Jackson L.E.,University of California at Davis |
Pulleman M.M.,Wageningen University |
Brussaard L.,Wageningen University |
Bawa K.S.,University of Massachusetts Boston |
And 14 more authors.
Global Environmental Change | Year: 2012
To examine management options for biodiversity in agricultural landscapes, eight research regions were classified into social-ecological domains, using a dataset of indicators of livelihood resources, i.e., capital assets. Potential interventions for biodiversity-based agriculture were then compared among landscapes and domains. The approach combined literature review with expert judgment by researchers working in each landscape. Each landscape was described for land use, rural livelihoods and attitudes of social actors toward biodiversity and intensification of agriculture. Principal components analysis of 40 indicators of natural, human, social, financial and physical capital for the eight landscapes showed a loss of biodiversity associated with high-input agricultural intensification. High levels of natural capital (e.g. indicators of wildland biodiversity conservation and agrobiodiversity for human needs) were positively associated with indicators of human capital, including knowledge of the flora and fauna and knowledge sharing among farmers. Three social-ecological domains were identified across the eight landscapes (Tropical Agriculture-Forest Matrix, Tropical Degrading Agroecosystem, and Temperate High-Input Commodity Agriculture) using hierarchical clustering of the indicator values. Each domain shared a set of interventions for biodiversity-based agriculture and ecological intensification that could also increase food security in the impoverished landscapes. Implementation of interventions differed greatly among the landscapes, e.g. financial capital for new farming practices in the Intensive Agriculture domain vs. developing market value chains in the other domains. This exploratory study suggests that indicators of knowledge systems should receive greater emphasis in the monitoring of biodiversity and ecosystem services, and that inventories of assets at the landscape level can inform adaptive management of agrobiodiversity-based interventions. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Almeida Filho J.E.,Federal University of Viçosa |
Tardin F.D.,Nucleo de Recursos Geneticos e Desenvolvimento de Cultivares |
Guimaraes J.F.R.,Federal University of Viçosa |
Resende M.D.V.,Embrapa Floresta |
And 4 more authors.
Genetics and Molecular Research | Year: 2016
The breeding of sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, aimed at improving its nutritional quality, is of great interest, since it can be used as a highly nutritive alternative food source and can possibly be cultivated in regions with low rainfall. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the potential and genetic diversity of grain-sorghum hybrids for traits of agronomic and nutritional interest. To this end, the traits grain yield and flowering, and concentrations of protein, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulfur, iron, manganese, and zinc in the grain were evaluated in 25 grain-sorghum hybrids, comprising 18 experimental hybrids of Embrapa Milho e Sorgo and seven commercial hybrids. The genetic potential was analyzed by a multi-trait best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) model, and cluster analysis was accomplished by squared Mahalanobis distance using the predicted genotypic values. Hybrids 0306037 and 0306034 stood out in the agronomic evaluation. The hybrids with agronomic prominence, however, did not stand out for the traits related to the nutritional quality of the grain. Three clusters were formed from the dendrogram obtained with the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean method. From the results of the genotypic BLUP and the analysis of the dendrogram, hybrids 0577337, 0441347, 0307651, and 0306037 were identified as having the potential to establish a population that can aggregate alleles for all the evaluated traits of interest. © FUNPEC-RP.
PubMed | Federal University of São Carlos, Federal University of Viçosa and Embrapa Floresta
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Genetics and molecular research : GMR | Year: 2014
The success of the development of new sugarcane varieties is associated with the ability to correctly select the genitor. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic diversity between 113 clones and sugarcane varieties using the Ward-modified location model procedure with added information about the coefficient of parentage and endogamy. In this study, data was used from 100 experiments that evaluated clones; the experimental phase was conducted in 70 places between the years 2002 and 2009 on the outlining in random blocks. According to the diversity analysis, 3 groups formed: G1, G2, and G3, which were composed of 58, 8, and 47 genotypes, respectively. The clones of groups G1 and G3 were the most outstanding. Thus, biparental crossbreeding involving clones and varieties of these 2 groups can efficiently obtain transgressive genotypes. Knowledge of the heterotypic groups indicated by the Ward-modified location model method, along with the parentage information, will make it a lot easier to define the desirable and undesirable crossbreeds for public and private breeding programs that develop sugarcane varieties.
