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Campo Grande, Brazil

de Figueiredo U.J.,Federal University of Lavras | Rodrigues Nunes J.A.,Federal University of Lavras | do Valle C.B.,Embrapa Gado de Corte
Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology | Year: 2012

The objectives of this study were to estimate genetic parameters for agronomic and nutritive value traits for leaves and stems of Brachiaria humidicola progenies and to compare the selection using an additive index considering the agronomic traits alone or combined with the main nutritive value traits. Fifty progenies of the cross cv. BRS Tupi x H31 were evaluated. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design with eight replications. The forage was cut seven times, at intervals of 30 - 35 days in the rainy season and two intervals of 60 days in the dry season. Trait variability among the progenies was confirmed. The mean progeny heritability ranged from 49.14% to 75.56% for the agronomic and from 19.59% to 71.11% for nutritive value traits. Nine of the ten best lines coincided in the selection for agronomic traits alone and in the selection including the main traits of nutritive value.

Simioni C.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | do Valle C.B.,Embrapa Gado de Corte
Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology | Year: 2011

The meiotic behavior of three tetraploid plants (2n=4x=36) originated from somatic chromosome duplication of sexually reproducing diploid plants of Brachiaria decumbens was evaluated. All the analyzed plants presented abnormalities related to polyploidy, such as irregular chromosome segregation, leading to precocious chromosome migration to the poles and micronuclei during both meiotic divisions. However, the abnormalities observed did not compromise the meiotic products which were characterized by regular tetrads and satisfactory pollen fertility varying from 61.36 to 64.86%. Chromosomes paired mostly as bivalents in diakinesis but univalents to tetravalents were also observed. These studies contributed to the choice of compatible fertile sexual genitors to be crossed to natural tetraploid apomicts in the B. decumbens by identifying abnormalities and verifying pollen fertility. Intraespecific crosses should reduce sterility in the hybrids produced in the breeding program of Brachiaria, a problem observed with the interspecific hybrids produced so far.

The meiotic behavior of four interspecific promising hybrids was evaluated by conventional cytological methods. The female genitors were two artificially tetraploidized sexual accessions of B. ruziziensis (R41 and R44, 2n = 4 χ = 36), which were crossed to an agronomically superior natural tetraploid apomictic genotype of B. brizantha (B140 - BRA003395). Three of them (HBGC313, HBGC 315, and HBGC324) were sexual and one (HBGC325) apomictic. Analyses of some cells in diakinesis revealed multivalent chromosome configurations, suggesting that genetic recombination and introgression of some genes could be present. The four hybrids had different types of meiotic abnormalities at various frequencies. Abnormalities related to irregular chromosome segregation due to polyploidy were common among these hybrids, and characterized by precocious chromosome migration to the poles, laggard chromosomes, both generating micronuclei in telophases and tetrads and, as a consequence, unbalanced gametes. One abnormality genotype-specific, related to spindle orientation (a putative divergent spindle mutation), was recorded for the first time in two of the hybrids, HBGC313 and HBGC325. The sexual hybrid HBGC324 had the lower rate of abnormalities, and it could be used as a female genitor in future crosses in the breeding program. The abnormalities present in these hybrids may impact fertility and affect seed production. Based on the results, HBGC324 is the single hybrid recommended to the breeding program. Hybrids must produce a good amount of viable seeds, besides good overall dry matter production and nutritive value, in order to be widely utilized and adopted in production systems. Due to pseudogamy, the desirable superior apomictic hybrids need viable pollen grains to fertilize the secondary nucleus of the embryo sac and thus ensure normal and vigorous endosperm development and plenty of seed set.

Machado L.A.Z.,Embrapa Agropecuaria Oeste | do Valle C.B.,Embrapa Gado de Corte
Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira | Year: 2011

The objective of this work was to evaluate the agronomic performance of palisade grass genotypes [Urochloa brizantha (Syn. Brachiaria brizantha)] in succession to soybean, for use on crop-livestock integration systems. The Marandu, MG 4, Xaraés, Piatã, Arapoty e B 6 genotypes were evaluated as a second crop, during the dry season, and soybean, in the summer crop, in a succession scheme, from 2007 to 2010. In each year, forages were sown in March and evaluated at successive cuts until late September, then desiccated in October to allow for no-tillage soybean seeding in november. A randomized complete block design with four replicates was used. Xaraés and B 6 genotypes were among those with higher forage production. The Xaraés cultivar showed lower contents of crude protein, in vitro digestibility of organic matter, calcium, and phosphorus, which, however, can be considered good for this genus, since it was grown in fertile soil. There is variation among U. brizantha genotypes as to their performance in the second crop. The Xaraés and B 6 genotypes show better performance in succession to soybean, in integrated production systems. The MG 4 and B 6 genotypes are easily desiccated with glyphosate herbicide. Soybean yield is not significantly affected by the cultivation in succession to the U. brizantha genotypes.

Nieri-Bastos F.A.,University of Sao Paulo | Lopes M.G.,University of Sao Paulo | Cancado P.H.D.,Embrapa Gado de Corte | Rossa G.A.R.,University of Sao Paulo | And 3 more authors.
Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz | Year: 2014

Adult ticks of the species Amblyomma parvum were collected from the vegetation in the Pantanal biome (state of Mato Grosso do Sul) and from horses in the Cerrado biome (state of Piauí) in Brazil. The ticks were individually tested for rickettsial infection via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting three rickettsial genes, gltA, ompA and ompB. Overall, 63.5% (40/63) and 66.7% (2/3) of A. parvum ticks from Pantanal and Cerrado, respectively, contained rickettsial DNA, which were all confirmed by DNA sequencing to be 100% identical to the corresponding fragments of the gltA, ompA and ompB genes of Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae. This report is the first to describe Ca. R. andeanae in Brazil.

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