Embrapa Dairy Cattle

Juiz de Fora, Brazil

Embrapa Dairy Cattle

Juiz de Fora, Brazil
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Fabres-Klein M.H.,Federal University of Viçosa | Caizer Santos M.J.,Federal University of Viçosa | Contelli Klein R.,Federal University of Viçosa | Nunes de Souza G.,Embrapa Dairy Cattle | de Oliveira Barros Ribon A.,Federal University of Viçosa
BMC Veterinary Research | Year: 2015

Background: Staphylococcus aureus is associated with chronic mastitis in cattle, and disease manifestation is usually refractory to antibiotic therapy. Biofilm production is a key element of S. aureus pathogenesis and may contribute to the treatment failure that is consistently reported by veterinarians. Minas Gerais State is the largest milk-producing state in Brazil, and the characterization of bacterial isolates is an important aspect of disease control for dairy farmers. Here, we investigated the potential of S. aureus isolated from bovine mastitis to produce slime and biofilm in a skim-milk medium and classified the isolates according to their agr type. Results: Slime was detected using the Congo Red agar (CRA) test in 35.18% (19/54) of the strains; however, 87.04% (47/54) of the strains were considered biofilm-positive based on crystal violet staining. Compared to TSB supplemented with 0.25% glucose, skim milk significantly increased the production of biofilm, but this effect was only observed in slime-producing strains. The bacteria belonged to agr groups I (12/54), II (34/54), III (6/54), and IV (2/54), and bacteria in agr group III were found to be stronger biofilm producers than those in groups I and II. Again, milk had a significant influence only on slime-positive agr I and II isolates, revealing an association between milk and slime. Conclusions: The present study demonstrated that skim-milk medium and slime production are two factors that together influence biofilm formation by bovine strains of S. aureus. A predominance of bacteria belonging to agr group II was observed, and bacteria from agr group III showed the highest proportion of biofilm producers. The majority of bacteria characterized in this study formed biofilm in milk, which suggests that biofilm formation has an important role in the virulence of S. aureus isolated from bovine intramammary infections. © 2015 Fabres-Klein et al.; licensee BioMed Central.

PubMed | Embrapa Dairy Cattle, University of Aarhus, Sun Yat Sen University, French National Institute for Agricultural Research and China Agricultural University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of dairy science | Year: 2016

The present study investigated the improvement of prediction reliabilities for 3 production traits in Brazilian Holsteins that had no genotype information by adding information from Nordic and French Holstein bulls that had genotypes. The estimated across-country genetic correlations (ranging from 0.604 to 0.726) indicated that an important genotype by environment interaction exists between Brazilian and Nordic (or Nordic and French) populations. Prediction reliabilities for Brazilian genotyped bulls were greatly increased by including data of Nordic and French bulls, and a 2-trait single-step genomic BLUP performed much better than the corresponding pedigree-based BLUP. However, only a minor improvement in prediction reliabilities was observed in nongenotyped Brazilian cows. The results indicate that although there is a large genotype by environment interaction, inclusion of a foreign reference population can improve accuracy of genetic evaluation for the Brazilian Holstein population. However, a Brazilian reference population is necessary to obtain a more accurate genomic evaluation.

Campos I.S.,Federal University of Fluminense | de Souza G.N.,Embrapa Dairy Cattle | Pinna A.E.,Federal University of Fluminense | Ferreira A.M.R.,Federal University of Fluminense
Theriogenology | Year: 2017

