Embrapa Meio Ambiente Jaguariuna
Embrapa Meio Ambiente Jaguariuna
Hisano H.,Embrapa Meio Ambiente Jaguariuna |
Sanchez M.S.S.,West Parana State University |
Nascimento M.S.,University Nilton Lins Manaus
Journal of Applied Ichthyology | Year: 2017
The objective of this study was to evaluate citric acid (0.0, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0%) in isonitrogenous (23% of digestible protein) and isoenergetic (13.38 MJ of digestible energy/kg) pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887) diets. A 90-day feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the growth performance, haematological parameters and pH of the diets, stomach and gut, somatic indices, nitrogen retention and body composition of pacu juveniles. Fish (n = 160, 12.53 ± 0.17g) were distributed in 16 aquaria (300-L) with a recirculating water system (4 L/min) and controlled temperature (25.26 ± 0.47°C) in an experimental design completely randomized with four treatments and four replicates. Posteriorly, apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) were assessed with pacu (n = 96, 80.35 ± 5.12 g) fed experimental diets including 0.1% chromium oxide III. Diet pH decreased (p < .05) with graded levels of citric acid to reduce pH in the stomach and gut. Pacu fed with 2.0% citric acid showed superior (p < .05) final weight at 30 days, compared to control; however, this did not differ by 60 and 90 days where was no difference (p > .05) in the haematology, somatic indices, body composition, or digestibility among treatments. The data showed that dietary citric acid improved the growth of pacu at 30 days, but had no long-term effects on the digestibility of nutrients or the availability of P or Ca in the experimental diets. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Novaes R.M.L.,Embrapa Meio Ambiente Jaguariuna |
Pazianotto R.A.A.,Embrapa Meio Ambiente Jaguariuna |
Brandao M.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology |
Alves B.J.R.,Embrapa Agrobiologia Seropedica |
And 2 more authors.
Global Change Biology | Year: 2017
Land-use change (LUC) in Brazil has important implications on global climate change, ecosystem services and biodiversity, and agricultural expansion plays a critical role in this process. Concerns over these issues have led to the need for estimating the magnitude and impacts associated with that, which are increasingly reported in the environmental assessment of products. Currently, there is an extensive debate on which methods are more appropriate for estimating LUC and related emissions and regionalized estimates are lacking for Brazil, which is a world leader in agricultural production (e.g. food, fibres and bioenergy). We developed a method for estimating scenarios of past 20-year LUC and derived CO2 emission rates associated with 64 crops, pasture and forestry in Brazil as whole and in each of its 27 states, based on time-series statistics and in accordance with most used carbon-footprinting standards. The scenarios adopted provide a range between minimum and maximum rates of CO2 emissions from LUC according to different possibilities of land-use transitions, which can have large impacts in the results. Specificities of Brazil, like multiple cropping and highly heterogeneous carbon stocks, are also addressed. The highest CO2 emission rates are observed in the Amazon biome states and crops with the highest rates are those that have undergone expansion in this region. Some states and crops showing large agricultural areas have low emissions associated, especially in southern and eastern Brazil. Native carbon stocks and time of agricultural expansion are the most decisive factors to the patterns of emissions. Some implications on LUC estimation methods and standards and on agri-environmental policies are discussed. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.