Embrapa Goats and Sheep

Sobral, Brazil

Embrapa Goats and Sheep

Sobral, Brazil
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Balaro M.F.A.,Federal University of Fluminense | Santos A.S.,Federal University of Fluminense | Moura L.F.G.M.,Federal University of Fluminense | Fonseca J.F.,Embrapa Goats and Sheep | Brandao F.Z.,Federal University of Fluminense
Theriogenology | Year: 2017

This study aimed to assess the luteal dynamics of pregnant and non-pregnant Saanen goats throughout an estrous cycle by B-mode and color Doppler ultrasonography (US) associated with a P4 hormonal assay. Furthermore, a cutoff point was chosen to determine the corpus luteum (CL) functionality by luteal biometry (LB) measurement and luteal blood flow (LBF) assessment. Ultrasound assessment was carried out daily throughout an entire estrous cycle (21 days) in 23 Saanen goats pre-synchronized and inseminated in the breeding season. The plasmatic P4 concentration was determined daily by radioimmunoassay. LB parameters (diameter, area, and volume) were measured using the maximum area of a cross-section of the CL. LBF assessment was performed subjectively by percentage of area of colored pixels and objectively by calculating the number of the colored pixels. Eventually, 45.0% (9/20) and 55.0% (11/20) of goats became pregnant and or remained non-pregnant, respectively. The LB and LBF demonstrated value stabilization on the 9th day of the estrous cycle and maximum values on the 12th and 13th days of the estrous cycle, respectively. LB presented a progressive decrease in the luteal regression phase, whereas the LBF decreased abruptly in association with P4. The LBF values were more reliable in predicting the luteal functionality when compared to the LB data. The number of colored pixels accurately predicted values of P4 >1.0 ng/mL, reaching only 17% of the maximum values, and 1200 colored pixels as a minimum cutoff point when compared to the use of 53% of the maximum values and a minimum luteal diameter of 9.0 mm as cutoff point for P4 >1.0 ng/mL. The LBF assessment was more informative about the CL functionality throughout the complete luteal phase when compared to the LB. The use of the number of colored pixels is indicated for research regarding luteal functionality due to their greater correlation with P4 values. In addition, the luteal subjective evaluation can be used under field conditions due to greater convenience and similar pattern of correlation with P4. © 2017 Elsevier Inc.


Ferrarezi A.,São Paulo State University | Minim V.P.,Federal University of Viçosa | Santos K.M.D.,Embrapa Goats and Sheep | Monteiro M.,São Paulo State University
Nutrition and Food Science | Year: 2013

Purpose: The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the impact of some labeling aspects on the consumer intent to purchase ready to drink orange juice and nectar. Design/methodology/approach: The influence of label information on the consumer intent to purchase was evaluated by conjoint analysis using a convenience sample (n=149). A factorial design with four characteristics, price, brand, information about the product and kind of beverage, was used. Three levels were established for brand and product information, and two for price and kind of beverage. Findings: Low price, product information and market leading brand had positive impact. "No preservatives/natural" was the information that most influenced consumer's purchase intent. The ideal label showed the leading brand, low price and information "no preservatives/natural". These results could be useful for strategic planning of consumer instruction and have important implications for Brazilian orange juice manufactures. Originality/value: Although the most widely consumed beverages in Brazil are ready to drink orange juice and nectar, it was unexpected that consumers did not know the differences between them and that kind of beverage was not an important factor for the purchase decision. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.


Fonseca J.F.,Embrapa Goats and Sheep | Souza-Fabjan J.M.G.,Federal University of Fluminense | Oliveira M.E.F.,São Paulo State University | Leite C.R.,Federal University of Fluminense | And 3 more authors.
Theriogenology | Year: 2016

The embryo transfer techniques used in small ruminants worldwide are based in surgical procedures. These actions are performed under general anesthesia which needs a combination of animal fasting and drugs for secure animal handling and surgery manipulations. Therefore, it involves risks to animal health and life. The major limiting sequels are adhesions formed by the abdominal surgery, in the ovaries, uterus, or between them. These occurrences can both compromise uterus accessing and oocyte capture and are responsible for decreasing success and limiting successive embryo collections. In contrast, nonsurgical embryo procedures can be performed in a relatively simplified way. Nonsurgical embryo recovery does not need animal prolonged starvation, drug retention is minimized, and donors can stay in a standing position. After the end of embryo recovery, donors are promptly restored to their routine housing and feeding. Furthermore, this technique does not need incisions and, therefore, can be used repetitively in superovulated or nonsuperovulated goats and sheep for embryo recovery-a similar procedure done in cattle. In Brazil, promising results are reported using nonsurgical embryo transfer in recipient goats, and studies are currently evaluating similar procedures in sheep. Therefore, this review aimed to present the current panorama of nonsurgical embryo transfer in sheep and goats. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.


