Embrapa Grape and Wine

Bento Gonçalves, Brazil

Embrapa Grape and Wine

Bento Gonçalves, Brazil

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Nachtigall L.G.,Federal University of Pelotas | Araujo R.M.,Federal University of Pelotas | Nachtigall G.R.,Embrapa Grape and Wine
Proceedings - 2016 IEEE 28th International Conference on Tools with Artificial Intelligence, ICTAI 2016 | Year: 2016

This paper studies the use of Convolutional Neural Networks to automatically detect and classify diseases, nutritional deficiencies and damage by herbicides on apple trees from images of their leaves. This task is fundamental to guarantee a high quality of the resulting yields and is currently largely performed by experts in the field, which can severely limit scale and add to costs. By using a novel data set containing labeled examples consisting of 2539 images from 6 known disorders, we show that trained Convolutional Neural Networks are able to match or outperform experts in this task, achieving a 97.3% accuracy on a hold-out set. © 2016 IEEE.

de Castro A.C.R.,Embrapa Tropical Agroindustry | Hawerroth F.J.,Embrapa Grape and Wine | Taniguchi C.A.K.,Embrapa Tropical Agroindustry | Silva T.F.,Federal University of Ceará | Soares N.S.,Federal University of Ceará
Ornamental Horticulture | Year: 2016

The objective of this study was to evaluate growth regulators with purpose of reducing the size of heliconia 'Red Opal' potted plants. The experiment was carried out in randomized block design with five treatments (trinexapac-ethyl and paclobutrazol at rates of 37.5 and 75.0 mg of active ingredient per pot and control without growth regulator) and five replicates. The treatments were applied 40 days after planting the rhizomes in pots filled with soil. Thirty and 150 days after the growth regulator application, plant height, number of leaves and shoots, petioles length and leaf area were evaluated. One year after planting the rhizomes in pots the number of inflorescence and leaves (leaves, sheathing leaf bases and inflorescences) and rhizomes (rhizomes and roots) dry mass were determined. Trinexapac-ethyl had no differences compared to the control in any of the variables evaluated. Paclobutrazol proved effective in reducing plant height, leaf area and petiole length and increase in number of leaves and shoots but the effect was temporary. Also, it did not affect the inflorescences production and leaves and rhizomes dry mass. Paclobutrazol is efficient to promote height reduction and to increase the number of shoots in heliconia 'Red Opal' potted plants without affect the inflorescence formation but its effects is temporary.

Bernardi D.,University of Sao Paulo | Botton M.,Embrapa Grape and Wine | da Cunha U.S.,Eliseu Maciel Agronomy School | Bernardi O.,University of Sao Paulo | And 3 more authors.
Pest Management Science | Year: 2013

BACKGROUND: The spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, is the major strawberry pest in Brazil. The main strategies for its control comprise synthetic acaricides and predatory mites. The recent register of a commercial formula of azadirachtin (Azamax® 12 g L-1) can be viable for control of T. urticae. In this work, the effects of azadirachtin on T. urticae and its compatibility with predatory mites Neoseiulus californicus and Phytoseiulus macropilis in the strawberry crop were evaluated. RESULTS: Azadirachtin was efficient against T. urticae, with a mortality rate similar to that of abamectin. In addition, the azadirachtin showed lower biological persistence (7 days) than abamectin (21 days). Azadirachtin did not cause significant mortality of adult predatory mites (N. californicus and P. macropilis), but it did reduce fecundity by 50%. However, egg viability of the azadirachtin treatments was similar to that of the control (>80% viability). The use of azadirachtin and predatory mites is a valuable tool for controlling T. urticae in strawberry crop. CONCLUSIONS: Azadirachtin provided effective control of T. urticae and is compatible with the predatory mites N. californicus and P. macropilis. It is an excellent tool to be incorporated into integrated pest management for strawberry crop in Brazil. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

Pacheco da Silva V.C.,Campus Universitario Capao do Leao s n | Kaydan M.B.,Cukurova University | Germain J.-F.,Laboratoire Of La Sante Des Vegetaux | Malausa T.,CNRS Sophia Agrobiotech Institute | Botton M.,Embrapa Grape and Wine
ZooKeys | Year: 2016