PubMed | Nucleo de Recursos Geneticos e Desenvolvimento de Cultivares, Federal University of Viçosa and Embrapa Floresta
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Genetics and molecular research : GMR | Year: 2016
The breeding of sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, aimed at improving its nutritional quality, is of great interest, since it can be used as a highly nutritive alternative food source and can possibly be cultivated in regions with low rainfall. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the potential and genetic diversity of grain-sorghum hybrids for traits of agronomic and nutritional interest. To this end, the traits grain yield and flowering, and concentrations of protein, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulfur, iron, manganese, and zinc in the grain were evaluated in 25 grain-sorghum hybrids, comprising 18 experimental hybrids of Embrapa Milho e Sorgo and seven commercial hybrids. The genetic potential was analyzed by a multi-trait best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) model, and cluster analysis was accomplished by squared Mahalanobis distance using the predicted genotypic values. Hybrids 0306037 and 0306034 stood out in the agronomic evaluation. The hybrids with agronomic prominence, however, did not stand out for the traits related to the nutritional quality of the grain. Three clusters were formed from the dendrogram obtained with the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean method. From the results of the genotypic BLUP and the analysis of the dendrogram, hybrids 0577337, 0441347, 0307651, and 0306037 were identified as having the potential to establish a population that can aggregate alleles for all the evaluated traits of interest.
Oliveira R.R.,State University of Maringá |
Aguiar R.L.,State University of Maringá |
Tessmann D.J.,State University of Maringá |
Nunes W.M.C.,State University of Maringá |
And 2 more authors.
Plant Disease | Year: 2014
Syagrus oleracea (Mart.) Becc. (bitter coconut), a palm tree species that is native to central Brazil, has been increasingly cultivated in this country for heart-of-palm production. Epidemics of a necrotic leaf spot of unknown etiology have been recorded on bitter coconut plants in transplant nurseries and plantation since 2008. The first symptoms appear as small, yellow, hydrotic flecks on young or mature leaves that evolve to necrotic brown streaks that run parallel to the leaf veins. Usually, yellow halos occur around the lesions and hydrosis is common during lesion expansion. Necrotic lesions can reach up to 40 mm in length and 10 mm in width, and the lesions often coalesce, causing extensive tissue damage. During a survey in a 3-year-old bitter coconut plantation in Maringá County (coordinates: 23°23′51.25″ S, 51°57′02.09″ W; elevation: 507 m) in the state of Parana, a dozen symptomatic leaves were collected with the aim of elucidating the etiology of this disease. Conidia and conidiophores typical of Cladosporium were frequently observed on the diseased leaf tissue under natural field conditions as well on the surfaces of disinfected leaf tissues kept in a humid chamber for 48 h at 25 ± 2°C with a 12-h photoperiod. Five monoconidial cultures growing on potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium were obtained from different leaves showing leaf spot symptoms. The cultures were grown on PDA to induce sporulation. At 7 days after incubation at 25 ± 2°C and a 12-h photoperiod, gray to gray-olive colonies were observed. The conidiophores were macronematous, erect, oblong, branched, 1 to 5 septate, and 75.0 to 120.0 × 1.90 to 3.20 μm. The ramoconidia were cylindrical or oblong, 0 to 2 septate, and 28.0 to 40.0 × 2.8 to 3.6 μm, with a truncate base of 1.9 to 2.2 μm; secondary ramoconidia were cylindrical or oblong, 0 to 2 septate, 8.0 to 31.0 × 2.2 to 3.1 μm, with 3 to 5 distal conidial hila; intercalary 1-septate conidia were 5.5 to 17.0 × 2.1 to 3.4 μm, with 1 to 3 distal conidial hila; terminal 1-septate conidia were catenulate and 2.2 to 4.2 × 1.8 to 3.1 μm. Species identification was performed based on morphology and DNA sequence data (1). Portions of the elongation factor 1α (551 bp; TEF) and actin (213 bp; ACT) genes were amplified by PCR. A BLAST search of the GenBank database revealed that the TEF (KC484658 to KC484662) and ACT (KC484663 to KC484667) sequence fragments from isolates Gua1, Gua2, Gua3, Gua4, and Gua5 had 100% identity with the accessions HM148616 and HM148371 of Cladosporium perangustum (1). Isolates were tested for pathogenicity against bitter coconut. Ten potted plants with 4 to 6 fully expanded leaves were inoculated with each isolate by spraying a suspension of conidia (105 spores per ml) onto leaves until runoff using a handheld spray bottle. Non-inoculated controls (10 plants) were sprayed with distilled water. The plants were kept in a humid plastic chamber at 20 to 26°C. All examined isolates were pathogenic to bitter coconut, causing symptoms identical to those described above 12 days after inoculation. All inoculated tissues were plated onto PDA to confirm the presence of the pathogen. Live cultures are being maintained at the Micoteca/URM/UFPE (www.ufpe.br/micoteca), Brazil. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a disease caused by C. perangustum on S. oleracea worldwide, and the study provides valuable plant disease diagnostic information for the palm hearth industry in Latin America.
