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de Oliveira K.A.P.,Federal University of Ceara | Lobo R.N.B.,Federal University of Ceara | Faco O.,Embrapa Caprinos e Ovinos
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia | Year: 2010

It was evaluated data set of 19,303 weight records of Santa Inês sheep in order to evaluate distinct polynomial functions with different order for better adjustements of fixed and random regressions of growth trajectory and to estimate (co)variances components and genetic parameters of this trajectory. Fixed effects used in analysis were contemporary group, sex and birth type. Ordinary and Legendre polynomials, ranging from two to four orders, were evaluated for fixed regression of average growth trajectory. Legendre and quadratic b-spline functions, ranging from three to four orders, were evaluated for random regressions. Legendre polynomials of order fourth were suitable to fit random regression, while ordinary polynomials of third order were the best for fixed trajectory. Direct heritabilities on days 1, 50, 150, 250 and 411 were 0.24, 0.12, 0.44, 0.84, and 0.96, respectively, while maternal heritabilities for the same ages were 0.24, 0.19, 0.09, 0.02, and 0.01, respectively. Genetic correlations among weights in subsequent ages were high, tending to unity, and there were negative correlations between weights at early ages and weights at late ages. It is possible to modify the growth trajectory by selection with the observed genetic variability. Genetic control of weights at initial ages is not the same in late ages. So, selection of animals for slaughter in early age must be different from that of replacement animals. © 2010 Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia. Source

Cavalcanti A.S.,Federal University of Fluminense | Brandao F.Z.,Federal University of Fluminense | Nogueira L.A.G.,Federal University of Fluminense | da Fonseca J.F.,Embrapa Caprinos e Ovinos
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia | Year: 2012

The objective of this study was to verify the effects of GnRH on ovulation and pregnancy of ewes subjected to a short-term synchronization of estrus. Santa Inês and crossbred Santa Inês/Dorper ewes received 60 mg MAP sponges during 6 days plus 300 IU eCG and 30 μg d-cloprostenol 24 h prior to sponge withdrawal (SW). Ewes were assigned to receive 0.9% NaCl solution (T control; n = 32) or 25 μg GnRH (licerelin, T GnRH; n = 34) 24 hours after SW. Each group was assigned to intrauterine insemination by laparoscopy (n = 25) or to natural mating (n = 41). Artificial insemination was performed with a single dose of fresh semen. For controlled mating, females were exposed to males 12, 24, 36 and 48 hours after SW. Ten females per treatment were subjected to transrectal ultrasound examination at 12-hour intervals (SW to 60 hours after). Estrous response (100.0% vs 95.2%), interval from SW to estrus (32.9±7.4 vs 29.8±6.9 hours), estrous length (37.4±9.0 vs 31.5±10.4 hours), pregnancy rates (57.0% vs 41.0%), ovulation rate (100.0% vs 90.0%), number of ovulations/ewe (1.1±0.3 vs 1.2±0.4), maximum follicular diameter (6.4±0.7 vs 6.1±0.6 mm), interval from SW to ovulation (59.1±3.5 vs 58.4±3.5 hours) did not differ between T control and T GnRH, respectively. Administration of GnRH 24 hours after SW does not improve ovulation or pregnancy rate in estrous synchronization in ewes. © 2012 Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia. Source

Cunha I.S.,Catholic University of Brasilia | Barreto C.C.,Catholic University of Brasilia | Costa O.Y.A.,Catholic University of Brasilia | Bomfim M.A.,Embrapa Caprinos e Ovinos | And 3 more authors.
Anaerobe | Year: 2011

