Embrapa Gado de Corte

Campo Grande, Brazil

Embrapa Gado de Corte

Campo Grande, Brazil

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Gomes A.,Embrapa Gado de Corte | Koller W.W.,Embrapa Gado de Corte | de Barros A.T.M.,Laboratorio Of Parasitologia
Ciencia Rural | Year: 2011

The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, is one of the most important ectoparasites of bovines, requiring adoption of control measures mainly in Bos taurus herds and its crossbreeds. Its control has becoming increasingly difficult due to selection of resistant populations by commercial products. This study aimed to know the status of cattle tick resistance to acaricides in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul. From October 2003 to October 2006 acaricide bioassays were conducted on cattle ticks from eleven of the most important livestock regions of the state. Adult immersion tests using regular commercial products according to label recommendations were followed by the evaluation of biological parameters. Twelve acaricide products containing one or more of seven active ingredients, from three chemical classes: amidine (amitraz), synthetic pyrethroid (cypermethrin), and organophosphates (chlorfenvinphos, chlorpyriphos, diazinon, dichlorvos, and ethion) were tested. Low tick susceptibility was observed in all ranches, with several populations showing virtually no susceptibility to one or more products. Despite the great variation of susceptibility shown by the populations to each acaricide, a gradient of efficacy of these products was observed. Regardless of the acaricide class, the average efficacy of products containing a single active ingredient (19.94%-64.27%) was generally lower than that showed by the mixtures, pyrethroid-organophosphate (46.38%-82.68%) and between organophosphates (85.28%-97.68%). The mixture containing pyrethroid + OF + synergist + repellent (cypermethrin + chlorpyrifos + citronellal + piperonyl butoxide) showed 100% efficacy, although it was tested in a smaller number of populations. Although comparisons with a susceptible strain have not been made, the low efficacy showed by the several different products tested, strongly suggests that tick resistance is widespread in the state. For this reason, it is recommended the routine peruse of susceptibility tests before selection and use of acaricide products for tick control.

Pereira S.R.,Federal University of São Carlos | Laura V.A.,Embrapa Gado de Corte | Souza A.L.T.,Federal University of São Carlos
Restoration Ecology | Year: 2013

The successful establishment of trees in pastures may be related to species, seed size, and weed control treatments. This study experimentally evaluated the emergence, establishment after 2 years, and growth of individuals of 7 tree species with different seed sizes sowed under three weeding methods (no weeding, grasses clipped, and grasses removed). The experiment was carried out in a tropical abandoned pasture in Midwestern Brazil, dominated by the exotic invasive grass Urochloa brizantha. The effect of seed size on seedling emergence was significant and was more intense in the no weeding and weeding treatment plots than in grasses clipped. Furthermore, an increase in seed size resulted in an increase in the probability of establishment of tree species, although this pattern also differed among weeding treatments. The increase in seed size reflected negatively on tree growth in the absence of grasses, whereas in the presence of grasses there was an inverse relationship. The experimental results suggested that the use of seeds of different sizes for direct seeding in pastures is a possible strategy of Fabaceae tree species reintroduction in pastures within the Cerrado. Fabaceae species with seeds larger than 100 mg can establish in areas with no weeding, whereas species with seeds smaller than 50 mg can establish preferentially in areas with weeding, growing faster than larger ones. Thus, weeding strategies can determine the success of direct seeding of different species in restoration projects of tropical pastures. © 2012 Society for Ecological Restoration International.

Pereira S.R.,Federal University of São Carlos | Laura V.A.,Embrapa Gado de Corte | de Souza A.L.T.,Federal University of São Carlos
Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira | Year: 2013

The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of seed dormancy overcoming treatments on the rate and time of emergence of Fabaceae tree species, and on their recruitment when reintroduced in a tropical pasture, in the Brazilian Cerrado. Experiments were carried out in greenhouse and field (Urochloa brizantha pasture), with the species Mimosa caesalpiniifolia, Peltophorum dubium, Pterogyne nitens, Dimorphandra mollis, Copaifera langsdorffii and Hymenaea stigonocarpa, subjected or not to the following treatments of dormancy break: D. mollis and H. stigonocarpa, mechanical scarification; C. langsdorffii and M. caesapiniifolia, chemical scarification with H2SO4; P. nitens, tegument puncture; and P. dubium, immersion in water at 80°C. Recruitment of plants in the field were followed up for 21 months. Dormancy overcoming promoted greater emergency in four out of the six tested species, in the greenhouse, and in five species in the field. Furthermore, it reduced the emergency timing of the species and increased the recruitment of M. caesalpiniifolia, P. nitens, D. mollis e H. stigonocarpa, at 127 days, and of H. stigonocarpa at 659 days. Seed dormancy overcoming treatments can increase the efficiency of direct seeding in restoration projects of degraded areas in the Cerrado, promoting greater seed emergency and the recruitment of plants.