Caixeta M.P.,State University of Maringá |
Nunes W.M.C.,State University of Maringá |
dos Santos A.F.,Embrapa Floresta |
Tessmann D.J.,State University of Maringá |
Vida J.B.,State University of Maringá
Summa Phytopathologica | Year: 2013
Citrus root rot is considered a disease of great importance to citriculture in Brazil and around the world. The etiology of this disease comprises a complex of Phytophthora species. Although citrus root rot is important, little is known about it in the producing regions of Paraná State, Brazil. Therefore, this study aimed to identify Phytophthora species associated with root rot in citrus orchards in Paraná. In the North and Northwest regions of this state and in Vale do Ribeira, samples were collected from the roots of plants showing symptoms of citrus root rot, as well as from the rhizosphere soil. In the laboratory, employing pear cv. D'anjou as bait and the culture medium potato-dextrose-agar, 21 isolates of Phytophthora spp. were obtained. All isolates infected seedlings of Rangpur lime, reproducing the symptoms of root rot and presenting mycelial growth at 8 °C and 36 °C, except for the isolate PR20 at 36 °C. In vitro, these isolates were heterothallic, and 20 of them were compatible with the standard type A2, while one of them was compatible with the standard type A1. Twenty isolates formed papillate persistent sporangia of 25.5 - 62.0 μm length (C) and 27.9 - 49.6 μm width (L); the C/L ratio was 1.38:1. One isolate (PR20) had sporangia of 40.3 - 55.8 μm length and 27.9 - 37.2 width, forming papillale or bipapillate persistent sporangia of distorted forms and not forming chlamydospores. The optimum temperature for the growth of this isolate was between 20 and 28°C, while for the remaining isolates it was from 24 to 32°C; the latter had abundant production of globose chlamydospores with diameter ranging from 21.7 to 43.4 μm. According to the presented morphophysiological characteristics, of the 21 analyzed isolates, 20 belonged to the species P. nicotianae and one to the species P. citrophthora. Sequence analysis of genes of the rDNA ITS1-5.8SITS2 region, using the test Single-Strand Conformation Polymorphism (SSCP), confirmed P. nicotianae and P. citrophthora as the two Phytophthora species associated with root rot in citrus orchards in the state of Paraná.
de Godoy R.C.B.,Embrapa Floresta |
Waszczynskj N.,Federal University of Paraná |
Santana F.A.,Federal University of Recôncavo da Bahia |
e Silva S.O.,Embrapa Mandioca e Frutas |
And 2 more authors.
Ciencia Rural | Year: 2016
Cultivated bananas have very low genetic diversity making them vulnerable to diseases such as black-Sigatoka leaf spot. However, the decision to adopt a new banana variety needs to be based on a robust evaluation of agronomical and physicalchemical characteristics. Here, we characterize new banana varieties resistant to black-Sigatoka leaf spot and compare them to the most widely used traditional variety (Grand Naine). Each variety was evaluated for a range of physic-chemical attributes associated with industrial processing and flavor: pH, TTA, TSS/ TTA, total sugars, reducing sugars and non-reducing sugars, humidity, total solids and yield. The Thap Maeo variety had the highest potential as a substitute for the Grand Naine variety, having higher levels of total soluble solids, reducing sugars, total sugars and humidity. The Caipira and FHIA 2 varieties also performed well in comparison with the Grand Naine variety. Cluster analysis indicated that the Grand Naine variety was closely associated with varieties from the Gross Michel subgroup (Bucaneiro, Ambrosia and Calipso) and the Caipira variety, all of which come from the same AAA genomic group. It was concluded that several of the new resistant varieties could potentially substitute the traditional variety in areas affected by black-Sigatoka leaf spot disease. © 2016, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria. All rights reserved.