Most studies present in the literature about the rumen microbiome have focused on cattle and sheep. This is the first report of the characterization of the bacterial and archaeal communities present in the liquid and solid-associated fractions of the rumen from free ranging Moxotó breed goats using 16S rRNA gene libraries. PCR was used to amplify the 16S rRNA gene with bacterial and archaeal universal primers and sequences from each library constructed were obtained. Sequences of Bacteria from the phyla Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes were predominant. The overall dominant classes in the rumen were Clostridia and Bacteroidia, which are known to play a role in plant fiber degradation in other ruminants. Unclassified Bacteria accounted for 4.7% of the liquid fraction sequences and 16.4% of the solid fraction sequences. From the archaeal libraries only sequences from the phylum Euryarcheota were identified and were assigned to the class Methanobacteria of the genera Methanobrevibacter and Methanosphaera. A group of Archaea not previously known to be associated with the rumen was identified: uncultured methanogens belonging to the "uncultured marine bacteria" groups II and III. The local water contained high salt concentrations and this may explain the presence of these groups in the Moxotó goat rumen. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Hernandes A.,Sao Paulo State University | Rozane D.E.,Sao Paulo State University | de Souza H.A.,Embrapa Caprinos e Ovinos | Romualdo L.M.,University of Sao Paulo | Natale W.,Sao Paulo State University
Bragantia | Year: 2011

For a reliable nutritional analysis, the most sensitive stage is the plant and soil samplings. The most proper sampling is the one that best represents the area under study, requiring a minimum of sampled plants and the least possible number of simple samples collected. This work aimed to assess the number of plants to be sampled for the diagnosis of nutritional status, as well as the number of simple samples for making up of the compost sample for evaluating the soil fertility in starfruit orchard. This study was performed in a commercial starfruit orchard, in Vista Alegre do Alto, State of São Paulo. Random sampling was taken, collecting the sixth leaf from the apex of the branch of 40 starfruit trees, at the medium canopy height during blooming season. In the same way, 30 simple soil samples were collected, in a zigzag pattern following the planting lines, using a Dutch-type auger, at depths of 0 to 0.2 m and 0.2 to 0.4 m. Assuming a sample error of 10%, 21 starfruit trees would be sufficient for determining the chemical leaf macronutrients. For micronutrients, a minimum of 52 sampled plants would be necessary. Increasing the number of soil samples resulted in reduced percentage of error within the desired average estimate, thus allowing for a recommendation of 14 to 17 simple samples at depths of 0 to 0.2 m and 0.2 to 0.4 m (error = 20%), respectively. Source

Zaros L.G.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte | Neves M.R.M.,Acarau Valley State University | Benvenuti C.L.,Acarau Valley State University | Navarro A.M.C.,Acarau Valley State University | And 3 more authors.
Parasitology Research | Year: 2014

This study was carried out to evaluate the performance of Brazilian Somalis sheep to natural infections by gastrointestinal nematodes. During 98 days, 75 weaned sheep, initially 3-4 months old, were kept on the same pasture and evaluated. Fecal and blood samples were collected for parasitological and hematological exams. After this period, the eight most resistant and the eight most susceptible animals were selected based on their individual averages of nematode fecal egg counts and were slaughtered for worm burden determination and nematodes identification. Abomasum and abomasum lymph nodes were also recovered for gene expression analysis. The animals selected as resistant had lower fecal egg counts during experimental period and smaller worm burdens than the susceptible ones (P < 0.05). The genus Haemonchus, followed by Trischostrongylus and Oesophagostomum, were identified in composite cultures. Haemonchus contortus was the specie identified in the abomasum. Packed cell volume and total plasma protein means were higher in the resistant group (27.2 % and 6.1 g/dL) than in the susceptible one (22.5 % and 5.3 g/dL), respectively. Regarding cytokine gene expression, IL-4 (P < 0.05) was up-regulated in the abomasum of resistant animals and TNF-α (P < 0.03) and IFN-γ (P < 0.03) in susceptible ones. In abomasum lymph nodes, IL-4 (P < 0.04) and IL-13 (P < 0.05) were up-regulated in the resistant animals and IFN-γ in the susceptible one (P < 0.01). This work provides further evidence that, within a given animal breed, individuals have different responses when infected by gastrointestinal nematodes. Resistant animals who responded more quickly and efficiently to these infections activated a TH2-type response. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

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