PubMed | Federal University of Fluminense, Embrapa Goats and Sheep, Federal University of Minas Gerais, São Paulo State University and University of Pretoria
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Theriogenology | Year: 2016

The embryo transfer techniques used in small ruminants worldwide are based in surgical procedures. These actions are performed under general anesthesia which needs a combination of animal fasting and drugs for secure animal handling and surgery manipulations. Therefore, it involves risks to animal health and life. The major limiting sequels are adhesions formed by the abdominal surgery, in the ovaries, uterus, or between them. These occurrences can both compromise uterus accessing and oocyte capture and are responsible for decreasing success and limiting successive embryo collections. In contrast, nonsurgical embryo procedures can be performed in a relatively simplified way. Nonsurgical embryo recovery does not need animal prolonged starvation, drug retention is minimized, and donors can stay in a standing position. After the end of embryo recovery, donors are promptly restored to their routine housing and feeding. Furthermore, this technique does not need incisions and, therefore, can be used repetitively in superovulated or nonsuperovulated goats and sheep for embryo recovery-a similar procedure done in cattle. In Brazil, promising results are reported using nonsurgical embryo transfer in recipient goats, and studies are currently evaluating similar procedures in sheep. Therefore, this review aimed to present the current panorama of nonsurgical embryo transfer in sheep and goats.


Alessandra F.,São Paulo State University | Karina Olbrich D.S.,Embrapa Goats and Sheep | Magali M.,São Paulo State University
International Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2013

The aim of this study was to evaluate consumers' use and interpretation of ready to drink orange juice and nectar label information and its influence on the purchase decision. One hundred and sixty-seven consumers of ready to drink orange juice and nectar were interviewed. The labels were analysed to evaluate their conformance to Brazilian legislation. The manufacturing and shelf life date were the information most often checked, followed by health related issues. Brand, price and flavour were the most important factors for purchase decision. Brand and flavour showed significant association with consumer age. For most interviewed, 'nectar', 'whole' and 'natural' or '100% natural' were not well understood; they were not in accordance with the Brazilian legislation. 'Nectar', 'whole' and 'natural' or '100% natural' received a positive interpretation, whereas 'reconstituted juice' was considered a negative expression. Nevertheless, none of the labels completely conformed to the specific nutritional labelling legislation. © 2013 Institute of Food Science and Technology.


Oliveira J.K.,Federal University of Fluminense | Martins G.,Federal University of Fluminense | Esteves L.V.,Federal University of Fluminense | Penna B.,Federal University of Fluminense | And 5 more authors.
Small Ruminant Research | Year: 2013

The aim of this study was to characterise the changes in the vaginal flora of goats subjected to the induction and synchronisation of oestrus using intravaginal sponges (IVSs). Mucous samples were collected from the vaginas of 32 Toggenburg goats using sterile swabs. Samples were obtained on the day that the IVSs inserted (D0), the day they were withdrawn (D6), and 24h (D7), 48h (D8), and a week (D13) after the sponges were withdrawn. The samples were transferred to the laboratory in transport medium, inoculated on 5% sheep blood agar, and incubated at 37°C (aerobic culture only). The susceptibility of the cultured bacteria to eight of the most frequently employed antimicrobial agents was determined using the disc diffusion method in Mueller-Hinton agar. Fewer colony-forming units (CFUs) were obtained from the samples that were taken before sponge insertion (D0) compared with those obtained on the other days. After the sponges were inserted, the number of CFUs obtained from the vaginal samples increased, reaching the highest value at the time of sponge withdrawal (D6), when 62.1% (18/29) of the samples yielded ≥105CFU/ml. At this time, more than one type (genus) of bacterial colony was detected. The most prevalent bacterium belonged to the genus Staphylococcus sp., except at the time of sponge withdrawal, when the most prevalent bacterium was Escherichia coli. The results of this study demonstrated that changes in the prevalent bacterial isolate and the number of CFUs in the vaginal flora of goats subjected to a short-term protocol of oestrus induction and synchronisation using IVS occurred while the IVSs were present and that there was a rapid re-establishment of the normal microbiota after the IVSs were removed. © 2013.


PubMed | Embrapa Goats and Sheep
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of animal science | Year: 2013

The aim of the present study was to compare a model assuming unknown paternity and a model using genetic grouping to indicate the most adequate statistical procedure for the estimation of breeding values for animals with uncertain paternity. After data consistency, 62,212 Nellore animals, offspring of 581 bulls and 27,743 cows, were used in the analyses. The pedigree file contained 75,088 animals, including 22,810 (30.18%) offspring of multiple sires and 12,876 animals belonging to the base population with unknown parents. Three different approaches were adopted to deal with uncertain paternity of multiple-sire (MS) offspring. In the model of unknown paternity, the MS groups were ignored, and the sires of MS offspring were considered to be unknown and to belong to a single base population. In the genetic group approach, 2 definitions were used. In the first definition (GGa), phantom parents for animals with uncertain paternity were attributed, defining the genetic group as the MS group. In the other approach, GGb, phantom parents for animals with uncertain paternity were also attributed; however, MS offspring were clustered in genetic groups according to their year of birth, every 3 yr, on the basis of the average of male generation interval. Univariate analyses were performed under the Bayesian approach via Markov chain Monte Carlo methods. Models were compared by deviance information criteria and the conditional predictive ordinate. According to the choice criteria results, the genetic group model defined by the generation interval of males was more appropriate for predicting the genetic merit of animals with uncertain paternity. Therefore, the use of this model is recommended for the prediction of genetic merit and classification of offspring of multiple sires.


