Embrapa Gado de Leite

Juiz de Fora, Brazil

Embrapa Gado de Leite

Juiz de Fora, Brazil
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Pereira A.V.,Embrapa Gado de Leite | Ledo F.J.S.,Embrapa Gado de Leite | Machado J.C.,Embrapa Gado de Leite
Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology | Year: 2017

Cultivar BRS Kurumi is characterized by short plant height, short internodes, high dry matter production (29.25 t ha-1yr-1), has a high nutritional value and is recommended for the cut-and-carry system or grazing. Cultivar BRS Capiaçu, indicated for silage and the cut-and-carry system, has tall upright growth, high dry matter production (49.75 t ha-1yr-1), good forage quality, is lodging-resistant and suitable for mechanical harvesting. Both cultivars are vegetatively propagated by stem cuttings. © 2017, Brazilian Society of Plant Breeding. All rights reserved.

Clemente M.A.,Federal University of Juiz de fora | Scoralik M.G.,Federal University of Juiz de fora | De Azevedo Prata M.C.,Embrapa Gado de Leite | Daemon E.,Federal University of Juiz de fora
Parasitology Research | Year: 2010

The present study evaluated the acaricidal activity of essential oils from Eucalyptus citriodora and Cymbopogon nardus on non-engorged larvae of Amblyomma cajennense and Anocentor nitens. In order to carry out the study, six groups were formed, each concentration being a treatment (6.25%, 12.5%, 25%, and 50%, respectively) and also with the creation of a control group (distilled water) and a positive control (Deltametrine). For each treatment, approximately 100 larvae of these ticks were placed onto filter papers (2 × 2 cm) impregnated with the concentrations used to test. Next, the envelopes were closed bearing inside the filter paper with measurements of 6 × 6 cm. For each group, six repetitions were performed, and after 24 h live and dead larvae were counted. This procedure was carried out for two essential oils on the two species of ticks. For A. cajennense, the acaricide efficacy of E. citriodora oil was of 10.8%, 35.3%, 34.5%, and 53.1%, whereas the efficacy of C. nardus was of 0.0%, 0.0%, 0.0%, and 61.1% at concentrations of 6.25%, 12.5%, 25.0%, and 50.0%, respectively. In relation to A. nitens, the acaricide efficacy of E. citriodora oil was of 20.1%, 84.5%, 89.2%, and 100.0%, whereas the efficacy of C. nardus was of 0.0%, 90.8%, 100.0%, and 100.0% at concentrations of 6.25%, 12.5%, 25.0%, and 50.0%, respectively. The results indicate that the essential oils tested showed a promising acaricidal activity mainly on A. nitens larvae. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

Regitano J.B.,University of Sao Paulo | Rocha W.S.D.,Embrapa Gado de Leite | Bonfleur E.J.,Federal University of Paraná | Milori D.,Embrapa Instrumentacao Agropecuaria | Alleoni L.R.F.,University of Sao Paulo
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2016

We evaluated the effects of soil water content on the retention of diuron and its residual distribution into organomineral aggregates in four Brazilian oxisols. 14C-Diuron was incubated for days at 25, 50, and 75% of maximum water-holding capacity for each soil. After 42 days, the physical fractionation method was used to obtain >150, 53-150, 20-53, 2-20, and <2 μm aggregate sizes. Diuron retention increased with increasing soil water content for all soils. At lower soil water content, diuron's retention was higher in the sandier soil. It was mostly retained in the fine (<20 μm) aggregates of sandier soil, and for clayed soils, retention was higher in the coarse aggregates (>53 μm). The sorption coefficients (Kd and Koc) generated by batch studies should be carefully used because they do not provide information about aggregation and diffusion effects on pesticides soil sorption. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

Souza-Costa D.C.,Federal University of Juiz de fora | Belo V.A.,University of Campinas | Silva P.S.,University of Campinas | Metzger I.F.,University of Sao Paulo | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Obesity | Year: 2011

Objective: The aim of our study is to investigate whether genetic polymorphisms in the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene (in the promoter region T-786 C, in exon 7 (Glu298Asp) and in intron 4 (4b/4a)) or eNOS haplotypes are associated with hypertension in obese children and adolescents. Methods: We genotyped 175 healthy (controls), 110 normotensive obese and 73 hypertensive obese children and adolescents. Genotypes were determined by Taqman allele discrimination assay and real-time PCR, and by PCR followed by fragment separation by electrophoresis. We compared the distribution of eNOS genotypes, alleles and haplotypes in the three study groups of subjects. We have also measured whole-blood nitrite concentrations.Results:The 4a4a genotype for the intron 4 polymorphism was more common in normotensive obese and hypertensive obese (P0.01). The AspAsp genotype for Glu298Asp polymorphism was less common in normotensive obese (P<0.02). No significant differences were found in allele distributions for the three eNOS polymorphisms. However, the haplotype combining the C, 4b and Glu variants for the three polymorphisms was more common in hypertensive obese than in normotensive obese or control children and adolescents (odds ratio2.28 and 2.79, respectively; 95% confidence interval: 1.31-4.31 and 1.39-5.64, respectively; both P<0.00625). This haplotype was not associated with significantly different nitrite concentrations (P<0.05).Conclusions:Our findings suggest that the eNOS haplotype, C b Glu, is associated with hypertension in obese children and adolescents. Further studies examining the possible interactions of eNOS haplotypes with environmental factors and other genetic markers involved in the development of obesity and its complications are warranted. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.

