Hisano H.,Embrapa Meio Ambiente Jaguariuna |
Sanchez M.S.S.,West Parana State University |
Nascimento M.S.,University Nilton Lins Manaus
Journal of Applied Ichthyology | Year: 2017
The objective of this study was to evaluate citric acid (0.0, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0%) in isonitrogenous (23% of digestible protein) and isoenergetic (13.38 MJ of digestible energy/kg) pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887) diets. A 90-day feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the growth performance, haematological parameters and pH of the diets, stomach and gut, somatic indices, nitrogen retention and body composition of pacu juveniles. Fish (n = 160, 12.53 ± 0.17g) were distributed in 16 aquaria (300-L) with a recirculating water system (4 L/min) and controlled temperature (25.26 ± 0.47°C) in an experimental design completely randomized with four treatments and four replicates. Posteriorly, apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) were assessed with pacu (n = 96, 80.35 ± 5.12 g) fed experimental diets including 0.1% chromium oxide III. Diet pH decreased (p < .05) with graded levels of citric acid to reduce pH in the stomach and gut. Pacu fed with 2.0% citric acid showed superior (p < .05) final weight at 30 days, compared to control; however, this did not differ by 60 and 90 days where was no difference (p > .05) in the haematology, somatic indices, body composition, or digestibility among treatments. The data showed that dietary citric acid improved the growth of pacu at 30 days, but had no long-term effects on the digestibility of nutrients or the availability of P or Ca in the experimental diets. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.