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São Carlos, Brazil

Moreira A.,Embrapa Pecuaria Sudeste CPPSE | de Castro C.,Embrapa Soja CNPSO | de Oliveira F.A.,Embrapa Soja CNPSO
Ciencia e Agrotecnologia | Year: 2010

The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of six extractants and the effect of boron concentration and dry matter yield, cultivated in greenhouse conditions with two Rhodic Hapludox in Mauá da Serra and Londrina, in the State of Paraná, and one Ustoxix Quatzipsamment in Alto Garças, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with six boron rates (0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 kg ha-1), and three replicates. The available boron was determined with six extractant solutions: Mehlich 1, Mehlich 3, hot water, HCl 0.05 mol L-1, Ca(H2PO4)2.H2O 0.01 mol L-1 and KCl 1.0 mol L-1. The results showed that the B extracted by hot water had the best correlation with the dry matter yield and B content in the plant, whereas the KCl 1.0 mol L-1 was the most efficient in the determination of B level in dry matter. High concentrations of B diminished the efficiency of the hot water extractant in determining the B available in soil. The highest correlations were obtained between the extractant Mehlich 1 and Ca(H2PO4)2.H2O 0.01 mol L-1, KCl 1.0 mol L-1 and HCl 0.05 mol L-1, KCl 1.0 mol L-1 and Ca(H2PO4)2.H2O 0.01 mol L-1, and hot water and Ca(H2PO4)2.H2O 0.01 mol L-1. Source

Torres T.R.,University of Pernambuco | Do C.m.m. Ludke M.,University of Pernambuco | Do C.m.m. Ludke M.,Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development | MacIel M.I.S.,University of Pernambuco | And 4 more authors.
Revista Brasileirade Ciencias Agrarias | Year: 2011

The sensory attributes of the meat from broilers fed from the seventh to the 42nd day of age with diets containing different replacement levels of the soybean meal protein by the extruded cottonseed meal protein (FAE) were evaluated by the Simplified Quantitative Descriptive Analysis and the Triangle Test. Five treatments (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 % replacement, respectively, T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5) and five replications per treatment containing 12 birds per plot were used. At the 42nd day of age, three broilers per plot, weighing close to the plot average, were slaughtered, and the 75 carcasses were frozen. In the sensorial evaluation, 15 g portions of the breast and thigh+drumstick cuts from the carcasses obtained in T1, T2, T3 and T5 were removed, cut into cubes of 2.5 cm2 and cooked. The samples were evaluated by a team of ten trained tasters. The analyzed attributes showed no significant difference (P>0.05) between treatments. However, by the difference test (Triangle Test), significant difference was observed (P<0.05) in the attribute thigh+drumstick meat taste when the treatments of lower (T2) and higher FAE inclusion level (T5) were compared to the treatment without FAE (T1). Source

Melo P.C.,Sao Paulo State University | Ferreira L.M.,Medico Veterinario Autonomo | Nader-Filho A.,Sao Paulo State University | Zafalon L.F.,Embrapa Pecuaria Sudeste CPPSE | Vicente H.I.G.,Secretaria da Agricultura Do Estado de Sao Paulo
Bioscience Journal | Year: 2012

Biofilm formation is considered an advantage for Staphylococcus aureus mastitis isolates, facilitating bacterial persistence in the udder. It requires attachment to mammary epithelium, proliferation and accumulation of cells in multilayers and enclosing in a polymeric matrix known as exopolysaccharide. The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine subclinical mastitis for formation of biofilms. A total of 94 Staphylococcus aureus strains obtained from milk samples of cows suffering from subclinical mastitis in dairy herds on two properties in the state of São Paulo were evaluated. These strains were characterized by in vitro biofilm formation, and by the presence of icaA and icaD genes which are responsible for intercellular adhesion. The results revealed that 98.9% of the isolates produced biofilm in vitro by adherence in sterile 96-well "U" bottom polystyrene tissue culture plates; 95.7% of the isolates possessed the icaA and icaD genes. These bacterial isolates biofilm producers may impair eradication of chronic mastitis, rendering antibiotherapy less effective. The detection of biofilm forming ability in mastitis isolates may provide useful information for more adequate therapeutic regimen and for preventive actions in the control of those bacterial isolates in bovine herds. Source

Chagas A.C.S.,Embrapa Pecuaria Sudeste CPPSE | Domingues L.F.,Embrapa Pecuaria Sudeste CPPSE | Barioni-Junior W.,Embrapa Pecuaria Sudeste CPPSE | Esteves S.N.,Embrapa Pecuaria Sudeste CPPSE | Niciura S.C.M.,Embrapa Pecuaria Sudeste CPPSE
Parasitology Research | Year: 2016

