Embrapa Hortalicas Embrapa Vegetables

Brasília, Brazil

Embrapa Hortalicas Embrapa Vegetables

Brasília, Brazil
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Lima M.F.,Embrapa Hortalicas Embrapa Vegetables | Inoue-Nagata A.K.,Embrapa Hortalicas Embrapa Vegetables | Reifschneider F.J.B.,Embrapa Hortalicas Embrapa Vegetables | Ferraz R.M.,University of Brasilia | And 2 more authors.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2011

Viruses are the main pathogens of hot peppers (Capsicum spp.) in Brazil, directly affecting yield and marketable fruit quality. Disease incidence related to natural infection by viruses was assessed in domesticated and semi-domesticated 'Malagueta' (Capsicum frutescens), 'Habanero' (Capsicum chinense) and 'Cumari' (Capsicum baccatum var. praetermissum) hot pepper accessions from Embrapa Vegetables Active Germplasm Bank, Brasília, Brazil. Seedlings were grown from treated seeds in the greenhouse and transferred to the field 30-45 days after sowing; trials were located in the vicinity of a naturally virus-infected pepper field. Sampling was performed after 60 days post transplanting when plants were 90-105 days old. A total of 482 plants was individually sampled, and tested for the presence of tospoviruses (Tomato spotted wilt virus - TSWV; Groundnut ringspot virus - GRSV; Tomato chlorotic spot virus - TCSV), potyviruses (Potato virus Y - PVY; Pepper yellow mosaic virus - PepYMV), and tobamovirus (Pepper mild mottle virus - PMMoV) by enzymelinked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA), and for cucumovirus (Cucumber mosaic virus - CMV) by dot-ELISA. Based on results of serological tests, 67% out of 482 plants presented single or mixed infections. The proportion of positive samples ranged from 9.1% (TCSV; 44 plants) to 45% (PMMoV; 217). PVY, PepYMV, TSWV and GRSV were found in 34.2% (165 samples), 25.5% (123), 15.7% (75) and 13.3% (64) of the tested-samples, respectively. CMV was not detected. It is noteworthy that virus infection was also detected on plants of the semi-domesticated genotype 'Cumari'. These results indicate the importance of viral diseases to crop management, considering the lack of efficient virus management strategies and the scarce information available on virus incidence affecting the crop, as well. A better understanding of the epidemiology of viruses infecting hot peppers will contribute to the development of rational disease management to prevent virus outbreaks.


Lima M.F.,Embrapa Hortalicas Embrapa Vegetables | Inoue-Nagata A.K.,Embrapa Hortalicas Embrapa Vegetables | Reifschneider F.J.B.,Embrapa Hortalicas Embrapa Vegetables | Ferraz R.M.,University of Brasilia | And 2 more authors.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2011

There are several viral diseases that can cause economic losses to hot peppers (Capsicum spp.). Among these viruses, Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) within Tobamovirus genus, is a serious threat to hot pepper production, fruit quality, and especially to seed production and commercialization, due to its seed-borne transmission ability. In Brazil, PMMoV was found in 2001 in hot pepper plants under protected cultivation. In order to detect and evaluate the natural incidence of PMMoV in hot peppers in Brazil, a survey was carried out in fields cultivated with accessions of Capsicum chinense, C. frutescens and C. baccatum var. praetermissum collected from different Brazilian geographical regions. Plants grown from seeds were transferred to the field 30-45 days after sowing. Leaf sampling for PMMoV evaluation was performed either just before or soon after flowering from a total of 482 plants. Sample analysis was done by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), using a polyclonal antiserum raised against the coat protein of PMMoV, in addition to symptom evaluation on field-grown plants. PMMoV detection by ELISA was confirmed in 217/482 samples with or without disease symptoms. These data indicate an increasing incidence of PMMoV in hot peppers in the country since the first detection in 2001, and also that the virus is widespread in this crop in different geographical regions in Brazil. This information supports the urgent need for the development of efficient and effective disease management strategies, considering the high stability of the virus particles that can be easily transmitted to healthy plants by workers' hands and contact between plants, together with adequate legislation. Furthermore, preliminary evaluation of distinct seed treatment methods showed a low efficiency, demonstrating that a comprehensive survey on PMMoV incidence and control must be implemented in Brazil.

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