This study aimed to measure the physiological changes in the combined utero-placental thickness (CUPT) during the course of normal pregnancy in Mangalarga Marchador mares. Transrectal B-mode ultrasonography was used to measure CUPT in 42 pregnant mares with a mean age, 8.7 (±3.5 years). CUPT was measured every month from 150 days of gestation until delivery. CUPT was expressed as an average of three measurements of the distance (mm) between the middle part of the uterine artery and the allantoic fluid. A General Linear Model was used to evaluate the major effects of the chronological age and stage of gestation on CUPT in mares. The coefficient of determination (R2) was 0.571 (P < 0.001). There was no correlation between CUPT and the chronological age of the mares, however, there was a positive correlation between CUPT and the stage of gestation, which an accounted for 29.6% of the observed variation. CUPT significantly increased during the gestational period from 210 to 240 days and 270–300 days. These results showed CUPT increased as pregnancy advanced in the Mangalarga Marchador mares. In conclusion these effects of the stage of pregnancy on the increase in CUPT showed a physiological parameters of ultrasonography evaluation of the placenta in Mangalarga Marchador mares. © 2017

Oliveira D.E.,Santa Catarina State University | Gama M.A.S.,Embrapa Dairy Cattle | Fernandes D.,Santa Catarina State University | Tedeschi L.O.,Texas A&M University | Bauman D.E.,Cornell University
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2012

Feeding conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in a rumen-inert form to dairy ewes has been shown to increase milk production, alter milk composition, and increase the milk fat CLA content. However, few studies have tested ruminally unprotected CLA sources. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of an unprotected CLA supplement (29.8% of cis-9,. trans-11 and 29.9% of trans-10,. cis-12 isomers as methyl esters) on milk yield and composition of dairy ewes. Twenty-four lactating Lacaune ewes were used in a crossover design and received 2 dietary treatments: (1) control: basal diet containing no supplemental lipid and (2) basal diet plus CLA (30. g/d). The CLA supplement was mixed into the concentrate and fed in 2 equal meals after morning and afternoon milkings. Each experimental period consisted of 21 d: 7 d for adaptation and 14 d for data collection. The CLA supplement decreased milk fat content and yield by 31.3 and 38.0%, respectively. Milk yield and secretion of milk lactose and protein were decreased by 8.0, 9.8, and 5.6%, respectively. On the other hand, milk protein content and linear SCC score were 1.8 and 17.7% higher in ewes fed the CLA supplement. The concentration of milk fatty acids originating from de novo synthesis (C16) was increased by 22.6% in ewes fed the CLA supplement. The CLA supplement decreased C14:1/C14:0, C16:1/C16:0, and C18:1/C18:0 desaturase indexes by 25, 18.7, and 0.1%, respectively, but increased the cis-9,. trans-11 CLA/. trans-11 C18:1 ratio by 8.6%. The concentrations of trans-10,. cis-12 CLA and cis-9,. trans-11 CLA in milk fat was 309 and 33.4% higher in ewes fed CLA. Pronounced milk fat depression coupled with the deleterious effects on milk yield, milk SCC, and secretion of all milk solids observed in ewes fed an unprotected CLA supplement is likely to be associated with high doses of trans-10,. cis-12 CLA reaching the mammary gland, corroborating previous results obtained with dairy cows. © 2012 American Dairy Science Association.

Medeiros S.R.,State University of Mato Grosso do Sul | Oliveira D.E.,Santa Catarina State University | Aroeira L.J.M.,Embrapa Dairy Cattle | McGuire M.A.,University of Idaho | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2010

Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) are potent anticarcinogens in animal and in vitro models as well as inhibitors of fatty acid synthesis in mammary gland, liver, and adipose tissue. Our objective was to evaluate long-term CLA supplementation of lactating dairy cows in tropical pasture on milk production and composition and residual effects posttreatment. Thirty crossbred cows grazing stargrass (Cynodon nlemfuensis Vanderyst var. nlemfüensis) were blocked by parity and received 150 g/d of a dietary fat supplement of either Ca-salts of palm oil fatty acids (control) or a mixture of Ca-salts of CLA (CLA treatment). Supplements of fatty acids were mixed with 4 kg/d of concentrate. Grazing plus supplements were estimated to provide 115% of the estimated metabolizable protein requirements from 28 to 84 d in milk (treatment period). The CLA supplement provided 15 g/d of cis-9,. trans-11 and 22. g of cis-10,. trans-12. Residual effects were evaluated from 85 to 112 d in milk (residual period) when cows were fed an 18% crude protein concentrate without added fat. The CLA treatment increased milk production but reduced milk fat concentration from 2.90 to 2.14% and fat production from 437 to 348 g/d. Milk protein concentration increased by 11.5% (2.79 to 3.11%) and production by 19% (422 to 504 g/d) in the cows fed CLA. The CLA treatment decreased milk energy concentration and increased milk volume, resulting in unchanged energy output. Milk production and protein concentration and production were also greater during the residual period for the CLA-treated cows. The CLA treatment reduced production of fatty acids (FA) of all chain lengths, but the larger effect was on short-chain FA, causing a shift toward a greater content of longer chain FA. The CLA treatment increased total milk CLA content by 30% and content of the trans-10,. cis-12 CLA isomer by 88%. The CLA treatment tended to decrease the number of days open, suggesting a possible effect on reproduction. Under tropical grazing conditions, in a nutritionally challenging environment, CLA-treated cows decreased milk fat content and secreted the same amount of milk energy by increasing milk volume and milk protein production. © 2010 American Dairy Science Association.

Vaz F.A.S.,Federal University of Juiz de fora | Da Silva P.A.,Federal University of Juiz de fora | Passos L.P.,Embrapa Dairy Cattle | Heller M.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | And 3 more authors.
Phytochemical Analysis | Year: 2012

Introduction Aluminum toxicity is commonly verified in acidic soils, and poses a severe limitation to plant growth and development. Therefore, Al complexation by the root system mucilage, Al complexation by organic compounds that are exuded by the roots and internal metabolic processes must be monitored by organic acids (OA), since they play a central role in these aluminum tolerance mechanisms. Objective To optimise a capillary zone electrophoresis method able to perform simultaneous separation of acetic, citric, formic, lactic, malic, oxalic, pyruvic, succinic, tartaric and aspartic acid in plant extract solutions. Methodology Method optimisation was achieved by a chemometric approach through experimental designs. The optimal condition found was: 20 mmol/L phthalic acid buffer; 0.8 mmol/L cetyltrimethyl-ammonium bromide; pH 3.4 adjusted with tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (around 16 mmol/L); -15 kV of voltage; 25 °C of cartridge temperature; indirect ultraviolet detection at 240 nm; and 25 mbar injection for 2 s, within an analysis time of 4 min. Results As a repeatability test of the optimal condition, 30 replicates were carried out with the same working electrolyte, where the relative standard deviation of each peak ranged from 0.081 to 0.36% (for migration time) and from 2.4 to 4.6% (for peak area). Conclusion The methodology was successfully applied to simultaneously determine citric, malic and aspartic acid in roots and leaves extract solutions of Brachiaria brizantha, demonstrating its usefulness to study aluminum tolerance. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

PubMed | Embrapa Dairy Cattle and Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul
Type: Journal Article | Journal: International journal of biometeorology | Year: 2016

Dairy cattle raised under harsh conditions have to adapt and prevent heat stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate physical characteristics and their association with heat tolerance in different genetic groups of dairy cattle. Thickness of the skin and coat, length and number of hairs, body measurements, as well as physiological parameters and body temperatures by infrared thermography were determined in 19 Holstein and 19 Girolando ( and Holstein) cows. The Holstein cattle were less tolerant to heat stress than Girolando (GH50 and GH75 Holstein), because of the difficulty in dissipating heat due to the larger body size, as well as thicker and longer hairs. The correlations between physical characteristics, physiological parameters, and thermographic measurements prove to be inconsistent among genetic groups and therefore are not predictive of heat tolerance, while the regressions of morphometric characteristics on physiological and thermographic measures were not significant. Thus, the physical characteristics were not good predictors of physiological indices and thermographic temperature and so should not be used.

