Embrapa Milho e Sorgo

Sete Lagoas, Brazil

Embrapa Milho e Sorgo

Sete Lagoas, Brazil
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Oehl F.,Ecological Systems | Jansa J.,ETH Zurich | De Souza F.A.,Embrapa Milho e Sorgo | De Silva G.A.,Federal University of Pernambuco
Mycotaxon | Year: 2010

A new arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus, Cetraspora helvetica, was found in three Swiss agricultural soils: a no-till crop production system and two temporary grasslands. It forms white spores, 210-270 μm diam, on dark yellow sporogenous cells. The spores have three walls: a triple-layered outer, a bi-layered middle and a triplelayered inner wall. The spore surface is crowded with convex warts, 5-12 μm diam at the base and 1.5-5.0 μm high. The germination shield is hyaline with multiple (6-10) lobes. Glomerospores of two other Gigasporineae spp. have also three walls, multiple-lobed hyaline germination shields, and projections on the outer spore surface: C. spinosissima and C. striata. However, spores of these fungi are substantially pigmented (ochraceous yellow to rust) and crowded with short, thin spines or fingerprint-like processes, respectively. Partial sequences of the 28S ribosomal gene place the new species adjacent to C. spinosissima, C pellucida, and C. gilmorei. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrate the monophyly of the two genera Racocetra and Cetraspora within the Racocetraceae. © 2010. Mycotaxon, Ltd.

Borges Jr. J.C.F.,CSL UFSJ | Anjos R.J.,INMET | Silva T.J.A.,UFMT | Lima J.R.S.,Federal Rural University of Pernambuco | Andrade C.L.T.,Embrapa Milho e Sorgo
Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Agricola e Ambiental | Year: 2012

For high frequency irrigation management, based on climate data, it is desirable to estimate reference evapotranspiration at small time steps. This work aimed at to evaluate the performance of daily reference evapotranspiration estimated by the following methods: FAO-24 Radiation, Priestley-Taylor, Hargreaves-Samani, Camargo-71 and Blaney-Criddle, for Garanhuns-PE micro-region, having FAO Penman-Monteith method as standard. Considering the mean absolute error (MAE), among other statistics, it was verified that the best performance was obtained by the Priestley-Taylor method. Regarding the methods applicable when only temperature data are available, the Hargreaves-Samani showed the best performance, having been calibrated based on the minimization of the MAE.

Moraes E.A.,Federal University of Viçosa | Queiroz V.A.V.,Embrapa Milho e Sorgo | Shaffert R.E.,Embrapa Milho e Sorgo | Costa N.M.B.,Federal University of Espirito Santo | And 3 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2012

The in vivo protein qualities were evaluated in flours from raw sorghum grains (RF) and flours from sorghum grains subjected to heat treatment in an oven (HTF) from the hybrids BRS 305, BRS 309 and BRS 310, developed by the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Embrapa). There were no differences in feed efficiency ratios among experimental groups. Heat-treated flour from BRS 309 and BRS 310 genotypes had higher protein efficiency ratios and net protein ratio values; however, they did not differ from those of flour from raw grain of BRS 310 genotype. Effects of heat treatment were observed in the BRS 309 genotype. Heat treatment did not affect true digestibility observed for the RF and HTF of the three genotypes. Lysine was the first limiting amino acid of the three sorghum genotypes. The HTF BRS 305 showed the lowest protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score value. Heat treatment improved the protein quality of genotype BRS 309; however, no differences were observed among the other genotypes. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Oliveira C.M.,Embrapa Cerrados | Auad A.M.,Embrapa Gado de Leite | Mendes S.M.,Embrapa Milho e Sorgo | Frizzas M.R.,University of Brasilia
Crop Protection | Year: 2014

Among the various sectors of the Brazilian economy, agriculture plays a prominent role, generating jobs and income for the country. However, the agricultural sector faces systematic annual losses due to pests and diseases. The damage caused by insect pests is one of the primary factors leading to the reduced production of major crops. The study presented here estimates the production losses of major crops caused by insects and the economic impact related to the direct damage caused by insects, to the purchase of insecticides, and to medical treatment for humans poisoned by insecticides. The results indicate that insect pests cause an average annual loss of 7.7% in production in Brazil, which is a reduction of approximately 25milliontons of food, fiber, and biofuels. The total annual economic losses reach approximately US$ 17.7 billion. These results are important for government policies in the agricultural sector, as well as indicate the need for updated data regarding the losses caused by insects in Brazil and the need for systematic monitoring of these losses. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Cunha E.Q.,Federal University of Goais | Stone L.F.,Embrapa Arroz e Feijao | Ferreira E.P.B.,Embrapa Arroz e Feijao | Didonet A.D.,Embrapa Arroz e Feijao | Moreira J.A.A.,Embrapa Milho e Sorgo
Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Agricola e Ambiental | Year: 2012