Brazil has the greatest insect diversity in the world; however, little is known about its scale insect species (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha). Mealybugs (Pseudococcidae) have been found in at least 50% of persimmon orchards Diospyros kaki L. in the southern part of the country. In this study three new mealybug species on persimmon trees located in the Serra Gaúcha Region, RS, Brazil, namely, Anisococcus granarae Pacheco da Silva & Kaydan, sp. n., Ferrisia kaki Kaydan & Pacheco da Silva, sp. n. and Pseudococcus rosangelae Pacheco da Silva & Kaydan, sp. n. are described. In addition, an identification key for the genera occurring on fruit orchards and vineyards in Brazil is provided, together with illustrations and molecular data for the new species. © Vitor C. Pacheco da Silva et al.

PubMed | Embrapa Grape and Wine, Laboratory Of La Sante Des Vegetaux, Federal University of Pelotas, CNRS Sophia Agrobiotech Institute and Cukurova University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Neotropical entomology | Year: 2016

In the last decade, the incidence of mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in vineyards has increased, especially on crops grown under plastic covering, in the Serra Gacha region of southern Brazil where the major Brazilian wineries are concentrated. Eggs, nymphs, and female adults were collected in two highly infested vineyards in Bento Gonalves City, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Mealybugs were identified by morphological and molecular techniques as the vine mealybug Planococcus ficus (Signoret). This is a principal mealybug pest of vineyards worldwide, and this is the first record of damage from this species in Brazil.

Alves S.A.M.,Embrapa Grape and Wine | Beresford R.M.,The New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Ltd
New Zealand Plant Protection | Year: 2013

Ascospores of Venturia inaequalis constitute the principal source of primary inoculum for epidemics of apple black spot (scab). Mathematical models that describe ascospore release have been developed in USA, New Zealand and Italy. These models are based upon degree-day accumulation. In this work, the seasonal pattern of released ascospores of V. inaequalis in Vacaria, Brazil, was evaluated. During four apple growth seasons (2009 to 2012) the natural release of ascospores from ive orchards was recorded. The cumulative percentage of ascospore release was predicted using three different degreeday models. The released ascospore data showed the best it to the model developed in Italy, with a start date of 22 August rather than the phenological stage of apple bud break. It is concluded that in regions with warm winter temperatures, models that use bud break to initiate ascospore maturation will tend to underestimate availability of ascospores. © 2013 New Zealand Plant Protection Society.

Wistrom C.M.,University of California at Berkeley | Blaisdell G.K.,University of California at Berkeley | Wunderlich L.R.,University of California Cooperative Extension | Botton M.,Embrapa Grape and Wine | And 2 more authors.
European Journal of Plant Pathology | Year: 2016

Grapevine leafroll disease is associated with several species of phloem-limited grapevine leafroll-associated viruses (GLRaV), some of which are transmitted by mealybugs and scale insects. The grape phylloxera, Daktulosphaira vitifoliae (Fitch) Biotype A (Hemiptera: Phylloxeridae), is a common vineyard pest that feeds on the phloem of vine roots. There is concern that these insects may transmit one or more GLRaV species, particularly GLRaV-2, a species in the genus Closterovirus. A field survey was performed in vineyards with a high incidence of grapevine leafroll disease and D. vitifoliae was assessed for acquisition of GLRaV. In greenhouse experiments, the ability of D. vitifoliae to transmit GLRaV from infected root sections or vines to co-planted virus-free recipient vines was tested. There were no GLRaV-positive D. vitifoliae in the field survey, nor did D. vitifoliae transmit GLRaV-1, −2, −3, or -4LV in greenhouse transmission experiments. Some insects tested positive for GLRaV after feeding on infected source vines in the greenhouse, however there was no evidence of virus transmission to healthy plants. These findings, in combination with the sedentary behaviour of the soil biotype of D. vitifoliae, make it unlikely that D. vitifoliae is a vector of any GLRaV. © 2016 Koninklijke Nederlandse Planteziektenkundige Vereniging

De Meyer G.A.,Santa Catarina State University | Rufato L.,Santa Catarina State University | Sanhueza R.M.V.,Proterra | De Rufato A.R.,Embrapa Grape and Wine
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2016