PubMed | Embrapa Dairy Cattle, São Paulo State University and Paranaense University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Toxins | Year: 2016

Epidemiological studies have identified Staphylococcus aureus as the most common agent involved in food poisoning. However, current research highlights the importance of toxigenic coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) isolated from food. The aim of this study was to characterize Staphylococcus spp. isolated from cows with bovine subclinical mastitis regarding the presence of genes responsible for the production of staphylococcal enterotoxins and of the tst-1 gene encoding toxic shock syndrome toxin 1, and to determine the clonal profile of the isolates carrying any of the genes studied. A total of 181 strains isolated in different Brazilian states, including the South, Southeast, and Northeast regions, were analyzed. The sea gene was the most frequent, which was detected in 18.2% of the isolates, followed by seb in 7.7%, sec in 14.9%, sed in 0.5%, see in 8.2%, seg in 1.6%, seh in 25.4%, sei in 6.6%, and ser in 1.6%. The sej, ses, set, and tst-1 genes were not detected in any of the isolates. The typing of the isolates by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed important S. aureus and S. epidermidis clusters in different areas and the presence of enterotoxin genes in lineages isolated from animals that belong to herds located geographically close to each other.

Diniz F.H.,Embrapa Dairy Cattle | Diniz F.H.,Wageningen University | Hoogstra-Klein M.A.,Wageningen University | Kok K.,Wageningen University | Arts B.,Wageningen University
Journal of Rural Studies | Year: 2013

Over the last decades, hundreds of thousands of families have settled in the Brazilian Amazon within the framework of the Agrarian Reform Program (ARP). The rationale behind the program is to enable settlers to earn their living by small-scale farming and producing an agricultural surplus for the market. This paper aims to analyze the settlers' livelihood strategies under the framework of the ARP and its objectives. The paper considers more than just land use shares. Income composition, capital (human, physical, natural, social, and financial), mediating process, and context are also included, and these reveal three groups of livelihood strategies. Most of the settlers have achieved the ARP goals, mainly by deploying livestock strategies, particularly milk production. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Camargo L.S.A.,Embrapa Dairy Cattle | Freitas C.,Embrapa Dairy Cattle | de Sa W.F.,Embrapa Dairy Cattle | de Moraes Ferreira A.,Embrapa Dairy Cattle | And 2 more authors.
Animal Reproduction Science | Year: 2010

In vitro embryo production (IVP) has been suggested to result in a greater proportion of male calves, longer gestation and heavier offspring than artificial insemination in Bos taurus cattle. Despite the increasing use of IVP in tropical countries, its effects upon these traits in Bos indicus have not been conclusively investigated. Gyr is a B. indicus dairy breed with known physiological differences from B. taurus, such as a longer gestation period and lighter offspring. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of IVP on gestation length, birth weight and gender ratio in Gyr offspring. Oocytes were recovered from Gyr cows by ovum pick-up and were matured and fertilized with thawed Gyr semen in vitro. Embryos were cultured in CR2aa medium with cumulus cells and 10% fetal calf serum under 5% CO2 at 38.5°C in air. Seven- to eight-day blastocysts were transferred to synchronized recipients. Data on gestation length and birth weight of calves from in vitro-produced embryos were compared to data obtained from Gyr calves produced by artificial insemination (AI) and natural breeding (NB) during the same period using analysis of variance, and the gender ratio was compared to the expected 1:1 ratio using a chi-square test. IVP increased (P<0.01) the percentage of male offspring (76.9%) compared to the expected 1:1 ratio, while no difference (P>0.05) was observed in the AI and NB groups. Gestation length was similar (P>0.05) between the IVP and AI groups, but IVP-derived offspring were heavier (P<0.05) than AI- and NB-derived ones, mainly for male calves (P<0.05). These data show that in vitro production affects the subsequent development of Gyr embryos, resulting in a skewed sex ratio and increased birth weight. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

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