Sobral, Brazil
Sobral, Brazil

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Mendes M.M.S.,Federal University of Ceará | de Lacerda C.F.,Federal University of Ceará | Cavalcante A.C.R.,Embrapa Caprinos e Ovinos | Fernandes F.E.P.,Embrapa Caprinos e Ovinos | de Oliveira T.F.,Federal University of Viçosa
Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira | Year: 2013

The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of "pau-branco" (Cordia oncocalyx) trees on physiological parameters, height, and biomass of maize at different distances from the trees in an agrosilvipastoral system. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with four treatments (distances from trees of 1, 2, 3, and 4 m), besides a control (plants cultivated in the traditional system), and five replicates. The plots consisted of one "pau-branco" tree at the center, and maize rows planted at the four evaluated distances from the tree stem. Physiological measurements and dry matter production were recorded at 30, 60, and 90 days after the sowing of maize. The plants under the canopy of "pau-branco"-at 1 and 2 m from the stem-had their gas exchange, height, and dry matter production affected by the trees. The plants 3 m away from the stem had similar performance to those in the traditional system, and the plants at 4 m of distance had higher photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, transpiration, height, and dry mass production. Maize plants under the canopy are negatively affected by tree shading, whereas plants outside the canopy can be favored by the presence of trees in the system.

de Souza H.A.,Embrapa Caprinos e Ovinos | ValenteMarcelo A.,Laboratorio de Analises e Consultoria Agricola LTDA | Centurion J.F.,São Paulo State University
Revista Ciencia Agronomica | Year: 2012

The intensive use of land for the cultivation of sugarcane significantly modifies the physical properties of the soil. Therefore, the objective was to evaluate the effect of sugarcane management with mechanized harvesting on the aggregation of a typical Oxisol with a clay-like texture located in Guariba, São Paulo. With the sugarcane harvested mechanically and without prior burning, four different situations (cycles) were selected: plant cane, and first, second and third-cutting ratoon cane. Layers at a depth of 0 to 0.1, 0.1 to 0.2 and 0.2 to 0.3 m were evaluated for weighted mean diameter of the aggregates (WMD), and levels and stocks of organic carbon in the soil. Management of cane sugar with mechanized harvesting influences the soil WMD, whose values a re greater for the plant cane and go down over the years. With the increase in soil depth, carbon stocks are more related to soil bulk density than to the carbon content.

Zaros L.G.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte | Neves M.R.M.,Acaraú Valley State University | Benvenuti C.L.,Acaraú Valley State University | Navarro A.M.C.,Acaraú Valley State University | And 3 more authors.
Parasitology Research | Year: 2014

This study was carried out to evaluate the performance of Brazilian Somalis sheep to natural infections by gastrointestinal nematodes. During 98 days, 75 weaned sheep, initially 3-4 months old, were kept on the same pasture and evaluated. Fecal and blood samples were collected for parasitological and hematological exams. After this period, the eight most resistant and the eight most susceptible animals were selected based on their individual averages of nematode fecal egg counts and were slaughtered for worm burden determination and nematodes identification. Abomasum and abomasum lymph nodes were also recovered for gene expression analysis. The animals selected as resistant had lower fecal egg counts during experimental period and smaller worm burdens than the susceptible ones (P < 0.05). The genus Haemonchus, followed by Trischostrongylus and Oesophagostomum, were identified in composite cultures. Haemonchus contortus was the specie identified in the abomasum. Packed cell volume and total plasma protein means were higher in the resistant group (27.2 % and 6.1 g/dL) than in the susceptible one (22.5 % and 5.3 g/dL), respectively. Regarding cytokine gene expression, IL-4 (P < 0.05) was up-regulated in the abomasum of resistant animals and TNF-α (P < 0.03) and IFN-γ (P < 0.03) in susceptible ones. In abomasum lymph nodes, IL-4 (P < 0.04) and IL-13 (P < 0.05) were up-regulated in the resistant animals and IFN-γ in the susceptible one (P < 0.01). This work provides further evidence that, within a given animal breed, individuals have different responses when infected by gastrointestinal nematodes. Resistant animals who responded more quickly and efficiently to these infections activated a TH2-type response. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

PubMed | Embrapa Agroindustria Tropical, Embrapa Caprinos e Ovinos, Embrapa Agroindustria de Alimentos, Embrapa Recursos Geneticos e Biotecnologia and Federal University of Maranhão
Type: | Journal: Food chemistry | Year: 2016

