Embrapa Dairy Cattle

Juiz de Fora, Brazil

Embrapa Dairy Cattle

Juiz de Fora, Brazil

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PubMed | Embrapa Dairy Cattle, University of Aarhus, Sun Yat Sen University, French National Institute for Agricultural Research and China Agricultural University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of dairy science | Year: 2016

The present study investigated the improvement of prediction reliabilities for 3 production traits in Brazilian Holsteins that had no genotype information by adding information from Nordic and French Holstein bulls that had genotypes. The estimated across-country genetic correlations (ranging from 0.604 to 0.726) indicated that an important genotype by environment interaction exists between Brazilian and Nordic (or Nordic and French) populations. Prediction reliabilities for Brazilian genotyped bulls were greatly increased by including data of Nordic and French bulls, and a 2-trait single-step genomic BLUP performed much better than the corresponding pedigree-based BLUP. However, only a minor improvement in prediction reliabilities was observed in nongenotyped Brazilian cows. The results indicate that although there is a large genotype by environment interaction, inclusion of a foreign reference population can improve accuracy of genetic evaluation for the Brazilian Holstein population. However, a Brazilian reference population is necessary to obtain a more accurate genomic evaluation.

Oliveira D.E.,Santa Catarina State University | Gama M.A.S.,Embrapa Dairy Cattle | Fernandes D.,Santa Catarina State University | Tedeschi L.O.,Texas A&M University | Bauman D.E.,Cornell University
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2012

Feeding conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in a rumen-inert form to dairy ewes has been shown to increase milk production, alter milk composition, and increase the milk fat CLA content. However, few studies have tested ruminally unprotected CLA sources. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of an unprotected CLA supplement (29.8% of cis-9,. trans-11 and 29.9% of trans-10,. cis-12 isomers as methyl esters) on milk yield and composition of dairy ewes. Twenty-four lactating Lacaune ewes were used in a crossover design and received 2 dietary treatments: (1) control: basal diet containing no supplemental lipid and (2) basal diet plus CLA (30. g/d). The CLA supplement was mixed into the concentrate and fed in 2 equal meals after morning and afternoon milkings. Each experimental period consisted of 21 d: 7 d for adaptation and 14 d for data collection. The CLA supplement decreased milk fat content and yield by 31.3 and 38.0%, respectively. Milk yield and secretion of milk lactose and protein were decreased by 8.0, 9.8, and 5.6%, respectively. On the other hand, milk protein content and linear SCC score were 1.8 and 17.7% higher in ewes fed the CLA supplement. The concentration of milk fatty acids originating from de novo synthesis (C16) was increased by 22.6% in ewes fed the CLA supplement. The CLA supplement decreased C14:1/C14:0, C16:1/C16:0, and C18:1/C18:0 desaturase indexes by 25, 18.7, and 0.1%, respectively, but increased the cis-9,. trans-11 CLA/. trans-11 C18:1 ratio by 8.6%. The concentrations of trans-10,. cis-12 CLA and cis-9,. trans-11 CLA in milk fat was 309 and 33.4% higher in ewes fed CLA. Pronounced milk fat depression coupled with the deleterious effects on milk yield, milk SCC, and secretion of all milk solids observed in ewes fed an unprotected CLA supplement is likely to be associated with high doses of trans-10,. cis-12 CLA reaching the mammary gland, corroborating previous results obtained with dairy cows. © 2012 American Dairy Science Association.

Medeiros S.R.,State University of Mato Grosso do Sul | Oliveira D.E.,Santa Catarina State University | Aroeira L.J.M.,Embrapa Dairy Cattle | McGuire M.A.,University of Idaho | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2010

Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) are potent anticarcinogens in animal and in vitro models as well as inhibitors of fatty acid synthesis in mammary gland, liver, and adipose tissue. Our objective was to evaluate long-term CLA supplementation of lactating dairy cows in tropical pasture on milk production and composition and residual effects posttreatment. Thirty crossbred cows grazing stargrass (Cynodon nlemfuensis Vanderyst var. nlemfüensis) were blocked by parity and received 150 g/d of a dietary fat supplement of either Ca-salts of palm oil fatty acids (control) or a mixture of Ca-salts of CLA (CLA treatment). Supplements of fatty acids were mixed with 4 kg/d of concentrate. Grazing plus supplements were estimated to provide 115% of the estimated metabolizable protein requirements from 28 to 84 d in milk (treatment period). The CLA supplement provided 15 g/d of cis-9,. trans-11 and 22. g of cis-10,. trans-12. Residual effects were evaluated from 85 to 112 d in milk (residual period) when cows were fed an 18% crude protein concentrate without added fat. The CLA treatment increased milk production but reduced milk fat concentration from 2.90 to 2.14% and fat production from 437 to 348 g/d. Milk protein concentration increased by 11.5% (2.79 to 3.11%) and production by 19% (422 to 504 g/d) in the cows fed CLA. The CLA treatment decreased milk energy concentration and increased milk volume, resulting in unchanged energy output. Milk production and protein concentration and production were also greater during the residual period for the CLA-treated cows. The CLA treatment reduced production of fatty acids (FA) of all chain lengths, but the larger effect was on short-chain FA, causing a shift toward a greater content of longer chain FA. The CLA treatment increased total milk CLA content by 30% and content of the trans-10,. cis-12 CLA isomer by 88%. The CLA treatment tended to decrease the number of days open, suggesting a possible effect on reproduction. Under tropical grazing conditions, in a nutritionally challenging environment, CLA-treated cows decreased milk fat content and secreted the same amount of milk energy by increasing milk volume and milk protein production. © 2010 American Dairy Science Association.