In Brazil, leaf abscission in apple trees can occur prematurely due to infection by Glomerella leaf spot (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides). The extent of leaf fall is correlated with ethylene production resulting from the reaction by the host to prevent the dissemination of the pathogen. The aim of this study was to verify the impact of the aminoethoxyivinylglycine (AVG) on the process of leaf abscission in plants exhibiting Glomerella leaf spot symptoms. The experiment was conducted in the spring of 2011 in 'Maxi Gala'/M9 young apple trees (2 years old) in pots under greenhouse conditions at 22±2°C, with 80±5% relative humidity, (28°30'52"S and 50°52'58"W, 950 m). Plants without disease symptoms were artificially inoculated with C. gloeosporioides, and treatments were applied when the leaves had symptoms of infection. The experiment included 7 treatments with AVG and/or the fungicide Folpet (mg L-1 active ingredient - a.i.) as follows: AVG 60, AVG 150, AVG 30 + Folpet 120, AVG 45 + Folpet 120, AVG 60 + Folpet 120, AVG 150 + Folpet 120, Folpet 120 alone and the untreated control. Assessments of percentage defoliation were made weekly until 68 days after spraying (das). The results indicated that AVG in doses 60 and 150 mg L-1 resulted in a reduced level of defoliation, compared with the fungicide treated trees, and abscission was equivalent to control at 21 das. After the disease is established and is not controlled by fungicide there was an increase in leaf abscission compared to the control.

De Sa Borges R.,Embrapa Products and Market | da Silva G.A.,Embrapa Grape and Wine | Roberto S.R.,State University Londrina | de Assis A.M.,State University Londrina | Yamamoto L.Y.,State University Londrina
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2013

The aim of this study was to evaluate the total phenols, anthocyanins, tannins, favorable oxi-redox activity (oxi-redoxf) and juice color of six clones of the 'Concord' grapevine on three rootstocks. Samples of juice obtained from 'Concord' clones '22', '28', '49', '202', '211' and '225' grafted onto 'IAC 766', 'IAC 572' and '420-A' were evaluated. The trial was conducted at the Technology Center of COROL Cooperative, Rolândia, PR, Brazil. A completely randomized design was used as the statistical model, arranged in a factorial system (6 clones×3 rootstocks) with three replications. The grapevines were trained in an overhead trellis system spaced at 4.0m×2.0m, and the evaluations were performed at the 2010/2011 harvest. The juice samples were prepared using the Welch process. The juice from 'Concord' clone '202' presented higher means regarding to total phenols and tannins, color intensity and yellow and red color at 420 and 520nm. The juices did not differ significantly among themselves (P>0.05) with regard to the oxi-redoxf activity, anthocyanins and violet color at 620nm, however, the use of rootstock '420-A' resulted in higher means for total phenols, tannins and oxi-redoxf activity, whereas 'IAC 572' resulted in a reduction in the color intensity of the juice. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Oliveira L.S.,Federal University of Ceará | Rufino M.S.M.,Embrapa Tropical Agroindustry | Moura C.F.H.,Embrapa Tropical Agroindustry | Cavalcanti F.R.,Embrapa Grape and Wine | And 2 more authors.
Brazilian Journal of Plant Physiology | Year: 2011

This study evaluated the effect of the processing and long-term storage on the antioxidant potential and activity of antioxidant enzymes of frozen purées from six acerola clones. Ripe acerolas from clones BRS 235, BRS 236, BRS 237, BRS 238, II47/1 and BRS 152 were harvested; the pulp was processed, packed in sealed polyethylene plastic bags and stored in a domestic freezer at -18°C for 11 months. Samples of each clone were analyzed on harvest/processing day and every 30 days after for bioactive antioxidant compounds, antioxidant enzyme activity and total antioxidant activity. Acerola purées presented a decrease of non-enzyme antioxidants and an increase of antioxidant enzymes activities, indicatives of a compensatory mechanism between enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. In acerola purée, anthocyanin and polyphenols are strongly correlated to soluble solids content and vitamin C seems a major contributor to total antioxidant activity. Clone II47/1 had an outstanding performance regarding the antioxidant potential of its purée and the best storage period at -18oC would be 150 days, for all clones studied.

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