This study aimed to determine which attributes of a Cerrado Oxisol under organic production are more impacted by cropping systems consisted of combinations of common bean and corn crops, no-tillage (NT) and conventional tillage (CT) systems, and cover crops. Multivariate analysis techniques were applied on data of four experiments, two of them under NT and the other two in CT, one carried out with common bean crop and another with corn. The experiments were installed annually since November 2003 in Santo Antônio de Goiás, GO, in randomized block design, with four replications. Samples were taken from soil layer of 0-0.10 m in September 2003 for the initial chemical analysis (chemical reference). In November 2007 a new sampling of the plots and of a forest (physical and biological reference) was performed for determination of soil physical (PA), chemical (CA) and biological (BA) attributes. The cropping systems caused changes in PA and BA, as compared to the forest, and in CA, as compared to the initial chemical condition of soil. PA were more sensitive to detect changes in the quality of the soil under cultivation. The metabolic and microbial quotients were the most negatively affected by CT as compared to NT. CA were more sensitive in discriminating common bean crop from corn crop.

Senete C.T.,Institute Investigacao Agraria Of Mocambique Iiam | de Guimaraes P.E.O.,Embrapa Milho e Sorgo | Paes M.C.D.,Embrapa Milho e Sorgo | de Souza J.C.,Federal University of Lavras
Euphytica | Year: 2011

Vitamin A deficiency causes xerophthalmia in preschool-aged children worldwide. The objective of this study was to estimate the genetic parameters that would be useful in selecting parent plants for developing productive hybrids with higher levels of provitamin A in the maize kernel. A complete 7 × 7 diallel mating scheme was used to generate 21 single-cross hybrids. The F1 crosses and check hybrids were evaluated in complete block design across three different Brazilian environments, and carotenoid content was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. General combining ability effects were significant for all traits except α-carotene This result indicates that the contribution of the additive effect was more important for provitamin A and other carotenoids and, consequently that there is high chance of improving this trait through recurrent selection methods. Line 3 produced the highest level of kernel provitamin A among the inbred lines evaluated and also demonstrated the potential to contribute to the development of genetic materials with a good performance for provitamin A. Inbred lines 1, 6, and 7 showed a higher concentration of favorable alleles for grain yield, and inbred lines 3 and 6 exhibited a higher concentration of favorable alleles for β-carotene. Hybrid 1 × 3 performed well in terms of provitamin A and grain yield and combination 2 × 3 was the best performer in terms of lutein content. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Mendes S.M.,Embrapa Milho e Sorgo | Boregas K.G.B.,Embrapa Milho e Sorgo | Lopes M.E.,ReHAgro Recursos Humanos no Agronegocio | Waquil M.S.,Embrapa Milho e Sorgo | Waquil J.M.,Embrapa Milho e Sorgo
Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira | Year: 2011

The objective of this work was to evaluate biological parameters of maize fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) fed with Bt maize hybrids expressing the Cry 1A(b) toxin, and with its isogenic non-Bt hybrids. The experiments were carried out in the laboratory of Embrapa Milho e Sorgo, Sete Lagoas, MG, Brazil. The parameters evaluated were: survival of larvae after 48 hours, survival of larval and preimaginal phases, larvae biomass at 14 days of age, pupae biomass, larval development period, and feeding non-preference of first instar larvae. Larvae of S. frugiperda show less resistance in the first 48 hours of feeding and during the entire larval phase in most Bt maize hybrids, in comparison to non-Bt maize. The biomass of larvae and pupae developed in Bt maize was always smaller, and the larval and preimaginal period were longer. There was interaction between the Cry 1A(b) toxin and the genetic base of the transgenic hybrids regarding survival and larval biomass. Newly hatched S. frugiperda larvae show preference for feeding on non-Bt maize.