Perez O'Brien A.M.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna | Utsunomiya Y.T.,São Paulo State University | Meszaros G.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna | Meszaros G.,Roslin Institute | And 7 more authors.
Genetics Selection Evolution | Year: 2014

Background: Signatures of selection are regions in the genome that have been preferentially increased in frequency and fixed in a population because of their functional importance in specific processes. These regions can be detected because of their lower genetic variability and specific regional linkage disequilibrium (LD) patterns. Methods. By comparing the differences in regional LD variation between dairy and beef cattle types, and between indicine and taurine subspecies, we aim at finding signatures of selection for production and adaptation in cattle breeds. The VarLD method was applied to compare the LD variation in the autosomal genome between breeds, including Angus and Brown Swiss, representing taurine breeds, and Nelore and Gir, representing indicine breeds. Genomic regions containing the top 0.01 and 0.1 percentile of signals were characterized using the UMD3.1 Bos taurus genome assembly to identify genes in those regions and compared with previously reported selection signatures and regions with copy number variation. Results: For all comparisons, the top 0.01 and 0.1 percentile included 26 and 165 signals and 17 and 125 genes, respectively, including TECRL, BT.23182 or FPPS, CAST, MYOM1, UVRAG and DNAJA1. Conclusions: The VarLD method is a powerful tool to identify differences in linkage disequilibrium between cattle populations and putative signatures of selection with potential adaptive and productive importance. © 2014 Pérez O'Brien et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Vaz F.A.S.,Federal University of Juiz de fora | Da Silva P.A.,Federal University of Juiz de fora | Passos L.P.,Embrapa Dairy Cattle | Heller M.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | And 3 more authors.
Phytochemical Analysis | Year: 2012

Introduction Aluminum toxicity is commonly verified in acidic soils, and poses a severe limitation to plant growth and development. Therefore, Al complexation by the root system mucilage, Al complexation by organic compounds that are exuded by the roots and internal metabolic processes must be monitored by organic acids (OA), since they play a central role in these aluminum tolerance mechanisms. Objective To optimise a capillary zone electrophoresis method able to perform simultaneous separation of acetic, citric, formic, lactic, malic, oxalic, pyruvic, succinic, tartaric and aspartic acid in plant extract solutions. Methodology Method optimisation was achieved by a chemometric approach through experimental designs. The optimal condition found was: 20 mmol/L phthalic acid buffer; 0.8 mmol/L cetyltrimethyl-ammonium bromide; pH 3.4 adjusted with tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (around 16 mmol/L); -15 kV of voltage; 25 °C of cartridge temperature; indirect ultraviolet detection at 240 nm; and 25 mbar injection for 2 s, within an analysis time of 4 min. Results As a repeatability test of the optimal condition, 30 replicates were carried out with the same working electrolyte, where the relative standard deviation of each peak ranged from 0.081 to 0.36% (for migration time) and from 2.4 to 4.6% (for peak area). Conclusion The methodology was successfully applied to simultaneously determine citric, malic and aspartic acid in roots and leaves extract solutions of Brachiaria brizantha, demonstrating its usefulness to study aluminum tolerance. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

PubMed | Embrapa Dairy Cattle and Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul
Type: Journal Article | Journal: International journal of biometeorology | Year: 2016

Dairy cattle raised under harsh conditions have to adapt and prevent heat stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate physical characteristics and their association with heat tolerance in different genetic groups of dairy cattle. Thickness of the skin and coat, length and number of hairs, body measurements, as well as physiological parameters and body temperatures by infrared thermography were determined in 19 Holstein and 19 Girolando ( and Holstein) cows. The Holstein cattle were less tolerant to heat stress than Girolando (GH50 and GH75 Holstein), because of the difficulty in dissipating heat due to the larger body size, as well as thicker and longer hairs. The correlations between physical characteristics, physiological parameters, and thermographic measurements prove to be inconsistent among genetic groups and therefore are not predictive of heat tolerance, while the regressions of morphometric characteristics on physiological and thermographic measures were not significant. Thus, the physical characteristics were not good predictors of physiological indices and thermographic temperature and so should not be used.