The meiotic behavior of four interspecific promising hybrids was evaluated by conventional cytological methods. The female genitors were two artificially tetraploidized sexual accessions of B. ruziziensis (R41 and R44, 2n = 4 χ = 36), which were crossed to an agronomically superior natural tetraploid apomictic genotype of B. brizantha (B140 - BRA003395). Three of them (HBGC313, HBGC 315, and HBGC324) were sexual and one (HBGC325) apomictic. Analyses of some cells in diakinesis revealed multivalent chromosome configurations, suggesting that genetic recombination and introgression of some genes could be present. The four hybrids had different types of meiotic abnormalities at various frequencies. Abnormalities related to irregular chromosome segregation due to polyploidy were common among these hybrids, and characterized by precocious chromosome migration to the poles, laggard chromosomes, both generating micronuclei in telophases and tetrads and, as a consequence, unbalanced gametes. One abnormality genotype-specific, related to spindle orientation (a putative divergent spindle mutation), was recorded for the first time in two of the hybrids, HBGC313 and HBGC325. The sexual hybrid HBGC324 had the lower rate of abnormalities, and it could be used as a female genitor in future crosses in the breeding program. The abnormalities present in these hybrids may impact fertility and affect seed production. Based on the results, HBGC324 is the single hybrid recommended to the breeding program. Hybrids must produce a good amount of viable seeds, besides good overall dry matter production and nutritive value, in order to be widely utilized and adopted in production systems. Due to pseudogamy, the desirable superior apomictic hybrids need viable pollen grains to fertilize the secondary nucleus of the embryo sac and thus ensure normal and vigorous endosperm development and plenty of seed set.

Nieri-Bastos F.A.,University of Sao Paulo | Lopes M.G.,University of Sao Paulo | Cancado P.H.D.,Embrapa Gado de Corte | Rossa G.A.R.,University of Sao Paulo | And 3 more authors.
Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz | Year: 2014

Adult ticks of the species Amblyomma parvum were collected from the vegetation in the Pantanal biome (state of Mato Grosso do Sul) and from horses in the Cerrado biome (state of Piauí) in Brazil. The ticks were individually tested for rickettsial infection via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting three rickettsial genes, gltA, ompA and ompB. Overall, 63.5% (40/63) and 66.7% (2/3) of A. parvum ticks from Pantanal and Cerrado, respectively, contained rickettsial DNA, which were all confirmed by DNA sequencing to be 100% identical to the corresponding fragments of the gltA, ompA and ompB genes of Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae. This report is the first to describe Ca. R. andeanae in Brazil.

Grisi L.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Leite R.C.,Federal University of Minas Gerais | Martins J.R.S.,Institute Pesquisas Veterinarias Desiderio Finamor | de Barros A.T.M.,Embrapa Gado de Corte | And 5 more authors.
Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinaria | Year: 2014

The profitability of livestock activities can be diminished significantly by the effects of parasites. Economic losses caused by cattle parasites in Brazil were estimated on an annual basis, considering the total number of animals at risk and the potential detrimental effects of parasitism on cattle productivity. Estimates in U.S. dollars (USD) were based on reported yield losses among untreated animals and reflected some of the effects of parasitic diseases. Relevant parasites that affect cattle productivity in Brazil, and their economic impact in USD billions include: gastrointestinal nematodes - $7.11; cattle tick (Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus) - $3.24; horn fly (Haematobia irritans) - $2.56; cattle grub (Dermatobia hominis) - $0.38; New World screwworm fly (Cochliomyia hominivorax) - $0.34; and stable fly (Stomoxys calcitrans) - $0.34. The combined annual economic loss due to internal and external parasites of cattle in Brazil considered here was estimated to be at least USD 13.96 billion. These findings are discussed in the context of methodologies and research that are required in order to improve the accuracy of these economic impact assessments. This information needs to be taken into consideration when developing sustainable policies for mitigating the impact of parasitism on the profitability of Brazilian cattle producers.