PubMed | Federal University of Fluminense, Embrapa Goats and Sheep and Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Reproduction in domestic animals = Zuchthygiene | Year: 2016

The aim of the study was to evaluate the feasibility of pre-selection of high or low responder does prior to the superovulatory protocols. Twenty Saanen does received 800 IU of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) at the end of long-term progestogen treatment. Fourteen days later, a second progestogen protocol associated with a multiple-dose follicle stimulation hormone (FSH) treatment (5 IU/kg of FSH, in six decreasing doses between days 4 to 6 of the protocol) was administered. Transrectal ultrasound was used to assess the follicular status at the beginning of superovulatory treatments, at the oestrous onset and on the seventh day of the oestrous cycle for counting corpora lutea (CL). A significant lower number of CL was obtained in eCG-treated in comparision with FSH-treated does (p<0.05). A quartic regression was able to explain the relationship between the number of CL in response to both treatments (r(2) =0.50; p<0.05). Seventy per cent (14 of 20) of does maintained the same ovulatory response (high or low) after treatments. The Kappa (=0.40; p<0.05) and Spearman (rs=0.39; p=0.08) coefficients were able to show a relationship between treatments. Regarding the follicular status, there is a significant relationship between the number of small follicles (r=0.71; r(2) =0.47; p<0.01) and total follicles (r=0.60; p<0.01) at eCG and first FSH dose with the number of CL. Moreover, it was found a negative relationship between the presence of large follicles and the number of CL in response to eCG treatment (r=-0.44; p<0.05), but not from FSH (p>0.05). In conclusion, the screening test with eCG has the potential to identify Saanen does that will better respond to the superovulatory protocol with FSH. In addition, it highlighted the importance of an ultrasound evaluation prior to the beginning of superovulatory treatments with FSH to characterize the follicular status and identify the potential donors of high ovulatory response in MOET programmes in goats.


PubMed | Federal University of Fluminense and Embrapa Goats and Sheep
Type: | Journal: Animal science journal = Nihon chikusan Gakkaiho | Year: 2016

This study evaluated the effect of the protected fatty acid inclusion during estrus synchronization on reproductive parameters. Goats (n=32) received progestagen sponges for 6 days and 200IU equine chorionic gonadotropin and 30g d-cloprostenol were given on Day 5. No difference was found among control (C), 1% protected fatty acid inclusion (C+1%) or 4% protected fatty acid inclusion (C+4%) groups, respectively, in estrus (100.0, 100.0 or 90.9%), estrus duration (31.612.3; 43.212.9 or 40.814.1h), animals ovulating (100.0, 90.0 or 100.0%) or ovulation rate (1.30.5; 1.10.3 or 1.20.4). The interval from sponge removal to ovulation and from estrus to ovulation, respectively, were shorter for C+4% (45.28.0 h; 18.311.0h) compared with C (56.312.6 h; 30.610.5h) or C+1% (57.78.7 h; 30.311.1h). The average ovulatory follicle diameter was smaller for C+4% (6.20.7mm) than C (7.50.8mm), but similar to C+1% (7.01.5mm). Insulin, insulin-like growth factor 1, glucose and progesterone concentrations were similar among groups. The inclusion of protected fatty acid during synchronization treatment promoted no benefits on ovulation rate, but 4% anticipated the ovulation time.


PubMed | Federal University of Fluminense and Embrapa Goats and Sheep
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Tropical animal health and production | Year: 2016

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of (i) the duration of hormone treatment with progestogen sponges during the seasonal anestrus and (ii) the administration of two doses of prostaglandin at 7days apart during the breeding season on reproductive parameters of Santa Ins ewes. In experiment 1, 32 ewes received intravaginal MAP sponges for 6 (G6 days), 9 (G9 days), or 12 (G12days) days and 75g D-cloprostenol i.m. and 300IU eCG i.m. 1day before sponge removal. In experiment 2, 23 ewes received two doses of 0.48-mg sodium cloprostenol i.m. 7days apart. Ovarian follicular dynamic was assessed through transrectal ultrasonography. Blood samples were collected daily to determine progesterone concentrations. In experiment 1, estrus and ovulation rates did not differ (P>0.05) among protocols and between cyclic and acyclic ewes at the beginning of the experiment. The G9 days treatment showed a lower dispersion of ovulations in relation to onset of estrus when compared to G6 days and G12 days. In experiment 2, all ewes exhibit estrus and ovulated after the second dose of prostaglandin, although ewes that were in diestrus at D0 showed subluteal concentrations of progesterone during the follicle development stage of the treatment. In conclusion, the use of progestogen device during 9days promotes lower dispersion of ovulation when compared to its use for 6 or 12days, and the protocol of two doses of prostaglandin 7days apart synchronizes estrus efficiently but results in follicular development under low progesterone concentrations.

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