Oliveira C.M.,Embrapa Cerrados | Auad A.M.,Embrapa Gado de Leite | Mendes S.M.,Embrapa Milho e Sorgo | Frizzas M.R.,University of Brasilia
Crop Protection | Year: 2014

Among the various sectors of the Brazilian economy, agriculture plays a prominent role, generating jobs and income for the country. However, the agricultural sector faces systematic annual losses due to pests and diseases. The damage caused by insect pests is one of the primary factors leading to the reduced production of major crops. The study presented here estimates the production losses of major crops caused by insects and the economic impact related to the direct damage caused by insects, to the purchase of insecticides, and to medical treatment for humans poisoned by insecticides. The results indicate that insect pests cause an average annual loss of 7.7% in production in Brazil, which is a reduction of approximately 25milliontons of food, fiber, and biofuels. The total annual economic losses reach approximately US$ 17.7 billion. These results are important for government policies in the agricultural sector, as well as indicate the need for updated data regarding the losses caused by insects in Brazil and the need for systematic monitoring of these losses. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Cole J.B.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | da Silva M.V.G.B.,Embrapa Gado de Leite
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia | Year: 2016

Genomic selection has been a valuable tool for increasing the rate of genetic improvement in purebred dairy cattle populations. However, there also are many large populations of crossbred dairy cattle in the world, and multi-breed genomic evaluations may be a valuable tool for improving rates of genetic gain in those populations. Multi-breed models are an extension of single-breed genomic models in which a genomic relationship matrix is used to account for the breed origin of alleles in the population, as well as allele frequency differences between breeds. Most studies have found little benefit from multi-breed evaluations for pure breeds that have large reference populations. However, breeds with small reference populations may benefit from inclusion in a multi-breed evaluation without adversely affecting evaluations for purebred performance. Most research has been conducted in taurine breeds, so additional research is needed to determine the value of multi-breed reference populations for composite and synthetic breeds that include both indicine and taurine cattle adapted to tropical climates. © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia.

Campos R.V.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Cobuci J.A.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Costa C.N.,Embrapa Gado de Leite | Neto J.B.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia | Year: 2012

Data from 26,558 Holstein cows in 802 herds were used to estimate genetic, residual and phenotypic parameters for 22 type traits. The model included the fixed effects of herd-year, period of classification, classifier, stage of lactation and age of cows at calving (covariate) and random genetic and residual effects. Heritability for type traits ranged from 0.10 to 0.39. The genetic variability in these traits suggested the possibility for moderate genetic gains through selection. The phenotypic correlations were moderated, mainly in the section conformation. Genetic correlations between type traits ranged from -0.44 to 0.85. High genetic correlations indicated that breeding programs could be successful without including all type traits. The selection for the final score at the expense of other traits must be performed with restraint, because in the long term, this may promote undesirable changes in some type traits. ©2012 Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia.

Auad A.M.,Embrapa Gado de Leite | de Carvalho C.A.,Laboratorio Of Entomologia
Ciencia Florestal | Year: 2011

The aim of this study was to conduct a survey of beetles (Coleoptera) in a silvopastoral system, estimating constancy, abundance, richness, diversity of families and seasonality, from July 2006 to June 2008. The study was carried out at the Embrapa Dairy Cattle station, in Coronel Pacheco, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The beetles were collected in Malaise traps, fortnightly, and taken to the laboratory for analysis. A total of 26 families, 294 morphospecies and 1,606 specimens were found. The Elateridae, Mordellidae, Chrysomelidae, Coccinellidae and Curculionidae families were the most abundant, rich and diverse. The Scarabaeidae and Scolytidae families were also among the most abundant, and the Cerambycidae family was among the richest, while the Bruchidae and Carabidae families presented high diversity. The largest number of individuals and morphospecies sampled occurred during the period of rain. November 2007 presented the most (n = 535 specimens) captures of any month, followed by October 2006, September 2007, March and April of 2008.

Benites F.R.G.,Embrapa Gado de Leite | Pinto C.A.B.P.,Federal University of Lavras
Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology | Year: 2011

Practically all potato cultivars grown in Brazil are native to Europe and not fully adapted to the tropical conditions. The purpose of this study was to estimate the genetic gains of three cycles of recurrent selection for heat tolerance in potato. The base population in this study consisted of five Brazilian and five heat-tolerant clones. In the winter of 2006 and rainy growing season of 2007 103 clones were evaluated (eight clones of the base population, 29 of the first cycle, 32 and 30 of the second and third recurrent selection cycle, respectively, and four control cultivars). The genetic gains for tuber traits in both growing seasons were 37.8 % (yield), 13.0 % (weight), 32.4 % (percent of large tubers), 0.8 % (tuber specific gravity) and 16.6 % (general tuber appearance). The percentage of physiological disorders (second-growth tubers and cracking) was also reduced by selection.

Latin America livestock industries have been especially criticised because of their large greenhouse gas production as a result of the use of degraded forages and performances below production potential. Agriculture contributes a significant amount of the three main greenhouse gases: methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O). Methane gas has a global warming potential 25 times greater than CO2. Enteric methane is an important greenhouse gas which is responsible for approximately 15% of global warming. The tendency and legal necessity to mitigate the greenhouse gas emissions is likely to have a direct influence on the increased efficiency of livestock systems, including animal nutrition and handling. The development of mitigation strategies and the viability of the strategies' practical applications are issues that have been researched around the world. There are various nutritional strategies to mitigate enteric methane that have been studied and developed. All of these have different viabilities, costs and possibilities to be accepted by the producers. The choice of which one will be adopted should be based on the capacity to reduce methane emissions associated with economical viability and the maintenance of animal performance. The increase in zootechnial parameters that will be achieved in production systems (mainly the ones related to efficient forage use) associated with good nutritional, health and reproductive management are important strategies to consolidate Brazil as a food producer to the world, respecting the demands related to the land, water, conservation of biodiversity and the emission of greenhouse gases.

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