Simioni C.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | do Valle C.B.,Embrapa Gado de Corte
Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology | Year: 2011

The meiotic behavior of three tetraploid plants (2n=4x=36) originated from somatic chromosome duplication of sexually reproducing diploid plants of Brachiaria decumbens was evaluated. All the analyzed plants presented abnormalities related to polyploidy, such as irregular chromosome segregation, leading to precocious chromosome migration to the poles and micronuclei during both meiotic divisions. However, the abnormalities observed did not compromise the meiotic products which were characterized by regular tetrads and satisfactory pollen fertility varying from 61.36 to 64.86%. Chromosomes paired mostly as bivalents in diakinesis but univalents to tetravalents were also observed. These studies contributed to the choice of compatible fertile sexual genitors to be crossed to natural tetraploid apomicts in the B. decumbens by identifying abnormalities and verifying pollen fertility. Intraespecific crosses should reduce sterility in the hybrids produced in the breeding program of Brachiaria, a problem observed with the interspecific hybrids produced so far.

de Figueiredo U.J.,Federal University of Lavras | Rodrigues Nunes J.A.,Federal University of Lavras | do Valle C.B.,Embrapa Gado de Corte
Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology | Year: 2012

The objectives of this study were to estimate genetic parameters for agronomic and nutritive value traits for leaves and stems of Brachiaria humidicola progenies and to compare the selection using an additive index considering the agronomic traits alone or combined with the main nutritive value traits. Fifty progenies of the cross cv. BRS Tupi x H31 were evaluated. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design with eight replications. The forage was cut seven times, at intervals of 30 - 35 days in the rainy season and two intervals of 60 days in the dry season. Trait variability among the progenies was confirmed. The mean progeny heritability ranged from 49.14% to 75.56% for the agronomic and from 19.59% to 71.11% for nutritive value traits. Nine of the ten best lines coincided in the selection for agronomic traits alone and in the selection including the main traits of nutritive value.

Jank L.,Embrapa Gado de Corte | Valle C.B.,Embrapa Gado de Corte | Resende R.M.S.,Embrapa Gado de Corte
Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology | Year: 2011

Brazil has the largest commercial beef cattle herd and is the main beef exporter in the world. Cultivated pastures are the basis for the Brazilian beef production, and occupy an area of 101.4 million hectares. However, very few forage cultivars are commercially available, and the majority of these are of apomictic reproduction, thus genetically homogeneous. Tropical forage breeding is at its infancy, but much investment and efforts have been applied in the last three decades and some new cultivars have been released. In this paper, origin of different species, modes of reproduction, breeding programs and targets are discussed and the resulting new cultivars released are presented.

Machado L.A.Z.,Embrapa Agropecuaria Oeste | do Valle C.B.,Embrapa Gado de Corte
Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira | Year: 2011

The objective of this work was to evaluate the agronomic performance of palisade grass genotypes [Urochloa brizantha (Syn. Brachiaria brizantha)] in succession to soybean, for use on crop-livestock integration systems. The Marandu, MG 4, Xaraés, Piatã, Arapoty e B 6 genotypes were evaluated as a second crop, during the dry season, and soybean, in the summer crop, in a succession scheme, from 2007 to 2010. In each year, forages were sown in March and evaluated at successive cuts until late September, then desiccated in October to allow for no-tillage soybean seeding in november. A randomized complete block design with four replicates was used. Xaraés and B 6 genotypes were among those with higher forage production. The Xaraés cultivar showed lower contents of crude protein, in vitro digestibility of organic matter, calcium, and phosphorus, which, however, can be considered good for this genus, since it was grown in fertile soil. There is variation among U. brizantha genotypes as to their performance in the second crop. The Xaraés and B 6 genotypes show better performance in succession to soybean, in integrated production systems. The MG 4 and B 6 genotypes are easily desiccated with glyphosate herbicide. Soybean yield is not significantly affected by the cultivation in succession to the U. brizantha genotypes.

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