Coalho cheese of Cear and the Jaguaribe region of Brazil has been studied to determine its peptide profile. Peptides generated by the action of peptidases upon cheese proteins were separated by reverse-phase HPLC to give 28 fractions. Peptide sequencing after MS/MS fragmentation enabled the identification of 116 different peptides; 74 of them originated from -casein, 4 from A2-casein, 4 from A3-casein, 25 from S1-casein, 5 from S2-casein, and 4 from -casein. Phosphorylated peptides were identified, one from S1-casein and 17 from -casein. Other reports on the bioactivity of casein-derived peptides have shown that the -casein peptide (193-209) exhibits immunomodulatory, antimicrobial and antihypertensive activity. The peptides -casein (58-72), -casein (193-202), s1-casein (85-91), s1-casein (1-9), as well as s2-casein (189-197) have antihypertensive activity. The fragment S1-casein (1-23) is an immunomodulatory and antimicrobial peptide. These results can be a marker to determine the authenticity of this Brazilian cheese.

de Oliveira K.A.P.,Federal University of Ceará | Lobo R.N.B.,Federal University of Ceará | Faco O.,Embrapa Caprinos e Ovinos
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia | Year: 2010

It was evaluated data set of 19,303 weight records of Santa Inês sheep in order to evaluate distinct polynomial functions with different order for better adjustements of fixed and random regressions of growth trajectory and to estimate (co)variances components and genetic parameters of this trajectory. Fixed effects used in analysis were contemporary group, sex and birth type. Ordinary and Legendre polynomials, ranging from two to four orders, were evaluated for fixed regression of average growth trajectory. Legendre and quadratic b-spline functions, ranging from three to four orders, were evaluated for random regressions. Legendre polynomials of order fourth were suitable to fit random regression, while ordinary polynomials of third order were the best for fixed trajectory. Direct heritabilities on days 1, 50, 150, 250 and 411 were 0.24, 0.12, 0.44, 0.84, and 0.96, respectively, while maternal heritabilities for the same ages were 0.24, 0.19, 0.09, 0.02, and 0.01, respectively. Genetic correlations among weights in subsequent ages were high, tending to unity, and there were negative correlations between weights at early ages and weights at late ages. It is possible to modify the growth trajectory by selection with the observed genetic variability. Genetic control of weights at initial ages is not the same in late ages. So, selection of animals for slaughter in early age must be different from that of replacement animals. © 2010 Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia.

Cunha I.S.,Catholic University of Brasília | Barreto C.C.,Catholic University of Brasília | Costa O.Y.A.,Catholic University of Brasília | Bomfim M.A.,Embrapa Caprinos e Ovinos | And 3 more authors.
Anaerobe | Year: 2011

Most studies present in the literature about the rumen microbiome have focused on cattle and sheep. This is the first report of the characterization of the bacterial and archaeal communities present in the liquid and solid-associated fractions of the rumen from free ranging Moxotó breed goats using 16S rRNA gene libraries. PCR was used to amplify the 16S rRNA gene with bacterial and archaeal universal primers and sequences from each library constructed were obtained. Sequences of Bacteria from the phyla Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes were predominant. The overall dominant classes in the rumen were Clostridia and Bacteroidia, which are known to play a role in plant fiber degradation in other ruminants. Unclassified Bacteria accounted for 4.7% of the liquid fraction sequences and 16.4% of the solid fraction sequences. From the archaeal libraries only sequences from the phylum Euryarcheota were identified and were assigned to the class Methanobacteria of the genera Methanobrevibacter and Methanosphaera. A group of Archaea not previously known to be associated with the rumen was identified: uncultured methanogens belonging to the "uncultured marine bacteria" groups II and III. The local water contained high salt concentrations and this may explain the presence of these groups in the Moxotó goat rumen. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Entringer G.C.,State University of Norte Fluminense | Guedes F.L.,Embrapa Caprinos e Ovinos | Oliveira A.A.,Federal University of Lavras | Nascimento J.P.,Federal University of Lavras | Souza J.C.,Federal University of Lavras
Genetics and Molecular Research | Year: 2014

