Embrapa Pecuaria Sul CPPSul

Bagé, Brazil

Embrapa Pecuaria Sul CPPSul

Bagé, Brazil
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Kaspary T.E.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Lamego F.P.,Embrapa Pecuaria Sul CPPSul | Langaro A.C.,Federal University of Viçosa | Ruchel Q.,Federal University of Pelotas | Agostinetto D.,Federal University of Pelotas
Planta Daninha | Year: 2016

The resistance of weeds to herbicides is a consequence of one or more mechanisms in the plant, responsible for not allowing the herbicide to act properly at the active site. The objective of this study was to investigate the mechanism(s) of resistance to glyphosate in Conyza bonariensis. An experiment was conducted in November and December, 2012 and repeated in February and March, 2013 using a factorial arrangement of the treatments, where the factor A corresponded to biotypes of hairy fleabane, susceptible (S) and resistant (R); the factor B to seven rates of glyphosate from 0 to 11,520 g e.a. ha-1, and factor C were simulated environmental conditions of winter (12/8 °C day/night of temperature and 10/14 h of photoperiod) and summer (28/20 °C day/night of temperature and 14/10 h of photoperiod). An assay evaluating the shikimic acid was performed twice in the month of July 2013, with treatments arranged in a factorial arrangement, being factor A biotypes of hairy fleabane, S and R and the factor B seven glyphosate rates (0 to 28,8 mg a.e. L-1). The R biotype of C. bonariensis does not appear to present the sequestration of herbicide in the vacuole as the mechanism of resistance. However, the low accumulation of shikimate by the R biotype characterizes lower sensitivity of EPSPs enzyme to glyphosate, inferring that this is the present mechanism of resistance in plants of C. bonariensis. However, the resistance cannot be associated to a unique mechanism of resistance, requiring further studies to its understanding. © 2016, Sociedade Brasileira da Ciencia das Plantas Daninha. All rights reserved.


Bastiani M.O.,Federal University of Pelotas | Lamego F.P.,Embrapa Pecuaria Sul CPPSul | Nunes J.P.,Federal University of Pelotas | Moura D.S.,Federal University of Pelotas | And 2 more authors.
Planta Daninha | Year: 2015

The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of temperature and light on germination of barnyardgrass in different periods of seed storage after dispersal. The research was divided into two studies: in the first it was evaluated the effect of three temperatures (15, 25 and 35 °C) and two light conditions (presence and absence), on germination percentage, hypocotyl length and radicle length; and, in the second, it was evaluated the effect of three temperatures (15, 25 and 35 oC) on the germination speed index and germination speed. The seeds were collected in the field shortly after the start of natural seed dispersal. The studies were performed at 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 210, 240, 270, 300, 330 and 360 days after seed harvest. At 30 days after seed harvest, there was no germination regardless of light conditions and temperature. At 60 days after seed harvest, the seeds germinated both in the presence and absence of light. The absence of light increased hypocotyl length, regardless of temperature. Under 15 oC temperature condition and absence of light, the seeds showed higher radicle length. The increase in temperature caused an increase on the germination speed index and germination speed of the seeds. The knowledge of factors that affect barnyardgrass germination contribute to develop crop management practices of this important weed that interferes in some crops, including the soybean grown in rotation with rice paddy. © 2015, Sociedade Brasileira da Ciencia das Plantas Daninha. All rights reserved.


Kaspary T.E.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Lamego F.P.,Embrapa Pecuaria Sul CPPSul | Belle C.,Federal University of Pelotas | Kulczynski S.M.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Pittol D.,Federal University of Santa Maria
Planta Daninha | Year: 2015

Oat is an important alternative for growing winter crops in southern Brazil. However, high percentages of lodging limit oat yield. In this context, the use of growth regulators is an option to prevent lodging and to achieve higher productivity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of rates of the trinexapac-ethyl growth regulator on agronomic characteristics of oat, as well as its influence on physiological and health quality of seeds. An experiment was conducted under field conditions, where four doses of trinexapac-ethyl (0, 50, 100 and 150 g a.i. ha-1) were evaluated on plant height, stem diameter, percentage of lodging, and yield components. A second experiment was conducted in the laboratory, where seeds from the field study were evaluated for physiological quality based on the measurement of germination, first germination count, electrical conductivity, seedling length and weight, accelerated aging, cold test, speed germination rate, emergency speed rate, seedling dry matter in the field and health by using the "Blotter Test". The use of increasing rates of trinexapac-ethyl decreased quadratically the height as well the lodging of oat plants. The rate of 100 g a.i. ha-1 of the growth regulator gave the best results for the yield components of Avena sativa. The use of trinexapac-ethyl adversely affects the germination and vigor of oat seeds, as well as their health, thus reducing the ability of establishment and initial development of the crop. © 2015, Sociedade Brasileira da Ciencia das Plantas Daninha. All rights reserved.

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