Pereira M.M.,Federal University of Juiz de fora | MacHado M.A.,Federal University of Juiz de fora | Costa F.Q.,Embrapa Dairy Cattle | Serapiao R.V.,Embrapa Dairy Cattle | And 2 more authors.
Reproduction, Fertility and Development | Year: 2010

With an aim to improve the in vitro production of bovine embryos, the present study investigated the effect of serum and oxygen tension during IVM on oocyte developmental competence. Four experimental groups were evaluated: G1, 10% oestrus cow serum (OCS) with 20% O2; G2, 0.1% polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) with 20% O2; G3, 10% OCS with 5% O2; and G4, 0.1% PVA with 5% O2. The proportion of MII oocytes, blastocyst rates and total cell number were not affected (P < 0.05) when the OCS was replaced with PVA under 5% O2, whereas a higher (P > 0.05) blastocyst rate and total cell number were found with OCS compared with PVA under 20% O2. The apoptosis index was lower in blastocysts from oocytes matured with PVA under 5% O2 (G4) compared with other groups (G1, G2 and G3), but no differences (P > 0.05) were found in maturation and blastocyst rates. Significant differences were found in the amount of specific transcripts in oocytes matured under different conditions. In conclusion maturation with PVA and 5% O2 provides an efficient in vitro culture condition for the maturation of bovine oocytes. © 2010 CSIRO.

PubMed | Embrapa Dairy Cattle, São Paulo State University and Paranaense University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Toxins | Year: 2016

Epidemiological studies have identified Staphylococcus aureus as the most common agent involved in food poisoning. However, current research highlights the importance of toxigenic coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) isolated from food. The aim of this study was to characterize Staphylococcus spp. isolated from cows with bovine subclinical mastitis regarding the presence of genes responsible for the production of staphylococcal enterotoxins and of the tst-1 gene encoding toxic shock syndrome toxin 1, and to determine the clonal profile of the isolates carrying any of the genes studied. A total of 181 strains isolated in different Brazilian states, including the South, Southeast, and Northeast regions, were analyzed. The sea gene was the most frequent, which was detected in 18.2% of the isolates, followed by seb in 7.7%, sec in 14.9%, sed in 0.5%, see in 8.2%, seg in 1.6%, seh in 25.4%, sei in 6.6%, and ser in 1.6%. The sej, ses, set, and tst-1 genes were not detected in any of the isolates. The typing of the isolates by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed important S. aureus and S. epidermidis clusters in different areas and the presence of enterotoxin genes in lineages isolated from animals that belong to herds located geographically close to each other.

Diniz F.H.,Embrapa Dairy Cattle | Diniz F.H.,Wageningen University | Hoogstra-Klein M.A.,Wageningen University | Kok K.,Wageningen University | Arts B.,Wageningen University
Journal of Rural Studies | Year: 2013

Over the last decades, hundreds of thousands of families have settled in the Brazilian Amazon within the framework of the Agrarian Reform Program (ARP). The rationale behind the program is to enable settlers to earn their living by small-scale farming and producing an agricultural surplus for the market. This paper aims to analyze the settlers' livelihood strategies under the framework of the ARP and its objectives. The paper considers more than just land use shares. Income composition, capital (human, physical, natural, social, and financial), mediating process, and context are also included, and these reveal three groups of livelihood strategies. Most of the settlers have achieved the ARP goals, mainly by deploying livestock strategies, particularly milk production. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Camargo L.S.A.,Embrapa Dairy Cattle | Freitas C.,Embrapa Dairy Cattle | de Sa W.F.,Embrapa Dairy Cattle | de Moraes Ferreira A.,Embrapa Dairy Cattle | And 2 more authors.
Animal Reproduction Science | Year: 2010

In vitro embryo production (IVP) has been suggested to result in a greater proportion of male calves, longer gestation and heavier offspring than artificial insemination in Bos taurus cattle. Despite the increasing use of IVP in tropical countries, its effects upon these traits in Bos indicus have not been conclusively investigated. Gyr is a B. indicus dairy breed with known physiological differences from B. taurus, such as a longer gestation period and lighter offspring. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of IVP on gestation length, birth weight and gender ratio in Gyr offspring. Oocytes were recovered from Gyr cows by ovum pick-up and were matured and fertilized with thawed Gyr semen in vitro. Embryos were cultured in CR2aa medium with cumulus cells and 10% fetal calf serum under 5% CO2 at 38.5°C in air. Seven- to eight-day blastocysts were transferred to synchronized recipients. Data on gestation length and birth weight of calves from in vitro-produced embryos were compared to data obtained from Gyr calves produced by artificial insemination (AI) and natural breeding (NB) during the same period using analysis of variance, and the gender ratio was compared to the expected 1:1 ratio using a chi-square test. IVP increased (P<0.01) the percentage of male offspring (76.9%) compared to the expected 1:1 ratio, while no difference (P>0.05) was observed in the AI and NB groups. Gestation length was similar (P>0.05) between the IVP and AI groups, but IVP-derived offspring were heavier (P<0.05) than AI- and NB-derived ones, mainly for male calves (P<0.05). These data show that in vitro production affects the subsequent development of Gyr embryos, resulting in a skewed sex ratio and increased birth weight. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

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