Among the many implications of climatic change on agriculture, drought is expected to continue to have a major impact on agribusinesses. Leaf curling is an anatomical characteristic that might be potentially used to enhance plant tolerance to water deficit. Hence, we aimed to study the genetic control of leaf curl in maize. From 2 contrasting inbred lines for the trait, generations F1, F2, and the backcrosses were obtained. All of these generations were evaluated in a randomized block design with 2 replicates. Leaf curl samples were collected from 3 leaves above the first ear at the tasseling stage, and quantified by dividing the width of the leaf blade with natural curling against its extended width. The mean and variance components were estimated by the weighted least square method. It was found that the trait studied has predominance of the additive effects, with genetic control being attributed to few genes that favor selection and exhibit minimal influence from the environment. © FUNPEC-RP

Cavalcanti A.S.,Federal University of Fluminense | Brandao F.Z.,Federal University of Fluminense | Nogueira L.A.G.,Federal University of Fluminense | da Fonseca J.F.,Embrapa Caprinos e Ovinos
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia | Year: 2012

The objective of this study was to verify the effects of GnRH on ovulation and pregnancy of ewes subjected to a short-term synchronization of estrus. Santa Inês and crossbred Santa Inês/Dorper ewes received 60 mg MAP sponges during 6 days plus 300 IU eCG and 30 μg d-cloprostenol 24 h prior to sponge withdrawal (SW). Ewes were assigned to receive 0.9% NaCl solution (T control; n = 32) or 25 μg GnRH (licerelin, T GnRH; n = 34) 24 hours after SW. Each group was assigned to intrauterine insemination by laparoscopy (n = 25) or to natural mating (n = 41). Artificial insemination was performed with a single dose of fresh semen. For controlled mating, females were exposed to males 12, 24, 36 and 48 hours after SW. Ten females per treatment were subjected to transrectal ultrasound examination at 12-hour intervals (SW to 60 hours after). Estrous response (100.0% vs 95.2%), interval from SW to estrus (32.9±7.4 vs 29.8±6.9 hours), estrous length (37.4±9.0 vs 31.5±10.4 hours), pregnancy rates (57.0% vs 41.0%), ovulation rate (100.0% vs 90.0%), number of ovulations/ewe (1.1±0.3 vs 1.2±0.4), maximum follicular diameter (6.4±0.7 vs 6.1±0.6 mm), interval from SW to ovulation (59.1±3.5 vs 58.4±3.5 hours) did not differ between T control and T GnRH, respectively. Administration of GnRH 24 hours after SW does not improve ovulation or pregnancy rate in estrous synchronization in ewes. © 2012 Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia.

de Souza H.A.,Embrapa Caprinos e Ovinos | Natale W.,São Paulo State University | Modesto V.C.,São Paulo State University | Rozane D.E.,São Paulo State University
Bragantia | Year: 2011

Information on the mineralization of residues are important for proper management of these materials in agricultural areas. The objective was to evaluate the mineralization of nitrogen from the residue of guava processing industry, applied in a Ultisol cultivated with guava trees. Soil samples and the residue were placed in polyethylene pots with a capacity of 0.25 dm3. Around 100 g of soil plus waste were weighed in each treatment (doses of residue: 0, 9, 18 and 36 t ha -1), with such a procedure being performed in triplicate. The maximum incubation period was 11 weeks, with analyses at 0, 7, 14, 28, 42, 56, 70, 84, 98, 112 and 126 days of treatment. The soil+residue humidity was adjusted to 70% of the soil water retention capacity and monitored daily by weighing the pots. The inorganic nitrogen was measured in each evaluation time. It can be stated that the N mineralization or release is slow and there is not rapid availability of nitrogen. Over the period of 126 days, the mean fraction of mineralization was 23% with the half-life of 73 days.

Magalhaes A.F.B.,São Paulo State University | Lobo R.N.B.,Embrapa Caprinos e Ovinos | Faco O.,Embrapa Caprinos e Ovinos
Ciencia Rural | Year: 2013

The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for growth traits in Somalis Brasileira hair sheep breed. The data used in this study were from the flock of Embrapa Caprinos and Ovinos, located in the city of Sobral - CE, Brazil. Data contained records of 1,120 animals in the pedigree file. The analyzed traits were birth weight (PN), weaning weight (PD), weight gain from birth to weaning (GND) and adult weight (PA). Estimates of (co)variances and genetic parameters were obtained by Derivative Free Restricted Maximum Likelihood Method (DFREML) using the MTDFREML software. The heritabilities were low to moderate in univariate analysis. The maternal heritabilities were higher than direct heritabilities. The heritabilities in multivariate analysis exceeded those in univariate analysis. The values of genetic correlations varied widely.

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