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Belém, Brazil

Porro R.,Embrapa Eastern Amazon | Porro R.,World Agroforestry Center | Lopez-Feldman A.,Research Center y Docencia Economicas | Vela-Alvarado J.W.,National University of Ucayali
Forest Policy and Economics | Year: 2015

The relevance of forests to rural well-being and poverty reduction remains a controversial issue. This paper examines patterns of association between household wealth, poverty, and livelihood dependency either on forest extraction or agricultural activities in Ucayali, Peru. The analysis is based on survey data of 578 households with geographical, ethnic and environmental heterogeneity. A typology of economic strategies was defined through relative income shares derived from agriculture, forest, wages and other income sources. Our results show that households have multifaceted livelihood systems. While forest/environmental products provide nearly 40% of total income, agriculture is critical to both indigenous communities and to farmers of non-Amazonian origin. We test the hypothesis that households relying on agriculture are wealthier than forest-dependent households. In addition, we examine the role played by ethnicity and location as interacting variables. The analysis suggests a strong role of specific ethnic and locational configurations in shaping income and asset patterns, with some weak evidence of statistically lower poverty levels being credited to dependency on forest products. Context-specific assessments of livelihood-environment interactions provide critical insights to development and environmental policies and programs, which need to recognize different forms through which households integrate forest use and agriculture. © 2014. Source

Mattietto R.A.,Embrapa Eastern Amazon | Gomes F.S.,Embrapa Food Technology | Matta V.M.,Embrapa Food Technology
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2014

The açaí tree has been considered as the most important palm of the North Region of Brazil, as its fruit pulp consumption has largely increased in the last years being commercialized all over the world mainly due to its composition in bioactive compounds and potentiality as a functional product. In this work, the effect of the thermal process conditions on the antioxidant capacity of the açaí pulp was evaluated. The açaí fruit, obtained from natural populations of Abaetetuba, Pará, Brazil, was extracted in a mechanical açaí depulper, with water addition. The total solids content of the obtained pulp was 13%. The pasteurization was conducted in a continuous small scale system and the tested conditions followed a composed rotational experimental plan, which had temperature and time as independent factors and the antioxidant activity as the main response. Results showed that none of the two factors or their interactions was significant at 95% probability, which means that the antioxidant activity is not significantly affected with time or temperature on proposed levels. The tendency plot suggests that the antioxidant activity tends to increase, preferentially, when lower temperatures and higher residence times are applied or with high temperatures with very little residence times. The Tukey test (p≤0.05) showed that there was not a significant difference among most of the tested conditions, the control sample being equal to the pasteurized samples except for those obtained at 75°C/65 s, 90°C/65 s and 82.5°C/50 s. It is possible to say that there is a range of time and temperature pasteurization conditions that permit to preserve the quality of the açaí pulp. Source

Marcondes C.R.,Embrapa Southeast Livestock | Marques L.C.,Federal University of Para | Vozzi P.A.,Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria | Aguiar J.F.,Agricultural Protection Agency of Goias | And 3 more authors.
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2014

The Carabao breed (Bubalus bubalis kerebao) in Brazil may be endangered and at risk of losing specific qualities. This makes preservation and population studies extremely important. In this pedigree analysis on a Brazilian herd, low values for populational parameters and high mean endogamy were found. Mating optimization based on bulls of lesser kinship improves populational parameters and reduces inbreeding rates. Use of this tool, in addition to conservation programs, will help to mitigate genetic variability losses in the Brazilian Carabao herd, thus allowing its future enrollment in genetic improvement programs. Source

ARAYA A.,Mekelle University | KISEKKA I.,Kansas State University | GIRMA A.,Mekelle University | HADGU K.M.,World Agro forestry | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural Science | Year: 2016

Wheat is an important crop in the highlands of Northern Ethiopia and climate change is expected to be a major threat to wheat productivity. However, the potential impacts of climate change and adaptation on wheat yield has not been documented for this region. Wheat field experiments were carried out during the 2011–2013 cropping seasons in Northern Ethiopia to: (1) calibrate and evaluate Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (APSIM)-wheat model for exploring the impacts of climate change and adaptation on wheat yield; (2) explore the response of wheat cultivar/s to possible change in climate and carbon dioxide (CO2) under optimal and sub-optimal fertilizer application and (3) assess the impact of climate change and adaptation practices on wheat yield based on integration of surveyed field data with climate simulations using multi-global climate models (GCMs; for short- and mid-term periods) for the Hintalo-Wajrat areas of Northern Ethiopia. The treatments were two levels of fertilizer (optimal and zero fertilization); treatments were replicated three times and arranged in a randomized complete block design. All required information for model calibration and evaluation were gathered from experimental studies. In addition, a household survey was conducted in 2012 in Northern Ethiopia. Following model calibration and performance testing, response of wheat to various nitrogen (N) fertilizer rates, planting date, temperature and combinations of other climate variables and CO2 were assessed. Crop simulations were conducted with future climate scenarios using 20 different GCMs and compared with a baseline. In addition, simulations were carried out using climate data from five different GCM with and without climate change adaptation practices. The simulated yield showed clear responses to changes in temperature, N fertilizer and CO2. Regardless of choice of cultivar, increasing temperatures alone (by up to 5 °C compared with the baseline) resulted in reduced yield while the addition of other factors (optimal fertilizer with elevated CO2) resulted in increased yield. Considering optimal fertilizer (64 kg/ha N) as an adaptation practice, wheat yield in the short-term (2010–2039) and mid-term (2040–2069) may increase at least by 40%, compared with sub-optimal N levels. Assuming CO2 and present wheat management is unchanged, simulation results based on 20 GCMs showed that median wheat yields will reduce by 10% in the short term and by 11% in the mid-term relative to the baseline data, whereas under changed CO2 with present management, wheat yield will increase slightly, by up to 8% in the short term and by up to 11% in the mid-term period, respectively. Wheat yield will substantially increase, by more than 100%, when simulated based on combined use of optimal planting date and fertilizer applications. Increased temperature in future scenarios will cause yield to decline, whereas CO2 is expected to have positive impacts on wheat yield. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2016 Source

Barbosa N.G.S.,Federal University of Minas Gerais | Rodriguez N.M.,Federal University of Minas Gerais | Fernandes P.C.C.,Embrapa Eastern Amazon | Garcia A.R.G.,Embrapa Eastern Amazon | And 8 more authors.
Revista Veterinaria | Year: 2010

Take of Dry Matter (DM), Neutral Detergent Fiber (NDF), Digestible Energy(DE), Crude Protein (CP) and Extract Ether (EE) and total diet digestibility of DM, NDF, Crude Energy (CE) and EE were studied in crossbred river steers buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) receiving Palm Kernel Cake (PKC) and grass silage (Pennisetum purpureum). The experimental test was conducted in a completely randomized design with four treatments (levels of PKC) and four repetitions (buffalo). Each period lasted 21 days, being 14 days to adjust the level of inclusion and seven days to determine consumption and digestibility. Enriched and purified lignin, LIPEÒ, was used as an external indicator in order to estimate the apparent digestibility of the nutrients. The experimental diet consisted of PKC in levels of 0, 20, 40 and 60% added to 100, 80, 60 or 40% of silage, the repetitions were composed of four male crossbred buffalos with initial live weight of 380.10 ± 27.21 Kg. Data was analyzed by regression using statistic software PASW. Intake (g/kg0.75) and digestibility (%) of (DM, NDF and CP), decreased from 0 to 40% and increased from 40 to 60% of PKC. Buffalo appeared to have a later adaptation to PKC. Source

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