Levamisole phosphate, chosen based on its 100 % efficacy demonstrated by a previous fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT), was used as the exclusive anthelmintic treatment in the Embrapa Southeast Livestock sheep flock from 2009 to 2014 in a target selected treatment scheme. In the present study, the effectiveness of this nematode control scheme was evaluated after 5 years by FECRT, larval development test (LDT), and a molecular test to assess the development of levamisole resistance in Haemonchus contortus. Animals were submitted to treatments with albendazole, levamisole, closantel, ivermectin, moxidectin, and monepantel. Eggs per gram of feces (EPG) counts and fecal cultures were performed, and anthelmintic efficacy was calculated by the RESO 4.0 program. The helminths of the flock (GIN Embrapa2014) were compared to susceptible (McMaster) and resistant (Embrapa2010) H. contortus isolates in the LDT to estimate the LC50 and LC90 of levamisole and in a molecular test to evaluate the 63-bp indel in the acr8 gene associated with levamisole resistance. In the FECRT, parasites were susceptible to monepantel (99.6 %) and closantel (98.3 %), but resistant to moxidectin (93.8 %), levamisole (70.4 %), ivermectin (48.1 %), and albendazole (0 %). In the coproculture on D14, and the control group presented 80 % H. contortus and 20 % Trichostrongylus sp., while in the monepantel group L1 were observed as well as Oesophagostomum sp. L3. LDT and resistance factors provided good separation between susceptible and resistant parasites. The genotypic frequencies of the 63-bp insertion in the acr8 gene in H. contortus were 11.9, 6.7, and 0 % in GIN Embrapa2014, Embrapa2010, and McMaster isolates, respectively. After 5 years of exclusive use, the nematodes developed resistance to levamisole, detected by FECRT and by increase in LC50 and LC90 for levamisole in the LDT. The 63-bp indel was not confirmed as a molecular marker of levamisole resistance in our isolates. The target selected treatment scheme was effective to control helminths in the sheep flock for 5 years, when levamisole’s inefficacy was perceived because of no change in the clinical situation of treated animals. Through this scheme, it was possible to promote reversion towards susceptibility or increase of efficacy for other chemical classes. Thus, this is a valid recommendation to control worms and to delay the development of resistance, preserving other anthelmintic classes for future use. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

de Souza Chagas A.C.,Embrapa Pecuaria Sudeste CPPSE | de Sena Oliveira M.C.,Embrapa Pecuaria Sudeste CPPSE | Giglioti R.,Embrapa Pecuaria Sudeste CPPSE | Santana R.C.M.,Embrapa Pecuaria Sudeste CPPSE | And 3 more authors.
Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases | Year: 2016

Herbal extracts have been investigated as an alternative for parasite control, aiming to slow the development of resistance and to obtain low-cost biodegradable parasiticides. The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy, in vitro, of 11 essential oils from Brazil on reproductive efficiency and lethality of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. The effects of oils extracted from Curcuma longa, Zingiber officinale, Lippia alba, Lippia gracilis, Lippia origanoides, Lippia sidoides, Mentha arvensis, Mentha piperita, Croton cajucara (white and red), and Croton sacaquinha on ticks were investigated by the Immersion Test with Engorged Females (ITEF) and the modified Larval Packet Test (LPT). Distilled water and 2% Tween 80 were used as control treatments. Chemical analysis of the oils was done with gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Analysis of the in vitro tests using Probit (SAS program) allowed the calculation of lethal concentrations (LCs). Lower reproductive efficiency indexes and higher efficacy percentages in the ITEF were obtained with the oils extracted from C. longa (24 and 71%, respectively) and M. arvensis oils (27 and 73%, respectively). Lower LC50 was reached with C. longa (10.24 mg/mL), L. alba (10.78 mg/mL), M. arvensis (22.31 mg/mL), L. sidoides (27.67 mg/mL), and C. sacaquinha (29.88 mg/mL) oils. In the LPT, species from Zingiberaceae and Verbenaceae families caused 100% lethality at 25 mg/mL, except for L. sidoides. The most effective oils were from C. longa, L. gracilis, L. origanoides, L. alba, and Z. officinale. The LC50 and LC90 were, respectively: 0.54 and 1.80 mg/mL, 3.21 and 7.03 mg/mL, 3.10 and 8.44 mg/mL, 5.85 and 11.14 mg/mL, and 7.75 and 13.62 mg/mL. The efficacy was directly related to the major components in each essential oil, and the oils derived from Croton genus presented the worst performance, suggesting the absence of synergistic effect among its compounds. Since C. longa, containing 62% turmerone, was the one most efficient against ticks, this compound may be potentially used for tick control, but further research is needed, especially to assess toxicity of these compounds to the host. These new studies, together with the results presented here, may provide a strong rationale for designing pre-clinical and clinical studies with these agents. © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. Source

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