Finck C.,Grao Limpo |
Santana K.,State University of Ponta Grossa |
de Oliveira E.B.,Embrapa Floresta |
Neto P.H.W.,UEPG |
Ciencia Rural | Year: 2015
The objective of this study was to determine the shortest time of fumigation to promote the total mortality of adult insects of the genus Sitophilus, in grains of wheat, undergoing fumigation in chamber of tarpaulin. The experiment was carried out in a grain storage unit in Ponta Grossa - PR. The experimental design was completely randomized, with six treatments and ten replications. Treatments consisted of times of exposure of wheat grain fumigation: zero; 12; 36; 60; 84 and 108 hours, in bucket trucks wrapped in tarpaulin (forming the chambers of tarpaulin). It was applied the commercial product Fertox® in tablets form, with the dosage of 6g m-3 in each chamber of 35m³. Repetitions were composed by cages with ten live adult insects of the Sitophilus genus each one, inserted into the grain mass in bucket trucks and arranged at various points and depths. The fitted regression model to describe the insect mortality behavior (M) according to the fumigation time (T) was M=6.6867+93.4694 (1-e0.1645T)26.9607. Equation shows that 58.9h after application of the steam product the insect mortality is of 100%. © 2015, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria. All rights reserved.
Duarte A.P.,Federal University of Paraná |
Melo V.F.,Federal University of Paraná |
Brown G.G.,Embrapa Floresta |
Pauletti V.,Embrapa Floresta
European Journal of Soil Biology | Year: 2012
To investigate the effect of the soil passage through the gut of earthworms (Pontoscolex corethrurus) on the forms of Pb and Mn, casts and soil samples were analyzed by sequential extraction procedure. Soil samples were collected in an area under direct influence of mining and metallurgy of Pb in the Parana state, Brazil. The earthworms were incubated with the soils to collect castings. The Pb and Mn concentrations were determined in seven sequential phases: soluble; exchangeable; carbonate; organic matter; Fe and Mn oxides; Al oxides and aluminosilicates; residual. There was intense contamination with Pb in the area, mainly in the clayish soil surrounding the factory by the deposition of suspended material coming from the chimneys (maximum concentration 9716 mg kg-1). On the other hand, total concentration of soil Mn was little influenced by the mining and metallurgy activities in the area. The earthworms significantly reduced the amount of Pb in the soluble and exchangeable forms in the soil, considered environmentally more bioavailable. There was also a significant increase in Pb bound in Fe and Mn oxides in the casts (specific absorption), which is desirable for soil bioremediation. © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS.
Rego S.S.,Federal University of Paraná |
dos Santos A.F.,Embrapa Floresta |
Nogueira A.C.,Federal University of Paraná |
Kuniyoshi Y.S.,Embrapa Floresta
Revista Brasileira de Sementes | Year: 2012
The objective of this study was to identify the fungi associated with the fruit and seeds of Blepharocalyx salicifolius and verify their transmission and pathogenicity to seeds and seedlings. Fungal identification on seeds was made using the blotter test and potato-dextrose-agar but only the blotter test was used for fruit. Fungal transmission to seedlings was evaluated using four replications of 50 seeds planted in vermiculite. The pathogenicity of the fungi, Colletotrichum sp., Curvularia sp., Cladosporium sp. Pestalotia sp. and Macrophomina sp. was tested. Potentially pathogenic and saprophytic fungi were found on the fruits and seeds. The transmission of Cladosporium sp. from seeds to seedlings was verified, and Cladosporium sp. Pestalotia sp. and Macrophomina sp. were found to be pathogenic to B. salicifolius seedlings.