Guimaraes C.C.,Federal University of Minas Gerais | Simeone M.L.F.,Embrapa Milho e Sorgo | Parrella R.A.C.,Embrapa Milho e Sorgo | Sena M.M.,Federal University of Minas Gerais | Sena M.M.,Instituto Nacional Of Ciencia E Tecnologia Em Bioanalitica
Microchemical Journal | Year: 2014

Sweet sorghum biomass is gaining importance as feedstock for second generation bioethanol production. Consequently, breeding programs are seeking to improve the quality of this feedstock in order to increase the productivity, with the generation of a great number of samples to be analyzed. Thus, this paper developed rapid and low cost methods based on partial least squares (PLS) and near infrared reflectance spectroscopy for determining cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin and theoretical ethanol yield (TEY) in sorghum biomass. The models were built with 957 samples, obtained from more than 100 hybrids and inbred strains, in the ranges of 21.4-49.1% w/w, 18.4-34.8% w/w, 1.8-11.5% w/w and 221-412Lt-1 for cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin and TEY, respectively. These models presented root mean square errors of prediction of 1.5%, 1.7%, 0.8% and 12Lt-1 (and ranges of relative errors of prediction between -5.3 and 6.5%, -9.8 and 12.2%, -28.8 and 37.6%, and -5.6 and 6.1%), respectively. The methods were submitted to a complete multivariate analytical validation in accordance with the Brazilian and international guidelines, and considered accurate, linear, sensitive and unbiased. Finally the stability of these methods was monitored for approximately six months by developing appropriate control charts. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Selection of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars with enhanced root growth would be a strategy for increasing P uptake and grain yield in tropical soils, but the strong plasticity of root traits may compromise their inclusion in breeding programs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the magnitude of the genotypic variability of root traits in common bean plants at two ontogenetic stages and two soil P levels. Twenty-four common bean genotypes, comprising the four growth habits that exist in the species and two wild genotypes, were grown in 4 kg pots at two levels of applied P (20 and 80 mg kg-1) and harvested at the stages of pod setting and early pod filling. Root area and root length were measured by digital image analysis. Significant genotype × P level and genotype × harvest interactions in analysis of variance indicate that the genotypic variation of root traits depended on soil nutrient availability and the stage at which evaluation was made. Genotypes differed for taproot mass, basal and lateral root mass, root area and root length at both P levels and growth stages; differences in specific root area and length were small. Genotypes with growth habits II (upright indeterminate) and III (prostrate indeterminate) showed better adaptation to limited P supply than genotypes of groups I (determinate) and IV (indeterminate climbing). Between the two harvests, genotypes of groups II and III increased the mass of basal and lateral roots by 40 and 50%, respectively, whereas genotypes of groups I and IV by only 7 and 19%. Values of the genotypic coefficient of determination, which estimates the proportion of phenotypic variance resulting from genetic effects, were higher at early pod filling than at pod setting. Correlations between shoot mass and root mass, which could indicate indirect selection of root systems via aboveground biomass, were higher at early pod filling than at pod setting. The results indicate that selection for root traits in common bean genotypes should preferentially be performed at the early pod-filling stage. © 2014 Revista Brasileira de Ciencia do Solo. All rights reserved.

Paiva C.L.,Federal University of Minas Gerais | Evangelista W.P.,Federal University of Minas Gerais | Queiroz V.A.V.,Embrapa Milho e Sorgo | Gloria M.B.A.,Federal University of Minas Gerais
Food Chemistry | Year: 2015

The profile and levels of bioactive amines in different sorghum lines were reported for the first time. The amines were quantified by ion-pair HPLC, post-column derivatisation with o-phthalaldehyde and fluorimetric detection. The extraction procedure was optimised: 420 μm particle size, extraction with 5% trichloroacetic acid and three extractions. The screening of 22 sorghum lines showed that four of the ten amines investigated were detected. Spermine and spermidine were the prevalent amines (100%), followed by putrescine (77%) and cadaverine (14%). Total amines ranged from 5.8 to 41.4 mg/100 g, and the polyamines represented 60-100% of the total. Sorghum without tannin had higher amines levels compared to sorghum with tannin and cadaverine was specific to samples without tannin. Hydric stress caused accumulation of spermidine in the grains and affected the levels of other amines at rates depending on the presence or not of tannin. Sorghum is a significant source of polyamines. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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