highest grain yield and, after the intercropping, it contributed for the highest forage dry matter yield of Marandu grass in the cut performed in October. The intercropping of contrasting-cycle sorghum hybrids and Marandu grass does not affect sorghum nutrition, and dry matter and grain yields, in comparison with the single cropping, irrespectively of the hybrid cycle. Source

Mateus G.P.,Agencia Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegocios | Crusciol C.A.C.,Sao Paulo State University | Borghi E.,Embrapa Pesca e Aquicultura | Pariz C.M.,Sao Paulo State University | And 2 more authors.
Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira | Year: 2011

The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of nitrogen fertilization management on single and intercropped sorghum with Marandu and Mombaça grasses, and to determine the forage dry weight yield in the 2003/2004 and 2004/2005, in a no. tillage system. The experimental design was in randomized block, in a 3×5 factorial arrangement, with four replicates. The treatments consisted of three sorghum cropping systems (single and intercropped with Marandu and Mombaca grasses in the rows) and five nitrogen fertilizer managements: 30-70; 70-30; 50-50; 100-0; and 0-100 kg ha -1 of N, applied at sowing and topdressing, respectively. Intercropping did not affect sorghum nutrition nor grain yield. Only in the first growth season, the 50-50 kg ha -1 of N splitting increased grain yield. Straw management interfered in sorghum establishment during the second growth season and decreased grain yield. The highest rates of N topdressing increased forage dry weight yield of Marandu grass and, applied at sowing, N highest rates increased this attribute in Mombaca grass. Source

Moro G.V.,Embrapa Pesca e Aquicultura | Silva T.S.C.,Embrapa Agropecuaria Oeste | Zanon R.B.,University of Sao Paulo | Cyrino J.E.P.,University of Sao Paulo
Aquaculture Nutrition | Year: 2016

Carbohydrates and lipids are the major and cheaper non-protein energy sources for fish diets. This study aimed at determining ideal relationship between dietary starch and lipids and their influence on digestive enzyme profile of juvenile dourado. Trials were set up in a closed-loop system with controlled temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH and total ammonia. Experimental extruded diets formulated to contain different starch (St) to lipids (Lip) ratio (St : Lip = 0 : 1, 0.3 : 1, 0.7 : 1, 1.0 : 1, 1.4 : 1, 2.0 : 1, 2.3 : 1 to 3.3 : 1) were fed to juvenile dourado (3.34 ± 0.16 g) and stocked into 30 polyethylene tanks (330 L, 30 fish per tank) in a completely randomized design with unbalanced repetition (n = 3 or 4), in two daily meals (1000 and 1530) until satiation, for 95 days. Dietary starch contents higher than 145.2 g kg-1 (St : Lip > 1.0 : 1.0) hampered the performance of fish, but, paradoxically, the inclusion of carbohydrates in the diet elicited better utilization of dietary protein and energy by the species. Fish adapted digestive enzyme profile to dietary starch contents through increasing secretion of alkaline proteases and non-specific lipases, but secretion of amylase was not altered. Physiological responses show the limitation of species on the use of dietary carbohydrates. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd Source

Simon J.,Embrapa Pesca e Aquicultura | Angelocci L.R.,University of Sao Paulo
Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Agricola e Ambiental | Year: 2014

The all-wave radiant energy absorbed by the canopy (Rnc) of trees is one of the main variables of interest in water studies and crop growth of woody species, but its direct determination is not an easy task, being limited to experimental work. Scanning the top of trees along plant hedgerows by moving net radiometers around them is a technique that renders possible spatiotemporal integration of Rnc values, allowing the tests of physico-mathematical models and establishing of correlations of Rnc with routine measurements of incoming solar radiation (Rg) and grass net radiation (Rng). Integrated values measured by this technique in a stretch of rows of a coffee plantation and an acid lime orchard were correlated with Rng and Rg. For the coffee crop, linear and quadratic polynomial equations fitted well for the relationship of Rnc with Rg and Rng for autumn, winter and spring in 15 min, hourly and diurnal time-scales, but for the summer only in the diurnal scale this occurred. For the lime orchard, good fits were obtained in the three timescales in the winter, but only for the diurnal timescale in the summer. © 2014, Departamento de Engenharia Agricola - UFCG/Cnpq. All rights reserved. Source

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